Table of Contents
1. Present Time.
The Simple Present and the Present Progressive. Forms of the Simple Present and the Present Progressive. Spelling: Final -S vs. -ES. Non-progressive Verbs. Simple Present and Present Progressive: Shorts Answers to Questions.
2. Past Time.
Expressing Past Time: The Simple Past. Forms of the Simple Past. The Principal Parts of a Verb. Irregular Verbs: A Reference List. Spelling of -ing and -ed Forms. The Simple Past and the Past Progressive. Forms of the Past Progressive. Expressing Past Time: Using Time Clauses. Expressing Past Habit: Used To. Prepositions of Time: In, At, and On.
3. Future Time.
Expressing Future Time: Be Going To AND Will. Forms with Will. Using Probably with Will. Be Going TO vs. Will. Expressing Future Time in Time Clauses and If-Clauses. Parallel Verbs. Using the Present Progressive to Express Future Time. Using the Simple Present to Using the Simple Present to Express Future Time. Present Plans for Future Activities: Using Intend, Plan, Hope. Immediate Future: Using Be About To.
4. Nouns and Pronouns.
Plural Forms of Nouns. Subjects, Verbs, and Objects. Objects of Prepositions. Using Adjectives to Describe Nouns. Using Nouns as Adjectives. Personal Pronouns: Subjects and Objects. Possessive Nouns. Possessive Pronouns and Adjectives. A Friend Of +Possessive. Reflexive Pronouns. Singular Forms Of Other: Another vs. The Other. Plural Forms of Other: Other(S) vs. The Other(s). Summary of Forms of Other. Capitalization.
5. Modal Auxiliaries.
The Form of Modal Auxiliaries 5-2. Expressing Ability: Can and Could. Expressing Possibility: May and Might; Expressing Permission: May and Can. Using Could to Express Possibility. Asking for Permission: May I, Could I, Can I. Asking for Assistance: Would You, Could You Will You, Can You Expressing Advice: Should, Ought to, Had Better. Expressing Necessity: Have to, Have Got To, Must. Expressing Lack of Necessity: Do Not Have To Expressing Prohibition: Must Not. Making Logical Conclusions: Must. Giving Instructions: Imperative Sentences. Making Suggestions: Let's and Why Don't. Stating Preferences: Prefer, Like
Better, Would Rather.
6. Asking Questions.
Yes/No Questions and Short Answers. Yes/No Questions and Information Questions. Using Whm, Whm(m), and What. Using What + a Form of Do. Using What Kind Of. Using Which. Using Whose. Using How. Using How Often. Using How Far. Expressing Length of Time: It + Take. Using How Long. More Questions With How. Using How About and What About. Tag Questions.
7. The Present Perfect and the Past Perfect.
The Past Participle. Forms of the Present Perfect. Meanings of the Present Perfect. Using the Simple Past vs. the Present Perfect. Using Since and For. The Present Perfect Progressive. The Present Perfect vs. The Present Perfect Progressive. Mid-sentence Adverbs. Using Already, Yet, Still, and Anymore. Using the Past Perfect.
8. Count / Noncount and Articles.
Count and Noncount Nouns. Noncount Nouns. More Noncount Nouns. Nouns that can Be Count or Noncount. Using Unit of Measure with Noncount Nouns. Guidelines for Article Usage. Using Expressions of Quantity as Pronouns. Nonspecific Object Pronouns: Some, Any, and One.
9. Connecting Ideas.
Connecting Ideas With And. Connecting Ideas with But and Or. Connecting Ideas with So. Using Auxiliary Verbs After But and And. Using And + Too, So, Either, Neither. Connecting Ideas with Because. Connecting Ideas with Even Though/Although. Phrasal Verbs (Separable). Phrasal Verbs (Nonseparable).
10. Gerunds and Infinitives.
Gerunds and Infinitives: Introductions. Verb + Gerund. Go + -ing. Verb + Infinitive. Verb + Gerund or Infinitive. Uncompleted Infinitives. Preposition + Gerund. Using By and With to Express How Something is Done. Using Gerunds as Subjects: Using It + Infinitive. It + Infinitive: Using For (Someone). Infinitive of Purpose: Using In Order To. Using Infinitives with Too and Enough. More Phrasal Verbs (separable).
11. Passive Sentences.
Active Sentences and Passive Sentences. Tense Forms of Passive Verbs. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs. Using the "By-Phrase". The Passive Formals of the Present and Past Progressive. Passive Modal Auxiliaries. Summary: Passive Verb Forms. Using Past Participles as Adjectives (Stative Passive). Participle Adjective: -Ed vs. -ing. Get + Adjective; Get + Past Participle. Using Be Used/Accustomed To and Get Used/Accustomed To. Using Be Supposed To.
12. Adjective Clauses.
Adjective Clauses: Introduction. Using Who and Whom in Adjective Clauses. Using Who, Whom, and That in Adjective Clauses. Using Which and That in Adjective Clauses. Singular and Plural Verbs in Adjective Clauses. Using Prepositions in Adjective Clauses. Using Whose in Adjective Clauses. More Phrasal Verbs (Separable). More Phrasal verbs (Non-separable).
Making Comparisons with Aa
Aa. Comparative and Superlative. Comparative and Superlative Forms of Adjectives and Adverbs. Adjectives and Adverbs. Using Comparatives. Using More with Nouns. Repeating a Comparative. Using Double Comparatives. Using Superlatives. Using The Same, Similar, Different, Like, Alike.
14. Noun Clauses.
Noun Clauses: Introduction. Noun Clauses that Begin with a Question Word. Noun Clauses with Who, What, Whose + Be. Noun Clauses which Begin with If or Whether. Noun Clauses Which Begin with That. Substituting So for A "That-Clause" in Conversational Responses. Other Uses of "That-Clauses".
15. Quoted Speech and Reported Speech.
Quotes Speech/ Quoted Speech vs. Reported Speech. Verb Form Usage in Reported Speech: Formal Sequence of Tenses. Using Say vs. Tell. Using Ask If. Using Verb + Infinitive to Report Speech. Some Troublesome Verbs: Advise, Suggest, and Recommend.
16. Using Wish; Using If.
Expressing Wishes about the Present/Future. Expressing Wishes about the Past. Using If: Contrary-To-Fact In the Present/Future. Using If: True vs. Contrary-To-Fact in the Present/Future. USING IF: Contrary-To-Fact in the Past. Summary: Verb Forms in Sentences with If (Conditional Sentences).
Appendix 1 Preposition Combinations.
Appendix 2 Phrasal Verbs.
Appendix 3 Guide for Correcting Writing Errors.
Appendix 4 Basic Vocabulary List.
Appendix 5 Differences Between American English and British English.