Fundamentals of Earthquake Engineering / Edition 1

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Fundamentals of Earthquake Engineering combines aspects of engineering seismology, structural and geotechnical earthquake engineering to assemble the vital components required for a deep understanding of response of structures to earthquake ground motion, from the seismic source to the evaluation of actions and deformation required for design. The nature of earthquake risk assessment is inherently multi-disciplinary. Whereas Fundamentals of Earthquake Engineering addresses only structural safety assessment and design, the problem is cast in its appropriate context by relating structural damage states to societal consequences and expectations, through the fundamental response quantities of stiffness, strength and ductility. The book is designed to support graduate teaching and learning, introduce practicing structural and geotechnical engineers to earthquake analysis and design problems, as well as being a reference book for further studies. Fundamentals of Earthquake Engineering includes material on the nature of earthquake sources and mechanisms, various methods for the characterization of earthquake input motion, damage observed in reconnaissance missions, modeling of structures for the purposes of response simulation, definition of performance limit states, structural and architectural systems for optimal seismic response, and action and deformation quantities suitable for design. The accompanying website at contains a comprehensive set of slides illustrating the chapters and appendices, as well as a set of problems with solutions and worked-through examples. The book, slides and problem set constitute a tried and tested system for a single-semester graduate course. The approach taken avoids tying the book to a specific regional seismic design code of practice and ensures its global appeal to graduate students and practicing engineers.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470024836
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 12/3/2008
  • Edition description: New
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 366
  • Product dimensions: 6.90 (w) x 9.90 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Professor Amr Elnashai is Bill and Elaine Hall EndowedProfessor at the Civil and Environmental Engineering Department,University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He is Director of theNational Science Foundation (NSF) multi-institutionmulti-disciplinary Mid-America Earthquake Center. He is alsoDirector of the NSF Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation(NEES) Facility at Illinois. Amr obtained his MSC and PhD fromImperial College, University of London UK. Before joining theUniversity of Illinois in June 2001, Amr was Professor and Head ofSection at Imperial College. He has been Visiting Professor at theUniversity of Surrey since 1997. Other visiting appointmentsinclude the University of Tokyo, the University of SouthernCalifornia and the European School for Advanced Studies inReduction of Seismic Risk, Italy, where he serves on the Board ofDirectors since its founding in 2000. Amr is a Fellow of the RoyalAcademy of Engineering in the United Kingdom (UK-equivalent of theNAE), Fellow of the American Society of Civil Engineers and the UKInstitution of Structural Engineers.
He is founder and co-editor of the Journal of EarthquakeEngineering, editorial board member of several other journals, amember of the drafting panel of the European design code, and pastsenior College Unwin Prize for the best PhD thesis in Civil andMechanical Engineering (1984), the Oscar Faber Medal for best paperin the Institution of Structural Engineering, and two best papermedals from the International Association of Tall Buildings, LosAngeles. He is the administrative and technical team builder anddirector of both the MAE center and NEES@UIUC Simulation Laboratory, atIllinois.
Amr is President o the Asia-Pacific Network of Centers ofEarthquake Engineering Research (ANCER), a member of the FIBSeismic Design Commission Working Groups and two Applied TechnologyCouncil (ATC, USA) technical committees. He founded the Japan-UKSeismic Risk Forum in 1995 and served as its director until 2004.He leads a FEMA project for impact assessment for the eight centralUS states, was advisor to the UK Department of the Environment,advisor to the Civil Defense Agency of Italy, and review panelmember for the Italian Ministry of research and the New Zealand andCanadian Science research Councils.
Amr's technical interests are multi-resolution distributedanalytical simulations, network analysis large-scale hybridtesting, and field investigations of the response of complexnetworks an structures to extreme loads, on which he has more than250 research publications, including over 110 refereed journalpapers, many conference, keynote and prestige lectures (includingthe Nathan Newmark Distinguished Lecture), research reports, booksand book chapters, magazine articles, and field investigationreports. Amr has successfully supervised 29 PhD and over 100Masters Theses. Many of his students holds significant positions inindustry, academia and government in over 12 countries. He has awell-funded research group, with a large portfolio of projects fromprivate industry, state agencies, federal agencies, andinternational government and private entities. Amr taught manydifferent subjects both at Illinois and at Imperial college. He isrecognized as an effective teacher and has been on the 'incompletelist o teaches considered excellent by their students' twice atUIUC.
He has contributed to major projects for a number of internationalcompanies and other agencies such as the World Bank, GlaxoWellcome(currently GSK), Shell International, AstraZeneca, Minorco, BritishNuclear Fuels, UK Nuclear Installations Inspectorate, MottMacDonald, BAA, Alstom Power, the Greek, Indonesian and TurkishGovernments, and the National Geographic Society. He is currentlythe Greek, Indonesian and Turkish Governments, and the NationalGeographic Society. He is currently working on large projects forthe Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), State EmergencyManagement Agencies, Istanbul Municipality, US AID, Governments ofPakistan and Indonesia, among others. Amr enjoys scuba-diving andholds several certificates from the British Sub-Aqua Club and theUS Professional Association of Diving Instructors. He also enjoysreading on history, the history of painting and film-making.

Dr Luigi Di Sarno is Assistant Professor in EarthquakeEngineering at the University of Sannio (Benevento), and holds theposition of Research Associate at the Department of StructuralEngineering (DIST), University of Naples, Federico II in Italy. Hegraduated cum laude in Structural Engineering from the Universityof Naples, Federico II. He then obtained two MSc degrees inEarthquake Engineering and Structural Steel Design from ImperialCollege, London. In 2001 Dr. Di Sarno obtained his PhD fromUniversity of Salerno in Italy and moved to the University ofIllinois at Urbana Champaign in 2002 where he worked as aPost-doctoral Research Associate. He has been Visiting Professor atthe Mid-America Earthquake Center at Illinois since 2004. Hisresearch interests are seismic analysis and design of steel,reinforced concrete and composite structures, and the response totall buildings to extreme loads, on which he has written more than60 research publications, including over 15 refereed journalpapers, many conference papers, research reports, book chapters andfield investigation reports. Dr. Di Sarno continues to work withthe active research group at the University of Naples, with a largeportfolio of projects from private industry, state agencies, andinternational government and private entities. He taught severalcourses at Naples, Benevento and the Mid-America Earthquake center.He is currently working on large projects funded by the ItalianState Emergency Management Agency (DPC) and the Italian Ministry ofEducation and Research, amongst others. Dr. Di Sarno enjoys readingon history, science and art. He also enjoys playing tennis andswimming.

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Table of Contents

About the Authors.


Preface and Acknowledgements.


List of Abbreviations.

List of Symbols.

1. Earthquake Characteristics.

1.1 Causes of Earthquakes.

1.1.1 Plate Tectonics Theory.

1.1.2 Faulting.

1.1.3 Seismic Waves.

1.2 Measuring Earthquakes.

1.2.1 Intensity.

1.2.2 Magnitude.

1.2.3 Intensity-Magnitude Relationships.

1.3 Source-to-Site Effects.

1.3.1 Directional Effects.

1.3.2 Site Effects.

1.3.3 Dispersion and Incoherence.

1.4 Effects of Earthquakes.

1.4.1 Damage to Buildings and Lifelines.

1.4.2 Effects on the Ground.

1.4.3 Human and Financial Losses.


2. Response of Structures.

2.1 General.

2.2 Conceptual Framework.

2.2.1 Definitions.

2.2.2 Strength-versus Ductility-Based Response.

2.2.3 Member-versus System-Level Consideration.

2.2.4 Nature of Seismic Effects.

2.2.5 Fundamental Response Quantities.

2.2.6 Social-Economic Limit States.

2.3 Structural Response Characteristics.

2.3.1 Stiffness.

2.3.2 Strength.

2.3.3 Ductility.

2.3.4 Overstrength.

2.3.5 Damping.

2.3.6 Relationship between Strength, Overstrength and Ductility:Force Reduction Factor ‘Supply’.


3. Earthquake Input Motion.

3.1 General.

3.2 Earthquake Occurrence and Return Period.

3.3 Ground-Motion Models (Attenuation Relationships).

3.3.1 Features of Strong-Motion Data for AttenuationRelationships.

3.3.2 Attenuation Relationship for Europe.

3.3.3 Attenuation Relationship for Japan.

3.3.4 Attenuation Relationships for North America.

3.3.5 Worldwide Attenuation Relationships.

3.4 Earthquake Spectra.

3.4.1 Factors Influencing Response Spectra.

3.4.2 Elastic and Inelastic Spectra.

3.4.3 Simplified Spectra.

3.4.4 Force Reduction Factors (Demand).

3.4.5 Design Spectra.

3.4.6 Vertical Component of Ground Motion.

3.4.7 Vertical Motion Spectra.

3.5 Earthquake Records.

3.5.1 Natural Records.

3.5.2 Artificial Records.

3.5.3 Records Based on Mathematical Formulations.

3.5.4 Scaling of Earthquake Records.

3.6 Duration and Number of Cycles of Earthquake GroundMotions.

3.7 Use of Earthquake Databases.

3.8 Software for Deriving Spectra and Generation ofGround-Motion Records.

3.8.1 Derivation of Earthquake Spectra.

3.8.2 Generation of Ground-Motion Records.


4. Response Evaluation.

4.1 General.

4.2 Conceptual Framework.

4.3 Ground Motion and Load Modelling.

4.4 Seismic Load Combinations.

4.5 Structural Modelling.

4.5.1 Materials.

4.5.2 Sections.

4.5.3 Components and Systems for Structural Modelling.

4.5.4 Masses.

4.6 Methods of Analysis.

4.6.1 Dynamic Analysis.

4.6.2 Static Analysis.

4.6.3 Simplified Code Method.

4.7 Performance Levels and Objectives.

4.8 Output for Assessment.

4.8.1 Actions.

4.8.2 Deformations.

4.9 Concluding Remarks.


Appendix A - Structural Configurations and Systems for EffectiveEarthquake Resistance.

Appendix B - Damage to Structures.


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