Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering: An Integrated Approach / Edition 3

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Overview

Callister and Rethwisch’s Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering third edition continues to take the integrated approach to the organization of topics.  That is, one specific structure, characteristic, or property type at a time is discussed for all three basic material types—viz. metals, ceramics, and polymeric materials.  This order of presentation allows for the early introduction of non-metals and supports the engineer’s role in choosing materials based upon their characteristics.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470125373
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 12/10/2007
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 912
  • Product dimensions: 7.60 (w) x 10.00 (h) x 1.40 (d)

Table of Contents

List Of Symbols.

1. Introduction.

Learning Objectives.

1.1 Historical Perspective.

1.2 Materials Science and Engineering.

1.3 Why Study Materials Science and Engineering?

1.4 Classification of Materials.

1.5 Advanced Materials.

1.6 Modern Materials Needs.

References.

Questions.

2. Atomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding.

Learning Objectives.

2.1 Introduction.

Atomic Structure.

2.2 Fundamental Concepts.

2.3 Electrons in Atoms.

2.4 The Periodic Table.

Atomic Bonding in Solids.

2.5 Bonding Forces and Energies.

2.6 Primary Interatomic Bonds.

2.7 Secondary Bonding or van der Waals Bonding.

2.8 Molecules.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

3. Structures of Metals and Ceramics.

Learning Objectives.

3.1 Introduction.

Crystal Structures.

3.2 Fundamental Concepts.

3.3 Unit Cells.

3.4 Metallic Crystal Structures.

3.5 Density Computations—Metals.

3.6 Ceramic Crystal Structures.

3.7 Density Computations—Ceramics.

3.8 Silicate Ceramics.

3.9 Carbon.

3.10 Polymorphism and Allotropy.

3.11 Crystal Systems.

Crystallographic Points, Directions, and Planes.

3.12 Point Coordinates.

3.13 Crystallographic Directions.

3.14 Crystallographic Planes.

3.15 Linear and Planar Densities.

3.16 Close-Packed Crystal Structures.

Crystalline And Noncrystalline Materials.

3.17 Single Crystals.

3.18 Polycrystalline Materials.

3.19 Anisotropy.

3.20 X-Ray Diffraction: Determination of Crystal Structures.

3.21 Noncrystalline Solids.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

4. Polymer Structures.

Learning Objectives.

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Hydrocarbon Molecules.

4.3 Polymer Molecules.

4.4 The Chemistry of Polymer Molecules.

4.5 Molecular Weight.

4.6 Molecular Shape.

4.7 Molecular Structure.

4.8 Molecular Configurations.

4.9 Thermoplastic and Thermosetting Polymers.

4.10 Copolymers.

4.11 Polymer Crystallinity.

4.12 Polymer Crystals.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

5. Imperfections in Solids.

Learning Objectives.

5.1 Introduction.

Point Defects.

5.2 Point Defects in Metals.

5.3 Point Defects in Ceramics.

5.4 Impurities in Solids.

5.5 Point Defects in Polymers.

5.6 Specification of Composition.

Miscellaneous Imperfections.

5.7 Dislocations—Linear Defects.

5.8 Interfacial Defects.

5.9 Bulk or Volume Defects.

5.10 Atomic Vibrations.

Microscopic Examination.

5.11 General.

5.12 Microscopic Techniques.

5.13 Grain Size Determination.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

6. Diffusion.

Learning Objectives.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Diffusion Mechanisms.

6.3 Steady-State Diffusion.

6.4 Nonsteady-State Diffusion.

6.5 Factors That Influence Diffusion.

6.6 Other Diffusion Paths.

6.7 Diffusion in Ionic and Polymeric Materials.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

7. Mechanical Properties.

Learning Objectives.

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Concepts of Stress and Strain.

Elastic Deformation.

7.3 Stress–Strain Behavior.

7.4 Anelasticity.

7.5 Elastic Properties of Materials.

Mechanical Behavior—Metals.

7.6 Tensile Properties.

7.7 True Stress and Strain.

7.8 Elastic Recovery After Plastic Deformation.

7.9 Compressive, Shear, and Torsional Deformation.

Mechanical Behavior—Ceramics.

7.10 Flexural Strength.

7.11 Elastic Behavior.

7.12 Influence of Porosity on the Mechanical Properties of Ceramics.

Mechanical Behavior—Polymers.

7.13 Stress–Strain Behavior.

7.14 Macroscopic Deformation.

7.15 Viscoelastic Deformation.

Hardness and Other Mechanical Property Considerations.

7.16 Hardness.

7.17 Hardness of Ceramic Materials.

7.18 Tear Strength and Hardness of Polymers.

Property Variability and Design/Safety Factors.

7.19 Variability of Material Properties.

7.20 Design/Safety Factors.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

8. Deformation and Strengthening Mechanisms.

Learning Objectives.

8.1 Introduction.

Deformation Mechanisms for Metals.

8.2 Historical.

8.3 Basic Concepts of Dislocations.

8.4 Characteristics of Dislocations.

8.5 Slip Systems.

8.6 Slip in Single Crystals.

8.7 Plastic Deformation of Polycrystalline Metals.

8.8 Deformation by Twinning.

Mechanisms of Strengthening in Metals.

8.9 Strengthening by Grain Size Reduction.

8.10 Solid-Solution Strengthening.

8.11 Strain Hardening.

Recovery, Recrystallization, and Grain Growth.

8.12 Recovery.

8.13 Recrystallization.

8.14 Grain Growth.

Deformation Mechanisms for Ceramic Materials.

8.15 Crystalline Ceramics.

8.16 Noncrystalline Ceramics.

Mechanisms of Deformation and for Strengthening of polymers.

8.17 Deformation of Semicrystalline Polymers.

8.18 Factors That Influence the Mechanical Properties of Semicrystalline Polymers.

8.19 Deformation of Elastomers.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

9. Failure.

Learning Objectives.

9.1 Introduction.

Fracture.

9.2 Fundamentals of Fracture.

9.3 Ductile Fracture.

9.4 Brittle Fracture.

9.5 Principles of Fracture Mechanics.

9.6 Brittle Fracture of Ceramics.

9.7 Fracture of Polymers.

9.8 Impact Fracture Testing.

Fatigue.

9.9 Cyclic Stresses.

9.10 The S-N Curve.

9.11 Fatigue in Polymeric Materials.

9.12 Crack Initiation and Propagation.

9.13 Factors That Affect Fatigue Life.

9.14 Environmental Effects.

Creep.

9.15 Generalized Creep Behavior.

9.16 Stress and Temperature Effects.

9.17 Data Extrapolation Methods.

9.18 Alloys for High-Temperature Use.

9.19 Creep in Ceramic and Polymeric Materials.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

10. Phase Diagrams.

Learning Objectives.

10.1 Introduction.

Definitions and Basic Concepts.

10.2 Solubility Limit.

10.3 Phases.

10.4 Microstructure.

10.5 Phase Equilibria.

10.6 One-Component (or Unary) Phase Diagrams.

Binary Phase Diagrams.

10.7 Binary Isomorphous Systems.

10.8 Interpretation of Phase Diagrams.

10.9 Development of Microstructure in Isomorphous Alloys.

10.10 Mechanical Properties of Isomorphous Alloys.

10.11 Binary Eutectic Systems.

10.12 Development of Microstructure in Eutectic Alloys.

10.13 Equilibrium Diagrams Having Intermediate Phases or Compounds.

10.14 Eutectoid and Peritectic Reactions.

10.15 Congruent Phase Transformations.

10.16 Ceramic Phase Diagrams.

10.17 Ternary Phase Diagrams.

10.18 The Gibbs Phase Rule.

The Iron–carbon System.

10.19 The Iron–Iron Carbide (Fe–Fe3C) Phase Diagram

10.20 Development of Microstructures in Iron–Carbon Alloys.

10.21 The Influence of Other Alloying Elements.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

11. Phase Transformations.

Learning Objectives.

11.1 Introduction.

Phase Transformations in Metals.

11.2 Basic Concepts.

11.3 The Kinetics of Phase Transformations.

11.4 Metastable versus Equilibrium States.

Microstructural and Property Changes in Iron–Carbon Alloys.

11.5 Isothermal Transformation Diagrams.

11.6 Continuous Cooling Transformation Diagrams.

11.7 Mechanical Behavior of Iron–Carbon Alloys.

11.8 Tempered Martensite.

11.9 Review of Phase Transformations and Mechanical Properties for Iron–Carbon Alloys.

Precipitation Hardening.

11.10 Heat Treatments.

11.11 Mechanism of Hardening.

11.12 Miscellaneous Considerations.

Crystallization, Melting, and Glass Transition Phenomena in Polymers.

11.13 Crystallization.

11.14 Melting.

11.15 The Glass Transition.

11.16 Melting and Glass Transition Temperatures.

11.17 Factors That Influence Melting and Glass Transition Temperatures.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

12. Electrical Properties.

Learning Objectives.

12.1 Introduction.

Electrical Conduction.

12.2 Ohm's Law.

12.3 Electrical Conductivity.

12.4 Electronic and Ionic Conduction.

12.5 Energy Band Structures in Solids.

12.6 Conduction in Terms of Band and Atomic Bonding Models.

12.7 Electron Mobility.

12.8 Electrical Resistivity of Metals.

12.9 Electrical Characteristics of Commercial Alloys.

Semiconductivity.

12.10 Intrinsic Semiconduction.

12.11 Extrinsic Semiconduction.

12.12 The Temperature Dependence of Carrier Concentration.

12.13 Factors that Affect Carrier Mobility.

12.14 The Hall Effect.

12.15 Semiconductor Devices.

Electrical Conduction in Ionic Ceramics and in Polymers.

12.16 Conduction in Ionic Materials

12.17 Electrical Properties of Polymer.

Dielectric Behavior.

12.18 Capacitance.

12.19 Field Vectors and Polarization.

12.20 Types of Polarization.

12.21 Frequency Dependence of the Dielectric Constant.

12.22 Dielectric Strength.

12.23 Dielectric Materials.

Other Electrical Characteristics of Materials.

12.24 Ferroelectricity.

12.25 Piezoelectricity.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

13. Types and Applications of Materials.

Learning Objectives.

13.1 Introduction.

Types of Metal Alloys.

13.2 Ferrous Alloys.

13.3 Nonferrous Alloys.

Types of Ceramics.

13.4 Glasses.

13.5 Glass–Ceramics.

13.6 Clay Products.

13.7 Refractories.

13.8 Abrasives.

13.9 Cements.

13.10 Advanced Ceramics.

13.11 Diamond and Graphite.

Types of Polymers.

13.12 Plastics.

13.13 Elastomers.

13.14 Fibers.

13.15 Miscellaneous Applications.

13.16 Advanced Polymeric Materials.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

14. Synthesis, Fabrication, and Processing of Materials.

Learning Objectives.

14.1 Introduction.

Fabrication of Metals.

14.2 Forming Operations.

14.3 Casting.

14.4 Miscellaneous Techniques.

Thermal Processing of Metals.

14.5 Annealing Processes.

14.6 Heat Treatment of Steels.

Fabrication of Ceramic Materials.

14.7 Fabrication and Processing of Glasses and Glass-Ceramics.

14.8 Fabrication and Processing of Clay Products.

14.9 Powder Pressing.

14.10 Tape Casting.

Synthesis and Fabrication of Polymers.

14.11 Polymerization.

14.12 Polymer Additives.

14.13 Forming Techniques for Plastics.

14.14 Fabrication of Elastomers.

14.15 Fabrication of Fibers and Films.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

15. Composites.

Learning Objectives.

15.1 Introduction.

Particle-Reinforced Composites.

15.2 Large-Particle Composites.

15.3 Dispersion-Strengthened Composites.

Fiber-Reinforced Composites.

15.4 Influence of Fiber Length.

15.5 Influence of Fiber Orientation and Concentration.

15.6 The Fiber Phase.

15.7 The Matrix Phase.

15.8 Polymer–Matrix Composites.

15.9 Metal–Matrix Composites.

15.10 Ceramic–Matrix Composites.

15.11 Carbon–Carbon Composites.

15.12 Hybrid Composites.

15.13 Processing of Fiber-Reinforced Composites.

Structural Composites.

15.14 Laminar Composites.

15.15 Sandwich Panels.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

16. Corrosion and Degradation of Materials.

Learning Objectives.

16.1 Introduction.

Corrosion of Metals.

16.2 Electrochemical Considerations.

16.3 Corrosion Rates.

16.4 Prediction of Corrosion Rates.

16.5 Passivity.

16.6 Environmental Effects.

16.7 Forms of Corrosion.

16.8 Corrosion Environments.

16.9 Corrosion Prevention.

16.10 Oxidation.

Corrosion of Ceramic Materials.

Degradation of Polymers.

16.11 Swelling and Dissolution.

16.12 Bond Rupture.

16.13 Weathering.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

17. Thermal Properties.

Learning Objectives.

17.1 Introduction.

17.2 Heat Capacity.

17.3 Thermal Expansion.

17.4 Thermal Conductivity.

17.5 Thermal Stresses.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

18. Magnetic Properties.

Learning Objectives

18.1 Introduction.

18.2 Basic Concepts.

18.3 Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism.

18.4 Ferromagnetism.

18.5 Antiferromagnetism and Ferrimagnetism.

18.6 The Influence of Temperature on Magnetic Behavior.

18.7 Domains and Hysteresis.

18.8 Magnetic Anisotropy.

18.9 Soft Magnetic Materials.

18.10 Hard Magnetic Materials.

18.11 Magnetic Storage.

18.12 Superconductivity.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

19. Optical Properties.

Learning Objectives.

19.1 Introduction.

Basic Concepts.

19.2 Electromagnetic Radiation.

19.3 Light Interactions with Solids.

19.4 Atomic and Electronic Interactions.

Optical Properties of Metals.

Optical Properties of Nonmetals.

19.5 Refraction.

19.6 Reflection.

19.7 Absorption.

19.8 Transmission.

19.9 Color.

19.10 Opacity and Translucency in Insulators.

Applications of Optical Phenomena.

19.11 Luminescence.

19.12 Photoconductivity.

19.13 Lasers.

19.14 Optical Fibers in Communications.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

20. Economic, Environmental, and Societal Issues in Materials Science and Engineering.

Learning Objectives.

20.1 Introduction.

Economic Considerations.

20.2 Component Design.

20.3 Materials.

20.4 Manufacturing Techniques.

Environmental and Societal Considerations.

20.5 Recycling Issues in Materials Science and Engineering.

Summary.

References.

Design Questions.

Appendix A. The International System of Units (SI).

Appendix B. Properties of Selected Engineering Materials.

B.1 Density.

B.2 Modulus of Elasticity.

B.3 Poisson’s Ratio.

B.4 Strength and Ductility.

B.5 Plane Strain Fracture Toughness.

B.6 Linear Coefficient of Thermal Expansion.

B.7 Thermal Conductivity.

B.8 Specific Heat.

B.9 Electrical Resistivity.

B.10 Metal Alloy Compositions.

Appendix C. Costs and Relative Costs for Selected Engineering Materials.

Appendix D. Repeat Unit Structures for Common Polymers.

Appendix E. Glass Transition and Melting Temperatures for Common Polymeric Materials.

Glossary.

Answers to Selected Problems.

Index.

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