Fundamentals of Database Systems / Edition 6

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Overview

Clear explanations of theory and design, broad coverage of models and real systems, and an up-to-date introduction to modern database technologies result in a leading introduction to database systems. Intended for computer science majors, Fundamentals of Database Systems, 6/e emphasizes math models, design issues, relational algebra, and relational calculus.

A lab manual and problems give students opportunities to practice the fundamentals of design and implementation. Real-world examples serve as engaging, practical illustrations of database concepts. The Sixth Edition maintains its coverage of the most popular database topics, including SQL, security, and data mining, and features increased emphasis on XML and semi-structured data.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780136086208
  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley
  • Publication date: 4/13/2010
  • Series: Alternative eText Formats Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 6
  • Pages: 1200
  • Sales rank: 210,012
  • Product dimensions: 7.70 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 1.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Ramez A. Elmasri is a professor in the department of Computer Science and Engineering at the University of Texas at Arlington. He holds M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Computer Science from Stanford University, and a B.S. degree in Electrical Engineering from Alexandria University. He is known for his work on conceptual database modeling, temporal database design and indexing, database query languages and interfaces, and systems integration. Prior to his current position, Elmasri worked for Honeywell and the University of Houston. Elmasri has over 70 refereed publications in journals and conference proceedings. He has conducted research in many areas of database systems over the past twenty years, and in the area of integration of systems and software over the past nine years. He has advised many MS and PhD students. Elmasri's research has been sponsored by grants from NSF, NASA, ARRI, Texas Instruments, Honeywell, Digital, and the State of Texas. He has been an Associate Editor of the Journal of Parallel and Distributed Databases and a member of the steering committee for the International Conference on Conceptual Modeling (formerly ER Conference). He was Program Chair for the 12th International Conference on Conceptual Modeling (ER'93) and Program Vice Chair for the 1994 IEEE International Conference on Data Engineering. He is the leading author of the textbook Fundamentals of Database Systems, which is used in many universities all over the world and has been translated into several languages. Elmasri has served on the program committees of many international conferences, and has presented tutorials and keynote talks at a number of international conferences. He has received the Robert Q. Lee teaching award of the College of Engineering of UT-Arlington.

Shamkant Navathe is a professor and the head of the database research group at the College of Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta. He is well-known for his work on database modeling, database conversion, database design, distributed database allocation, and database integration. He has worked with IBM and Siemens in their research divisions and has been a consultant to various companies including Digital,CCA, HP and Equifax. He was the General Co-chairman of the 1996 International VLDB (Very Large Data Base) conference in Bombay, India. He was also program co-chair of SIGMOD 1985 and General Co-chair of the IFIP WG 2.6 Data Semantics Workshop in 1995. He has been an associate editor of ACM Computing Surveys, and IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering. He is also on the editorial boards of Information Systems (Pergamon Press) and Distributed and Parallel Databases (Kluwer Academic Publishers). He is an author of the book, Fundamentals of Database Systems, with R. Elmasri (Addison Wesley) which is currently the leading database text-book worldwide. He also co-authored the book Conceptual Design: An Entity Relationship Approach (Addison Wesley, 1992) with Carlo Batini and Stefano Ceri. His current research interests include human genome data management, intelligent information retrieval, data mining and warehousing, web-based knowledge warehouses and mobile database synchronization. Navathe holds a Ph.D. from the University of Michigan and has over 100 referenced publications.

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Table of Contents

Part 1: Introduction to Databases

Chapter 1 Databases and Database Users 3

1.1 Introduction 4

1.2 An Example 6

1.3 Characteristics of the Database Approach 9

1.4 Actors on the Scene 14

1.5 Workers behind the Scene 16

1.6 Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach 17

1.7 A Brief History of Database Applications 23

1.8 When Not to Use a DBMS 26

1.9 Summary 27

Review Questions 27

Exercises 28

Selected Bibliography 28

Chapter 2 Database System Concepts and Architecture 29

2.1 Data Models, Schemas, and Instances 30

2.2 Three-Schema Architecture and Data Independence 33

2.3 Database Languages and Interfaces 36

2.4 The Database System Environment 40

2.5 Centralized and Client/Server Architectures for DBMSs 44

2.6 Classification of Database Management Systems 49

2.7 Summary 52

Review Questions 53

Exercises 54

Selected Bibliography 55

Part 2: Relational Data Model and SQL

Chapter 3 The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints 59

3.1 Relational Model Concepts 60

3.2 Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas 67

3.3 Update Operations, Transactions, and Dealing with Constraint Violations 75

3.4 Summary 79

Review Questions 80

Exercises 80

Selected Bibliography 85

Chapter 4 Basic SQL 87

4.1 SQL Data Definition and Data Types 89

4.2 Specifying Constraints in SQL 94

4.3 Basic Retrieval Queries in SQL 97

4.4 INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE Statements in SQL 107

4.5 Additional Features of SQL 110

4.6 Summary 111

Review Questions 112

Exercises 112

Selected Bibliography 114

Chapter 5 More SQL: Complex Queries, Triggers, Views, and Schema Modification 115

5.1 More Complex SQL Retrieval Queries 115

5.2 Specifying Constraints as Assertions and Actions as Triggers 131

5.3 Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL 133

5.4 Schema Change Statements in SQL 137

5.5 Summary 139

Review Questions 141

Exercises 141

Selected Bibliography 143

Chapter 6 The Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus 145

6.1 Unary Relational Operations: SELECT and PROJECT 147

6.2 Relational Algebra Operations from Set Theory 152

6.3 Binary Relational Operations: JOIN and DIVISION 157

6.4 Additional Relational Operations 165

6.5 Examples of Queries in Relational Algebra 171

6.6 The Tuple Relational Calculus 174

6.7 The Domain Relational Calculus 183

6.8 Summary 185

Review Questions 186

Exercises 187

Laboratory Exercises 192

Selected Bibliography 194

Part 3: Conceptual Modeling and Database Design

Chapter 7 Data Modeling Using the Entity-Relationship (ER) Model 199

7.1 Using High-Level Conceptual Data Models for Database Design 200

7.2 A Sample Database Application 202

7.3 Entity Types, Entity Sets, Attributes, and Keys 203

7.4 Relationship Types, Relationship Sets, Roles, and Structural Constraints 212

7.5 Weak Entity Types 219

7.6 Refining the ER Design for the COMPANY Database 220

7.7 ER Diagrams, Naming Conventions, and Design Issues 221

7.8 Example of Other Notation: UML Class Diagrams 226

7.9 Relationship Types of Degree Higher than Two 228

7.10 Summary 232

Review Questions 234

Exercises 234

Laboratory Exercises 241

Selected Bibliography 243

Chapter 8 The Enhanced Entity-Relationship (EER) Model 245

8.1 Subclasses, Superclasses, and Inheritance 246

8.2 Specialization and Generalization 248

8.3 Constraints and Characteristics of Specialization and Generalization Hierarchies 251

8.4 Modeling of UNION Types Using Categories 258

8.5 A Sample UNIVERSITY EER Schema, Design Choices, and Formal Definitions 260

8.6 Example of Other Notation: Representing Specialization and Generalization in UML Class Diagrams 265

8.7 Data Abstraction, Knowledge Representation, and Ontology Concepts 267

8.8 Summary 273

Review Questions 273

Exercises 274

Laboratory Exercises 281

Selected Bibliography 284

Chapter 9 Relational Database Design by ERand EER-to-Relational Mapping 285

9.1 Relational Database Design Using ER-to-Relational Mapping 286

9.2 Mapping EER Model Constructs to Relations 294

9.3 Summary 299

Review Questions 299

Exercises 299

Laboratory Exercises 301

Selected Bibliography 302

Chapter 10 Practical Database Design Methodology and Use of UML Diagrams 303

10.1 The Role of Information Systems in Organizations 304

10.2 The Database Design and Implementation Process 309

10.3 Use of UML Diagrams as an Aid to Database Design Specification 328

10.4 Rational Rose: A UML-Based Design Tool 337

10.5 Automated Database Design Tools 342

10.6 Summary 345

Review Questions 347

Selected Bibliography 348

Part 4: Object, Object-Relational, and XML Models

Chapter 11 Object and Object-Relational Databases 353

11.1 Overview of Object Database Concepts 355

11.2 Object-Relational Features: Object Database Extensions to SQL 369

11.3 The ODMG Object Model and the Object Definition Language ODL 376

11.4 Object Database Conceptual Design 395

11.5 The Object Query Language OQL 398

11.6 Overview of the C++ Language Binding in the ODMG Standard 407

11.7 Summary 408

Review Questions 409

Exercises 411

Selected Bibliography 412

Chapter 12 XML: Extensible Markup Language 415

12.1 Structured, Semistructured, and Unstructured Data 416

12.2 XML Hierarchical (Tree) Data Model 420

12.3 XML Documents, DTD, and XML Schema 423

12.4 Storing and Extracting XML Documents from Databases 431

12.5 XML Languages 432

12.6 Extracting XML Documents from Relational Databases 436

12.7 Summary 442

Review Questions 442

Exercises 443

Selected Bibliography 443

Part 5: Database Programming Techniques

Chapter 13 Introduction to SQL Programming Techniques 447

13.1 Database Programming: Techniques and Issues 448

13.2 Embedded SQL, Dynamic SQL, and SQLJ 451

13.3 Database Programming with Function Calls: SQL/CLI and JDBC 464

13.4 Database Stored Procedures and SQL/PSM 473

13.5 Comparing the Three Approaches 476

13.6 Summary 477

Review Questions 478

Exercises 478

Selected Bibliography 479

Chapter 14 Web Database Programming Using PHP 481

14.1 A Simple PHP Example 482

14.2 Overview of Basic Features of PHP 484

14.3 Overview of PHP Database Programming 491

14.4 Summary 496

Review Questions 496

Exercises 497

Selected Bibliography 497

Part 6: Database Normalization Theory

Chapter 15 Basics of Functional Dependencies and Normalization for Relational Databases 501

15.1 Informal Design Guidelines for Relation Schemas 503

15.2 Functional Dependencies 513

15.3 Normal Forms Based on Primary Keys 516

15.4 General Definitions of Second and Third Normal Forms 525

15.5 Boyce-Codd Normal Form 529

15.6 Multivalued Dependency and Fourth Normal Form 531

15.7 Join Dependencies and Fifth Normal Form 534

15.8 Summary 535

Review Questions 536

Exercises 537

Laboratory Exercises 542

Selected Bibliography 542

Chapter 16 Relational Database Design Algorithms and Further Dependencies 543

16.1 Further Topics in Functional Dependencies: Inference Rules, Equivalence, and Minimal Cover 545

16.2 Properties of Relational Decompositions 551

16.3 Algorithms for Relational Database Schema Design 557

16.4 About Nulls, Dangling Tuples, and Alternative Relational Designs 563

16.5 Further Discussion of Multivalued Dependencies and 4NF 567

16.6 Other Dependencies and Normal Forms 571

16.7 Summary 575

Review Questions 576

Exercises 576

Laboratory Exercises 578

Selected Bibliography 579

Part 7: File Structures, Indexing, and Hashing

Chapter 17 Disk Storage, Basic File Structures, and Hashing 583

17.1 Introduction 584

17.2 Secondary Storage Devices 587

17.3 Buffering of Blocks 593

17.4 Placing File Records on Disk 594

17.5 Operations on Files 599

17.6 Files of Unordered Records (Heap Files) 601

17.7 Files of Ordered Records (Sorted Files) 603

17.8 Hashing Techniques 606

17.9 Other Primary File Organizations 616

17.10 Parallelizing Disk Access Using RAID Technology 617

17.11 New Storage Systems 621

17.12 Summary 624

Review Questions 625

Exercises 626

Selected Bibliography 630

Chapter 18 Indexing Structures for Files 631

18.1 Types of Single-Level Ordered Indexes 632

18.2 Multilevel Indexes 643

18.3 Dynamic Multilevel Indexes Using B-Trees and B+-Trees 646

18.4 Indexes on Multiple Keys 660

18.5 Other Types of Indexes 663

18.6 Some General Issues Concerning Indexing 668

18.7 Summary 670

Review Questions 671

Exercises 672

Selected Bibliography 674

Part 8: Query Processing, Optimization, and Database Tuning

Chapter 19 Algorithms for Query Processing and Optimization 679

19.1 Translating SQL Queries into Relational Algebra 681

19.2 Algorithms for External Sorting 682

19.3 Algorithms for SELECT and JOIN Operations 685

19.4 Algorithms for PROJECT and Set Operations 696

19.5 Implementing Aggregate Operations and OUTER JOINs 698

19.6 Combining Operations Using Pipelining 700

19.7 Using Heuristics in Query Optimization 700

19.8 Using Selectivity and Cost Estimates in Query Optimization 710

19.9 Overview of Query Optimization in Oracle 721

19.10 Semantic Query Optimization 722

19.11 Summary 723

Review Questions 723

Exercises 724

Selected Bibliography 725

Chapter 20 Physical Database Design and Tuning 727

20.1 Physical Database Design in Relational Databases 727

20.2 An Overview of Database Tuning in Relational Systems 733

20.3 Summary 739

Review Questions 739

Selected Bibliography 740

Part 9: Transaction Processing, Concurrency Control, and Recovery

Chapter 21 Introduction to Transaction Processing Concepts and Theory 743

21.1 Introduction to Transaction Processing 744

21.2 Transaction and System Concepts 751

21.3 Desirable Properties of Transactions 754

21.4 Characterizing Schedules Based on Recoverability 755

21.5 Characterizing Schedules Based on Serializability 759

21.6 Transaction Support in SQL 770

21.7 Summary 772

Review Questions 772

Exercises 773

Selected Bibliography 775

Chapter 22 Concurrency Control Techniques 777

22.1 Two-Phase Locking Techniques for Concurrency Control 778

22.2 Concurrency Control Based on Timestamp Ordering 788

22.3 Multiversion Concurrency Control Techniques 791

22.4 Validation (Optimistic) Concurrency Control Techniques 794

22.5 Granularity of Data Items and Multiple Granularity Locking 795

22.6 Using Locks for Concurrency Control in Indexes 798

22.7 Other Concurrency Control Issues 800

22.8 Summary 802

Review Questions 803

Exercises 804

Selected Bibliography 804

Chapter 23 Database Recovery Techniques 807

23.1 Recovery Concepts 808

23.2 NO-UNDO/REDO Recovery Based on Deferred Update 815

23.3 Recovery Techniques Based on Immediate Update 817

23.4 Shadow Paging 820

23.5 The ARIES Recovery Algorithm 821

23.6 Recovery in Multidatabase Systems 825

23.7 Database Backup and Recovery from Catastrophic Failures 826

23.8 Summary 827

Review Questions 828

Exercises 829

Selected Bibliography 832

Part 10: Additional Database Topics: Security and Distribution

Chapter 24 Database Security 835

24.1 Introduction to Database Security Issues 836

24.2 Discretionary Access Control Based on Granting and Revoking Privileges 842

24.3 Mandatory Access Control and Role-Based Access Control for Multilevel Security 847

24.4 SQL Injection 855

24.5 Introduction to Statistical Database Security 859

24.6 Introduction to Flow Control 860

24.7 Encryption and Public Key Infrastructures 862

24.8 Privacy Issues and Preservation 866

24.9 Challenges of Database Security 867

24.10 Oracle Label-Based Security 868

24.11 Summary 870

Review Questions 872

Exercises 873

Selected Bibliography 874

Chapter 25 Distributed Databases 877

25.1 Distributed Database Concepts 878

25.2 Types of Distributed Database Systems 883

25.3 Distributed Database Architectures 887

25.4 Data Fragmentation, Replication, and Allocation Techniques for Distributed Database Design 894

25.5 Query Processing and Optimization in Distributed Databases 901

25.6 Overview of Transaction Management in Distributed Databases 907

25.7 Overview of Concurrency Control and Recovery in Distributed Databases 909

25.8 Distributed Catalog Management 913

25.9 Current Trends in Distributed Databases 914

25.10 Distributed Databases in Oracle 915

25.11 Summary 919

Review Questions 921

Exercises 922

Selected Bibliography 924

Part 11: Advanced Database Models, Systems, and Applications

Chapter 26 Enhanced Data Models for Advanced Applications 931

26.1 Active Database Concepts and Triggers 933

26.2 Temporal Database Concepts 943

26.3 Spatial Database Concepts 957

26.4 Multimedia Database Concepts 965

26.5 Introduction to Deductive Databases 970

26.6 Summary 983

Review Questions 985

Exercises 986

Selected Bibliography 989

Chapter 27 Introduction to Information Retrieval and Web Search 993

27.1 Information Retrieval (IR) Concepts 994

27.2 Retrieval Models 1001

27.3 Types of Queries in IR Systems 1007

27.4 Text Preprocessing 1009

27.5 Inverted Indexing 1012

27.6 Evaluation Measures of Search Relevance 1014

27.7 Web Search and Analysis 1018

27.8 Trends in Information Retrieval 1028

27.9 Summary 1030

Review Questions 1031

Selected Bibliography 1033

Chapter 28 Data Mining Concepts 1035

28.1 Overview of Data Mining Technology 1036

28.2 Association Rules 1039

28.3 Classification 1051

28.4 Clustering 1054

28.5 Approaches to Other Data Mining Problems 1057

28.6 Applications of Data Mining 1060

28.7 Commercial Data Mining Tools 1060

28.8 Summary 1063

Review Questions 1063

Exercises 1064

Selected Bibliography 1065

Chapter 29 Overview of Data Warehousing and OLAP 1067

29.1 Introduction, Definitions, and Terminology 1067

29.2 Characteristics of Data Warehouses 1069

29.3 Data Modeling for Data Warehouses 1070

29.4 Building a Data Warehouse 1075

29.5 Typical Functionality of a Data Warehouse 1078

29.6 Data Warehouse versus Views 1079

29.7 Difficulties of Implementing Data Warehouses 1080

29.8 Summary 1081

Review Questions 1081

Selected Bibliography 1082

Appendix A Alternative Diagrammatic Notations for ER Models 1083

Appendix B Parameters of Disks 1087

Appendix C Overview of the QBE Language 1091

C.1 Basic Retrievals in QBE 1091

C.2 Grouping, Aggregation, and Database Modification in QBE 1095

Appendix D Overview of the Hierarchical Data Model (located on the Companion Website at http://www.pearsonhighered.com/elmasri)

Appendix E Overview of the Network Data Model (located on the Companion Website at http://www.pearsonhighered.com/elmasri)

Selected Bibliography 1099

Index 1133


*An access code for the Companion Website is included with each new textbook purchase of Fundamentals of Database Systems, 6/e

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