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Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics / Edition 7

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics / Edition 7

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by Bruce Roy Munson

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ISBN-10: 1119939771

ISBN-13: 9781119939771

Pub. Date: 09/28/2014

Publisher: Wiley

Examines some fundamental aspects of fluid motion, including important fluid properties, regimes of flow, pressure variations in fluids at rest and in motion, fluid kinematics, and methods of flow description and analysis. Expands on the basic analysis methods generally used to solve or to begin solving fluid mechanics problems. Concludes with additional important


Examines some fundamental aspects of fluid motion, including important fluid properties, regimes of flow, pressure variations in fluids at rest and in motion, fluid kinematics, and methods of flow description and analysis. Expands on the basic analysis methods generally used to solve or to begin solving fluid mechanics problems. Concludes with additional important notions such as boundary layers, transition from laminar to turbulent flow, turbulence modeling and chaos and flow separation. Presents 165 examples that provide detailed solutions to a variety of problems. Also included are a generous set of homework problems in each chapter stresses the practical application of principles, and several open-ended problems which require critical thinking in order to work them one must make various assumptions and provide the necessary data.

Product Details

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New Edition
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8.50(w) x 10.90(h) x 1.70(d)

Table of Contents

Introduction     1
Some Characteristics of Fluids     2
Dimensions, Dimensional Homogeneity, and Units     2
Systems of Units     5
Analysis of Fluid Behavior     7
Measures of Fluid Mass and Weight     8
Density     8
Specific Weight     8
Specific Gravity     9
Ideal Gas Law     9
Viscosity     11
Compressibility of Fluids     15
Bulk Modulus     15
Compression and Expansion of Gases     16
Speed of Sound     17
Vapor Pressure     18
Surface Tension     18
Chapter Summary and Study Guide Problems     21
Fluid Statics     28
Pressure at a Point     29
Basic Equation for Pressure Field     30
Pressure Variation in a Fluid at Rest     31
Incompressible Fluid     32
Compressible Fluid     34
Standard Atmosphere     35
Measurement of Pressure     35
Manometry     37
Piezometer Tube     37
U-Tube Manometer     38
Inclined-Tube Manometer     41
Mechanical andElectronic Pressure Measuring Devices     42
Hydrostatic Force on a Plane Surface     43
Pressure Prism     47
Hydrostatic Force on a Curved Surface     49
Buoyancy, Flotation, and Stability     52
Archimedes' Principle     52
Stability     53
Pressure Variation in a Fluid with Rigid-Body Motion     55
Chapter Summary and Study Guide     55
References     56
Problems     56
Elementary Fluid Dynamics-The Bernoulli Equation     66
Newton's Second Law     67
F = ma Along a Streamline     68
F = ma Normal to a Streamline     71
Physical Interpretation     73
Static, Stagnation, Dynamic, and Total Pressure     75
Examples of Use of the Bernoulli Equation     78
Free Jets     78
Confined Flows     79
Flowrate Measurement     85
The Energy Line and the Hydraulic Grade Line     88
Restrictions on the Use of the Bernoulli Equation     90
Chapter Summary and Study Guide     91
Problems     92
Fluid Kinematics     101
The Velocity Field     101
Eulerian and Lagrangian Flow Descriptions     103
One-, Two-, and Three- Dimensional Flows     104
Steady and Unsteady Flows     104
Streamlines, Streaklines, and Pathlines     105
The Acceleration Field     108
The Material Derivative     108
Unsteady Effects     111
Convective Effects     111
Streamline Coordinates     112
Control Volume and System Representations     113
The Reynolds Transport Theorem     114
Derivation of the Reynolds Transport Theorem     114
Selection of a Control Volume     117
Chapter Summary and Study Guide     118
References     118
Problems     119
Finite Control Volume Analysis     123
Conservation of Mass-The Continuity Equation     123
Derivation of the Continuity Equation     123
Fixed, Nondeforming Control Volume     125
Moving, Nondeforming Control Volume     129
Newton's Second Law-The Linear Momentum and Moment-of-Momentum Equations     130
Derivation of the Linear Momentum Equation     130
Application of the Linear Momentum Equation     132
Derivation of the Moment-of-Momentum Equation      142
Application of the Moment-of-Momentum Equation     143
First Law of Thermodynamics-The Energy Equation     150
Derivation of the Energy Equation     150
Application of the Energy Equation     153
Comparison of the Energy Equation with the Bernoulli Equation     155
Application of the Energy Equation to Nonuniform Flows     160
Chapter Summary and Study Guide     162
Problems     163
Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow     177
Fluid Element Kinematics     178
Velocity and Acceleration Fields Revisited     178
Linear Motion and Deformation     179
Angular Motion and Deformation     180
Conservation of Mass     184
Differential Form of Continuity Equation     184
Cylindrical Polar Coordinates     186
The Stream Function     187
Conservation of Linear Momentum     190
Description of Forces Acting on Differential Element     191
Equations of Motion     193
Inviscid Flow     194
Euler's Equations of Motion     194
The Bernoulli Equation     195
Irrotational Flow     197
The Bernoulli Equation for Irrotational Flow      197
The Velocity Potential     198
Some Basic, Plane Potential Flows     201
Uniform Flow     203
Source and Sink     203
Vortex     205
Doublet     209
Superposition of Basic, Plane Potential Flows     211
Source in a Uniform Stream-Half-Body     211
Flow around a Circular Cylinder     214
Other Aspects of Potential Flow Analysis     220
Viscous Flow     221
Stress-Deformation Relationships     221
The Navier-Stokes Equations     222
Some Simple Solutions for Viscous, Incompressible Fluids     223
Steady, Laminar Flow between Fixed Parallel Plates     223
Couette Flow     226
Steady, Laminar Flow in Circular Tubes     228
Other Aspects of Differential Analysis     230
Chapter Summary and Study Guide     231
References     232
Problems     233
Similitude, Dimensional Analysis, and Modeling     240
Dimensional Analysis     241
Buckingham Pi Theorem     242
Determination of Pi Terms     243
Some Additional Comments about Dimensional Analysis     248
Selection of Variables      248
Determination of Reference Dimensions     249
Uniqueness of Pi Terms     249
Determination of Pi Terms by Inspection     250
Common Dimensionless Groups in Fluid Mechanics     251
Correlation of Experimental Data     252
Problems with One Pi Term     252
Problems with Two or More Pi Terms     253
Modeling and Similitude     255
Theory of Models     256
Model Scales     259
Distorted Models     260
Some Typical Model Studies     262
Flow through Closed Conduits     262
Flow around Immersed Bodies     264
Flow with a Free Surface     266
Chapter Summary and Study Guide     269
References     270
Problems     270
Viscous Flow in Pipes     278
General Characteristics of Pipe Flow     279
Laminar or Turbulent Flow     279
Entrance Region and Fully Developed Flow     281
Fully Developed Laminar Flow     282
From F = ma Applied to a Fluid Element     282
From the Navier-Stokes Equations     286
Fully Developed Turbulent Flow     286
Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow     287
Turbulent Shear Stress     288
Turbulent Velocity Profile     289
Dimensional Analysis of Pipe Flow     289
Major Losses     290
Minor Losses     294
Noncircular Conduits     301
Pipe Flow Examples     303
Single Pipes     303
Multiple Pipe Systems     310
Pipe Flowrate Measurement     311
Chapter Summary and Study Guide     315
References     317
Problems     317
Flow Over Immersed Bodies     326
General External Flow Characteristics     327
Lift and Drag Concepts     328
Characteristics of Flow Past an Object     330
Boundary Layer Characteristics     333
Boundary Layer Structure and Thickness on a Flat Plate     333
Prandt1/Blasius Boundary Layer Solution     335
Momentum Integral Boundary Layer Equation for a Flat Plate     337
Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow     340
Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow     341
Effects of Pressure Gradient     343
Drag     346
Friction Drag     347
Pressure Drag      347
Drag Coefficient Data and Examples     348
Lift     361
Surface Pressure Distribution     361
Circulation     365
Chapter Summary and Study Guide     367
References     367
Problems     368
Open-Channel Flow     376
General Characteristics of Open-Channel Flow     376
Surface Waves     377
Wave Speed     377
Froude Number Effects     379
Energy Considerations     380
Specific Energy     381
Uniform Depth Channel Flow     384
Uniform Flow Approximations     384
The Chezy and Manning Equations     384
Uniform Depth Examples     387
Gradually Varied Flow     392
Rapidly Varied Flow     392
The Hydraulic Jump     393
Sharp-Crested Weirs     397
Broad-Crested Weirs     399
Underflow Gates     402
Chapter Summary and Study Guide     403
References     404
Problems     405
Turbomachines     410
Introduction     410
Basic Energy Considerations     411
Basic Angular Momentum Considerations     415
The Centrifugal Pump     417
Theoretical Considerations     417
Pump Performance Characteristics     421
System Characteristics and Pump Selection     423
Dimensionless Parameters and Similarity Laws     426
Specific Speed     429
Axial-Flow and Mixed-Flow Pumps     430
Turbines     433
Impulse Turbines     434
Reaction Turbines     440
Compressible Flow Turbomachines     443
Chapter Summary and Study Guide     444
References     445
Problems     446
Computational Fluid Dynamics and Flowlab     454
Physical Properties of Fluids     469
Properties of the U.S. Standard Atmosphere     475
Reynolds Transport Theorem     477
General Reynolds Transport Theorem     477
General Control Volume Equations     479
Comprehensive Table of Conversion Factors     483
Online Appendix List     487
Video Library
Review Problems
Laboratory Problems
CFD Driven Cavity Example
Flowlab Tutorial and User's Guide
Flowlab Problems
Answers     488
Index     493
Index of Fluids Phenomena Videos      504

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