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Fundamentals of Earthquake Engineering combines aspects of engineering seismology, structural and geotechnical earthquake engineering to assemble the vital components required for a deep understanding of response of structures to earthquake ground motion, from the seismic source to the evaluation of actions and deformation required for design. The nature of earthquake risk assessment is inherently multi-disciplinary. Whereas Fundamentals of Earthquake Engineering addresses only structural safety assessment and design, the problem is cast in its appropriate context by relating structural damage states to societal consequences and expectations, through the fundamental response quantities of stiffness, strength and ductility. The book is designed to support graduate teaching and learning, introduce practicing structural and geotechnical engineers to earthquake analysis and design problems, as well as being a reference book for further studies. Fundamentals of Earthquake Engineering includes material on the nature of earthquake sources and mechanisms, various methods for the characterization of earthquake input motion, damage observed in reconnaissance missions, modeling of structures for the purposes of response simulation, definition of performance limit states, structural and architectural systems for optimal seismic response, and action and deformation quantities suitable for design. The accompanying website at www.wiley.com/go/elnashai contains a comprehensive set of slides illustrating the chapters and appendices, as well as a set of problems with solutions and worked-through examples. The book, slides and problem set constitute a tried and tested system for a single-semester graduate course. The approach taken avoids tying the book to a specific regional seismic design code of practice and ensures its global appeal to graduate students and practicing engineers.
About the Authors.
Preface and Acknowledgements.
List of Abbreviations.
List of Symbols.
1. Earthquake Characteristics.
1.1 Causes of Earthquakes.
1.1.1 Plate Tectonics Theory.
1.1.3 Seismic Waves.
1.2 Measuring Earthquakes.
1.2.3 Intensity-Magnitude Relationships.
1.3 Source-to-Site Effects.
1.3.1 Directional Effects.
1.3.2 Site Effects.
1.3.3 Dispersion and Incoherence.
1.4 Effects of Earthquakes.
1.4.1 Damage to Buildings and Lifelines.
1.4.2 Effects on the Ground.
1.4.3 Human and Financial Losses.
2. Response of Structures.
2.2 Conceptual Framework.
2.2.2 Strength-versus Ductility-Based Response.
2.2.3 Member-versus System-Level Consideration.
2.2.4 Nature of Seismic Effects.
2.2.5 Fundamental Response Quantities.
2.2.6 Social-Economic Limit States.
2.3 Structural Response Characteristics.
2.3.6 Relationship between Strength, Overstrength and Ductility:Force Reduction Factor ‘Supply’.
3. Earthquake Input Motion.
3.2 Earthquake Occurrence and Return Period.
3.3 Ground-Motion Models (Attenuation Relationships).
3.3.1 Features of Strong-Motion Data for AttenuationRelationships.
3.3.2 Attenuation Relationship for Europe.
3.3.3 Attenuation Relationship for Japan.
3.3.4 Attenuation Relationships for North America.
3.3.5 Worldwide Attenuation Relationships.
3.4 Earthquake Spectra.
3.4.1 Factors Influencing Response Spectra.
3.4.2 Elastic and Inelastic Spectra.
3.4.3 Simplified Spectra.
3.4.4 Force Reduction Factors (Demand).
3.4.5 Design Spectra.
3.4.6 Vertical Component of Ground Motion.
3.4.7 Vertical Motion Spectra.
3.5 Earthquake Records.
3.5.1 Natural Records.
3.5.2 Artificial Records.
3.5.3 Records Based on Mathematical Formulations.
3.5.4 Scaling of Earthquake Records.
3.6 Duration and Number of Cycles of Earthquake GroundMotions.
3.7 Use of Earthquake Databases.
3.8 Software for Deriving Spectra and Generation ofGround-Motion Records.
3.8.1 Derivation of Earthquake Spectra.
3.8.2 Generation of Ground-Motion Records.
4. Response Evaluation.
4.2 Conceptual Framework.
4.3 Ground Motion and Load Modelling.
4.4 Seismic Load Combinations.
4.5 Structural Modelling.
4.5.3 Components and Systems for Structural Modelling.
4.6 Methods of Analysis.
4.6.1 Dynamic Analysis.
4.6.2 Static Analysis.
4.6.3 Simplified Code Method.
4.7 Performance Levels and Objectives.
4.8 Output for Assessment.
4.9 Concluding Remarks.
Appendix A - Structural Configurations and Systems for EffectiveEarthquake Resistance.
Appendix B - Damage to Structures.