Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer / Edition 7

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Completely updated, the seventh edition provides engineers with an in-depth look at the key concepts in the field. It incorporates new discussions on emerging areas of heat transfer, discussing technologies that are related to nanotechnology, biomedical engineering and alternative energy. The example problems are also updated to better show how to apply the material. And as engineers follow the rigorous and systematic problem-solving methodology, they’ll gain an appreciation for the richness and beauty of the discipline.

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Editorial Reviews

A textbook for a first course in heat transfer. The fourth edition (third was 1990) includes additional open-ended, design-oriented problems; provides for an optional Windows-based software (Interactive Heat Transfer) integrated with the text; and adds new material on the first law, one-dimensional steady-state conduction with generation, extended surfaces, and semi-infinite media. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470501979
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 4/12/2011
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 7
  • Pages: 1048
  • Sales rank: 67,429
  • Product dimensions: 8.30 (w) x 9.90 (h) x 1.70 (d)

Meet the Author

Frank P. Incropera is currently Matthew H. McCloskey Dean of the College of Engineering at Univeristy of Notre Dame. Professor Incropera received his B.S.M.E. from M.I.T. and his M.S.M.E. and Ph.D. from Stanford University, all in mechanical engineering. In 1998, he became the Clifford and Evelyn Brosey Professor of Mechanical Engineering. Professor Incropera has received four major Purdue teaching awards and was the 1982 recipient of the ASEE Ralph Coats Roe Award for excellence in teaching. He was the 1983 recipient of the ASEE George Westinghouse Award for achievements in teaching and research. In 1984 he became a Fellow of the ASME, and in 1988 he received the ASME Heat Transfer Memorial Award for twenty years of research accomplishments in the fields of plasma heat transfer, radiative transfer in participating media, and double-diffusive and mixed convection. In 1988 he was also recipient of the Senior Scientists Award of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation and recipient of the Melville Medal for the best original paper published by ASME. In 1995 he received the Worcester Reed Warner Medal of ASME for contributions to the fundamental literature of heat transfer and his textbooks on the subject.
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Table of Contents

Symbols xxi

CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1

1.1 What and How? 2

1.2 Physical Origins and Rate Equations 3

1.3 Relationship to Thermodynamics 12

1.4 Units and Dimensions 36

1.5 Analysis of Heat Transfer Problems: Methodology38

1.6 Relevance of Heat Transfer 41

1.7 Summary 45

References 48

Problems 49

CHAPTER 2 Introduction to Conduction67

2.1 The Conduction Rate Equation 68

2.2 The Thermal Properties of Matter 70

2.3 The Heat Diffusion Equation 82

2.4 Boundary and Initial Conditions 90

2.5 Summary 94

References 95

Problems 95

CHAPTER 3 One-Dimensional, Steady-StateConduction 111

3.1 The Plane Wall 112

3.2 An Alternative Conduction Analysis 132

3.3 Radial Systems 136

3.4 Summary of One-Dimensional Conduction Results 142

3.5 Conduction with Thermal Energy Generation 142

3.6 Heat Transfer from Extended Surfaces 154

3.7 The Bioheat Equation 178

3.8 Thermoelectric Power Generation 182

3.9 Micro- and Nanoscale Conduction 189

3.10 Summary 190

References 193

Problems 193

CHAPTER 4 Two-Dimensional, Steady-StateConduction 229

4.1 Alternative Approaches 230

4.2 The Method of Separation of Variables 231

4.3 The Conduction Shape Factor and the DimensionlessConduction Heat Rate 235

4.4 Finite-Difference Equations 241

4.5 Solving the Finite-Difference Equations 250

4.6 Summary 256

References 257

Problems 257

CHAPTER 5 Transient Conduction279

5.1 The Lumped Capacitance Method 280

5.2 Validity of the Lumped Capacitance Method 283

5.3 General Lumped Capacitance Analysis 287

5.4 Spatial Effects 298

5.5 The Plane Wall with Convection 299

5.6 Radial Systems with Convection 303

5.7 The Semi-Infinite Solid 310

5.8 Objects with Constant Surface Temperatures or SurfaceHeat Fluxes 317

5.9 Periodic Heating 327

5.10 Finite-Difference Methods 330

5.11 Summary 345

References 346

Problems 346

CHAPTER 6 Introduction to Convection377

6.1 The Convection Boundary Layers 378

6.2 Local and Average Convection Coefficients 382

6.3 Laminar and Turbulent Flow 389

6.4 The Boundary Layer Equations 394

6.5 Boundary Layer Similarity: The Normalized BoundaryLayer Equations 398

6.6 Physical Interpretation of the DimensionlessParameters 407

6.7 Boundary Layer Analogies 409

6.8 Summary 417

References 418

Problems 419

CHAPTER 7 External Flow433

7.1 The Empirical Method 435

7.2 The Flat Plate in Parallel Flow 436

7.3 Methodology for a Convection Calculation 447

7.4 The Cylinder in Cross Flow 455

7.5 The Sphere 465

7.6 Flow Across Banks of Tubes 468

7.7 Impinging Jets 477

7.8 Packed Beds 482

7.9 Summary 483

References 486

Problems 486

CHAPTER 8 Internal Flow517

8.1 Hydrodynamic Considerations 518

8.2 Thermal Considerations 523

8.3 The Energy Balance 529

8.4 Laminar Flow in Circular Tubes: Thermal Analysis andConvection Correlations 537

8.5 Convection Correlations: Turbulent Flow in CircularTubes 544

8.6 Convection Correlations: Noncircular Tubes and theConcentric Tube Annulus 552

8.7 Heat Transfer Enhancement 555

8.8 Flow in Small Channels 558

8.9 Convection Mass Transfer 563

8.10 Summary 565

References 568

Problems 569

CHAPTER 9 Free Convection593

9.1 Physical Considerations 594

9.2 The Governing Equations for Laminar Boundary Layers597

9.3 Similarity Considerations 598

9.4 Laminar Free Convection on a Vertical Surface 599

9.5 The Effects of Turbulence 602

9.6 Empirical Correlations: External Free ConvectionFlows 604

9.7 Free Convection Within Parallel Plate Channels618

9.8 Empirical Correlations: Enclosures 621

9.9 Combined Free and Forced Convection 627

9.10 Convection Mass Transfer 628

9.11 Summary 629

References 630

Problems 631

CHAPTER 10 Boiling and Condensation653

10.1 Dimensionless Parameters in Boiling and Condensation654

10.2 Boiling Modes 655

10.3 Pool Boiling 656

10.4 Pool Boiling Correlations 660

10.5 Forced Convection Boiling 669

10.6 Condensation: Physical Mechanisms 673

10.7 Laminar Film Condensation on a Vertical Plate675

10.8 Turbulent Film Condensation 679

10.9 Film Condensation on Radial Systems 684

10.10 Condensation in Horizontal Tubes 689

10.11 Dropwise Condensation 690

10.12 Summary 691

References 691

Problems 693

CHAPTER 11 Heat Exchangers705

11.1 Heat Exchanger Types 706

11.2 The Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient 708

11.3 Heat Exchanger Analysis: Use of the Log MeanTemperature Difference 711

11.4 Heat Exchanger Analysis: The Effectiveness–NTUMethod 722

11.5 Heat Exchanger Design and Performance Calculations730

11.6 Additional Considerations 739

11.7 Summary 747

References 748

Problems 748

CHAPTER 12 Radiation: Processes andProperties 767

12.1 Fundamental Concepts 768

12.2 Radiation Heat Fluxes 771

12.3 Radiation Intensity 773

12.4 Blackbody Radiation 782

12.5 Emission from Real Surfaces 792

12.6 Absorption, Reflection, and Transmission by RealSurfaces 801

12.7 Kirchhoff’s Law 810

12.8 The Gray Surface 812

12.9 Environmental Radiation 818

12.10 Summary 826

References 830

Problems 830

CHAPTER 13 Radiation Exchange BetweenSurfaces 861

13.1 The View Factor 862

13.2 Blackbody Radiation Exchange 872

13.3 Radiation Exchange Between Opaque, Diffuse, GraySurfaces in an Enclosure 876

13.4 Multimode Heat Transfer 893

13.5 Implications of the Simplifying Assumptions 896

13.6 Radiation Exchange with Participating Media 896

13.7 Summary 901

References 902

Problems 903

CHAPTER 14 Diffusion Mass Transfer933

14.1 Physical Origins and Rate Equations 934

14.2 Mass Transfer in Nonstationary Media 939

14.3 The Stationary Medium Approximation 947

14.4 Conservation of Species for a Stationary Medium947

14.5 Boundary Conditions and Discontinuous Concentrationsat Interfaces 954

14.6 Mass Diffusion with Homogeneous Chemical Reactions962

14.7 Transient Diffusion 965

14.8 Summary 971

References 972

Problems 972

APPENDIX A Thermophysical Properties ofMatter 981

APPENDIX B Mathematical Relations andFunctions 1013

APPENDIX C Thermal Conditions Associatedwith Uniform Energy

Generation in One-Dimensional, Steady-StateSystems 1019

APPENDIX D The Gauss–SeidelMethod 1025

APPENDIX E The Convection TransferEquations 1027

APPENDIX F Boundary Layer Equations forTurbulent Flow 1031

APPENDIX G An Integral Laminar BoundaryLayer Solution for Parallel Flow over a Flat Plate1035

Index 1039 

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  • Anonymous

    Posted September 23, 2011

    This book is useless

    I'm presently renting this book an thankful I didn't shell out $200 for it. The problems are confusing, the chapters are poorly written and at such a high level that one has to take an advanced graduate course in partial differential equations to even understand the basics it's trying to cover. The book doesn't contain odd numbered answers so there's no way of checking your work without the professor providing assistance and the example problems contain no explanation as to why they are worked the way they are. Bessel functions just appear from nowhere without any explanation of what they are or how to use them.

    Overall, I would advise against using this book unless you really enjoy beating your head against a wall.

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