Fundamentals of LTE

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The Definitive Guide to LTE Technology

Long-Term Evolution (LTE) is the next step in the GSM evolutionary path beyond 3G technology, and it is strongly positioned to be the dominant global standard for 4G cellular networks. LTE also represents the first generation of cellular networks to be based on a flat IP architecture and is designed to seamlessly support a variety of different services, such as broadband data, voice, and multicast video. Its design incorporates many of the key innovations of digital communication, such as MIMO (multiple input multiple output) and OFDMA (orthogonal frequency division multiple access), that mandate new skills to plan, build, and deploy an LTE network.

In Fundamentals of LTE , four leading experts from academia and industry explain the technical foundations of LTE in a tutorial style—
providing a comprehensive overview of the standards. Following the same approach that made their recent Fundamentals of WiMAX successful, the authors offer a complete framework for understanding and evaluating LTE.

Topics include

  • Cellular wireless history and evolution: Technical advances, market drivers, and foundational networking and communications technologies
  • Multicarrier modulation theory and practice: OFDM system design, peak-to-average power ratios, and SC-FDE solutions
  • Frequency Domain Multiple Access: OFDMA downlinks, SC-FDMA uplinks, resource allocation, and LTE-specific implementation
  • Multiple antenna techniques and tradeoffs: spatial diversity, interference cancellation, spatial multiplexing, and multiuser/networked MIMO
  • LTE standard overview: air interface protocol, channel structure, and physical layers
  • Downlink and uplink transport channel processing: channel encoding, modulation mapping, Hybrid ARQ, multi-antenna processing, and more
  • Physical/MAC layer procedures and scheduling: channel-aware scheduling, closed/open-loop multi-antenna processing, and more
  • Packet flow, radio resource, and mobility management: RLC, PDCP, RRM, and LTE radio access network mobility/handoff procedures
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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
Fundamentals of LTE is a clear yet detailed introduction to the 3GPP Long-Term Evolution. I would recommend it both to those wishing to get up to speed on the fundamentals of LTE and those who are already involved but in need of a reference for this critical technology.”

—Dr. Alan Gatherer

CTO of Baseband System-on-Chip


“Excellent . . . . A comprehensive and in-depth treatment of what is likely to become the dominant world broadband wireless standard.”

—Dr. Reinaldo Valenzuela

Director of Wireless Communications Research

Bell Labs, Alcatel-Lucent

Fundamentals of LTE is a well-written and self-contained book featuring a unique blend of leading industry and academic perspectives. Comprehensive and highly accessible.”

—Dr. Angel Lozano

Professor, Information & Communication Technologies

University of Pompeu, Fabra

“This book offers a good entry point to the world of LTE for newcomers, since it contains useful background material for understanding the technology. It can serve as an instrumental reference for the general LTE community.”

—Dr. Eko Onggosanusi

Senior member of technical staff and 3GPP RAN1 lead delegate

Texas Instruments

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Product Details

Meet the Author

Arunabha Ghosh is a lead member of technical staff in the Wireless Communications Group in AT&T Laboratories. He received his B.S. with highest distinction from the Indian Institute of Technology at Kanpur in 1992 and his Ph.D. from the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign in 1998. As a technical member at AT&T Labs, Dr. Ghosh’s primary area of research is mobile wireless systems, with particular emphasis on MIMO-OFDM systems. Dr. Ghosh has worked extensively in the area of closed-loop single-user and multiuser MIMO solutions for technologies such as LTE and WiMAX and has been an active participant in many standards bodies such as 3GPP, IEEE, and WiMAX Forum.

Jun Zhang is a visiting assistant professor in the Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. He received his B.Eng. in electronic engineering from the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) in 2004, his M.Phil. in information engineering from the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) in 2006, and his Ph.D. in electrical and computer engineering from the University of Texas at Austin in 2009. He was an intern at AT&T Labs in the summers of 2007 and 2008.

Jeffrey G. Andrews is an associate professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Texas at Austin, where he is the director of the Wireless Networking and Communications Group. He received his B.S. in engineering with high distinction from Harvey Mudd College, and his M.S. and Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Stanford University. Dr. Andrews has industry experience at companies including Qualcomm, Intel, and Microsoft, and is the co-recipient of three IEEE best paper awards and the National Science Foundation CAREER Award.

Rias Muhamed is a director of business development with the AT&T Corporate Strategy and Development Team. His area of focus is on developing and incubating new business applications and services for AT&T using emerging technologies. He was previously with AT&T Labs, where he led technology assessment of a variety of wireless communication systems. He received his B.S. in electrical engineering from Pondicherry University, India in 1990; his M.S. in electrical engineering from Virginia Tech in 1996; and his M.B.A. from St. Edward University in Austin in 2000.

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Table of Contents

Foreword xvii

Preface xix

Acknowledgments xxi

About the Authors xxiii

List of Acronyms xxv

Chapter 1: Evolution of Cellular Technologies 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Evolution of Mobile Broadband 3

1.3 The Case for LTE/SAE 23

1.4 Key Enabling Technologies and Features of LTE 28

1.5 LTE Network Architecture 33

1.6 Spectrum Options and Migration Plans for LTE 35

1.7 Future of Mobile Broadband—Beyond LTE 39

1.8 Summary and Conclusions 41

Part I: LTE Tutorials 45

Chapter 2: Wireless Fundamentals 47

2.1 Communication System Building Blocks 47

2.2 The Broadband Wireless Channel: Path Loss and Shadowing 48

2.3 Cellular Systems 56

2.4 The Broadband Wireless Channel: Fading 62

2.5 Modelling Broadband Fading Channels 69

2.6 Mitigation of Narrowband Fading 82

2.7 Mitigation of Broadband Fading 92

2.8 Chapter Summary 94

Chapter 3: Multicarrier Modulation 99

3.1 The Multicarrier Concept 100

3.2 OFDM Basics 103

3.3 OFDM in LTE 109

3.4 Timing and Frequency Synchronization 110

3.5 The Peak-to-Average Ratio 116

3.6 Single-Carrier Frequency Domain Equalization (SC-FDE) 124

3.7 The Computational Complexity Advantage of OFDM and SC-FDE 127

3.8 Chapter Summary 130

Chapter 4: Frequency Domain Multiple Access: OFDMA and SC-FDMA 133

4.1 Multiple Access for OFDM Systems 134

4.2 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) 138

4.3 Single-Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) 142

4.4 Multiuser Diversity and Opportunistic Scheduling 144

4.5 OFDMA and SC-FDMA in LTE 152

4.6 OFDMA System Design Considerations 155

4.7 Chapter Summary 160

Chapter 5: Multiple Antenna Transmission and Reception 167

5.1 Spatial Diversity Overview 168

5.2 Receive Diversity 171

5.3 Transmit Diversity 174

5.4 Interference Cancellation Suppression and Signal Enhancement 186

5.5 Spatial Multiplexing 192

5.6 How to Choose Between Diversity, Interference Suppression, and Spatial Multiplexing 200

5.7 Channel Estimation and Feedback for MIMO and MIMO-OFDM 202

5.8 Practical Issues That Limit MIMO Gains 208

5.9 Multiuser and Networked MIMO Systems 209

5.10 An Overview of MIMO in LTE 213

5.11 Chapter Summary 215

Part II: The LTE Standard 225

Chapter 6: Overview and Channel Structure of LTE 227

6.1 Introduction to LTE 228

6.2 Hierarchical Channel Structure of LTE 234

6.3 Downlink OFDMA Radio Resources 241

6.4 Uplink SC-FDMA Radio Resources 251

6.5 Summary and Conclusions 255

Chapter 7: Downlink Transport Channel Processing 257

7.1 Downlink Transport Channel Processing Overview 257

7.2 Downlink Shared Channels 268

7.3 Downlink Control Channels 276

7.4 Broadcast Channels 283

7.5 Multicast Channels 284

7.6 Downlink Physical Signals 285

7.7 H-ARQ in the Downlink 290

7.8 Summary and Conclusions 293

Chapter 8: Uplink Transport Channel Processing 295

8.1 Uplink Transport Channel Processing Overview 296

8.2 Uplink Shared Channels 298

8.3 Uplink Control Information 301

8.4 Uplink Reference Signals 309

8.5 Random Access Channels 313

8.6 H-ARQ in the Uplink 315

8.7 Summary and Conclusions 317

Chapter 9: Physical Layer Procedures and Scheduling 319

9.1 Hybrid-ARQ Feedback 319

9.2 Channel Quality Indicator (CQI) Feedback 322

9.3 Precoder for Closed-Loop MIMO Operations 333

9.4 Uplink Channel Sounding 337

9.5 Buffer Status Reporting in Uplink 337

9.6 Scheduling and Resource Allocation 339

9.7 Semi-persistent Scheduling for VoIP 344

9.8 Cell Search 346

9.9 Random Access Procedures 348

9.10 Power Control in Uplink 350

9.11 Summary and Conclusions 352

Chapter 10: Data Flow, Radio Resource Management, and Mobility Management 355

10.1 PDCP Overview 359

10.2 MAC/RLC Overview 363

10.3 RRC Overview 369

10.4 Mobility Management 371

10.5 Inter-cell Interference Coordination 377

10.6 Summary and Conclusions 380

Index 383

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