Fundamentals Of Epidemiology And Biostatistics

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More About This Textbook

Overview

This book will familiarize students with basic principles of epidemiology and biostatistics. Designed for use in a single course, it will clarify the distinction and complementary roles of epidemiology and biostatistics in a range of settings, and train students on the complementary roles epidemiology and biostatistics play in carrying out selected activities in the health professions. After completing this book, the student should be able to:
• Describe epidemiological methods and study designs
• Select appropriate methodologies for epidemiological investigation
• Use the epidemiological process to address health care problems
• Evaluate environmental epidemiology and population surveillance
• Describe epidemiological measures of health
• Distinguish the roles and relationships between epidemiology and statistics
• Combine appropriate epidemiological concepts and statistical measures
• Calculate probabilities and conditional probabilities of health-related events
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781449667535
  • Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning
  • Publication date: 5/7/2012
  • Pages: 424
  • Sales rank: 640,594
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface xi

About the Author xv

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

Health 1

Epidemiology 4

Transmission of Disease 9

Descriptive Epidemiology 10

Analytic Epidemiology 13

Study Designs 14

Scientific Method 15

Biostatistics 16

Evaluating the Literature 17

Exercises 19

References 20

Chapter 2 Data and Descriptive Measures 25

Data and Related Concepts 25

Populations, Samples, and Random Sampling 27

Scales of Measurement 28

Summarizing and Presenting Nominal and Ordinal Data 28

Summarizing and Presenting Numerical Data 41

Exercises 50

References 54

Chapter 3 Standardizing Rates 57

Age-Specific Rates 58

Direct Method of Standardization 58

Indirect Method of Standardization 61

Uses of Standardized Rates 62

Exercises 66

References 67

Chapter 4 Describing Data with Graphs 69

Arithmetic-Scale and Logarithmic-Scale Line Graphs 71

Bar Chart 73

Pie Chart 75

Histogram 76

Frequency Polygon 79

Area Map 80

Spot Map 81

Stem-and-Leaf Plot 82

Box Plot 85

Scatter Plot 87

Population Pyramid 87

Exercises 90

References 95

Chapter 5 Life Tables* 97

Calculation of the Probability of Dying (qx) 98

Calculation of the Remaining Life Table 98

Abridging the Complete Life Table 100

Multiple Cause Life Table 104

Years of Potential Life Lost 108

Exercises 115

References 117

Chapter 6 Probability 119

Probability Concepts 119

Mutually Exclusive Events versus Independent Events 122

Conditional Probabilities 122

Rule for Multiplying Probabilities 123

Independent Events 123

Bayes' Theorem 126

Clinical Epidemiology 129

Methods of Sampling 130

Exercises 133

References 135

Chapter 7 Random Variables and Probability Distributions 137

Random Variables 137

Probability Distributions for Discrete Random Variables 138

The Binomial Probability Distribution 139

The Poisson Probability Distribution 141

Probability Distributions for Continuous Random Variables 142

Normal Probability Distribution 142

Normal Approximation to the Binomial 144

Sampling Distribution 148

Sampling Distribution of the Mean 148

The Central Limit Theorem 149

Exercises 151

References 154

Chapter 8 Estimation and Hypothesis Testing 155

Estimators 155

Confidence Intervals for Normal Means and Known Variance 155

t Distribution 156

Confidence Intervals for Normal Means and Unknown

Variance 157Confidence Intervals for the Binomial with Large Sample Sizes 158

Hypothesis Testing 159

The P Value 160

Type I and Type II Errors 160

Research Question about the Mean in One Group 161

Research Question about a Proportion in One Group 164

Research Question about Means in Two Separate Groups 169

Research Question about Proportions in Two Independent Groups 172

Evaluating Differences Using Error Bar Graphs 174

Chi-Square Distribution 176

Research Question about Means in Three or More Groups 178

Exercises 182

References 185

Chapter 9 Sample Size 187

Sample Size Techniques for Analytic Studies 187

Loss to Follow-Up 191

Fixed Sample Size 192

Ways to Minimize Sample Size and Maximize Power 193

Sample Size Techniques for Descriptive Studies 194

Exercises 198

References 199

Chapter 10 Study Designs 201

Study Design 201

Cross-Sectional Study Design 204

Ecologic Study Design 204

Case-Control Study Design 205

Cohort Study Design 207

Nested Case-Control Study Design 209

Chance, Bias, and Confounding 209

Chance 209

Bias 211

Confounding 214

Exercises 215

References 217

Chapter 11 Statistical Measures of Association Among Variables 219

Classification of Statistical Techniques and Tests by Variable Type 219

Measures of Association for Two-Level Nominal Exposure and Outcome Variables 233

Case-Control Study 234

Cohort Study 234

Cross-Sectional Study 235

A Note on the Risk and Odds Ratios 244

Some Cohort-Based Measures 244

Sample Size Estimation for the Correlation Coefficient 248

Exercises 250

References 256

Chapter 12 Experimental Studies 259

Experimental Study Designs 259

Random Assignment 260

Nonrandom Assignment 262

Blinding 263

Designing a Clinical Trial 265

Other Selected Types of Experimental Studies 269

Exercises 272

References 273

Chapter 13 Survival Analysis* 275

The Life Table Method 276

The Product Limit Method 283

Log-Rank Test 287

Exercises 292

References 296

Chapter 14 Cause and Effect 297

Causal Inference 298

Causal Models 302

Modes of Disease Transmission 303

Risk Factors 305

Web of Causation 306

Exercises 312

References 313

Appendix A SAS Procedure Code 313

Appendix B Tables 325

Appendix C Model Building 353

Appendix D Answers to Chapter Exercises 357

Index 411

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