Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering: An Integrated Approach / Edition 3

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Overview

Callister and Rethwisch's Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering, 4th Edition continues to take the integrated approach to the organization of topics. That is, one specific structure, characteristic, or property type at a time is discussed for all three basic material types — metals, ceramics, and polymeric materials. This order of presentation allows for the early introduction of non-metals and supports the engineer's role in choosing materials based upon their characteristics. Also discussed are new, cutting-edge materials. Using clear, concise terminology that is familiar to students, Fundamentals presents material at an appropriate level for both student comprehension and instructors who may not have a materials background.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470125373
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 12/10/2007
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 912
  • Product dimensions: 7.60 (w) x 10.00 (h) x 1.40 (d)

Table of Contents

LIST OF SYMBOLS xxiii

1. Introduction 1

Learning Objectives 2

1.1 Historical Perspective 2

1.2 Materials Science and Engineering 2

1.3 Why Study Materials Science and Engineering? 4

1.4 Classification of Materials 5

Materials of Importance—Carbonated Beverage Containers 9

1.5 Advanced Materials 10

1.6 Modern Materials Needs 12

1.7 Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Correlations 13

Summary 15

References 16

Question 16

2. Atomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding 17

Learning Objectives 18

2.1 Introduction 18

ATOMIC STRUCTURE 18

2.2 Fundamental Concepts 18

2.3 Electrons in Atoms 19

2.4 The Periodic Table 25

ATOMIC BONDING IN SOLIDS 26

2.5 Bonding Forces and Energies 26

2.6 Primary Interatomic Bonds 28

2.7 Secondary Bonding or van der Waals Bonding 32

Materials of Importance—Water (Its Volume Expansion Upon Freezing) 34

2.8 Molecules 35

Summary 35

Equation Summary 36

Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 36

Important Terms and Concepts 37

References 37

Questions and Problems 37

Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 39

3. Structures of Metals and Ceramics 40

Learning Objectives 41

3.1 Introduction 41

CRYSTAL STRUCTURES 42

3.2 Fundamental Concepts 42

3.3 Unit Cells 42

3.4 Metallic Crystal Structures 43

3.5 Density Computations—Metals 47

3.6 Ceramic Crystal Structures 48

3.7 Density Computations—Ceramics 54

3.8 Silicate Ceramics 55

3.9 Carbon 59

Materials of Importance—Carbon Nanotubes 60

3.10 Polymorphism and Allotropy 61

3.11 Crystal Systems 61

Material of Importance—Tin (Its Allotropic Transformation) 63

CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC POINTS, DIRECTIONS, AND PLANES 64

3.12 Point Coordinates 64

3.13 Crystallographic Directions 66

3.14 Crystallographic Planes 72

3.15 Linear and Planar Densities 76

3.16 Close-Packed Crystal Structures 77

CRYSTALLINE AND NONCRYSTALLINE MATERIALS 81

3.17 Single Crystals 81

3.18 Polycrystalline Materials 81

3.19 Anisotropy 81

3.20 X-Ray Diffraction: Determination of Crystal Structures 83

3.21 Noncrystalline Solids 87

Summary 89

Equation Summary 91

Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 92

Important Terms and Concepts 93

References 94

Questions and Problems 94

Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 101

4. Polymer Structures 102

Learning Objectives 103

4.1 Introduction 103

4.2 Hydrocarbon Molecules 103

4.3 Polymer Molecules 105

4.4 The Chemistry of Polymer Molecules 106

4.5 Molecular Weight 111

4.6 Molecular Shape 113

4.7 Molecular Structure 115

4.8 Molecular Configurations 116

4.9 Thermoplastic and Thermosetting Polymers 120

4.10 Copolymers 121

4.11 Polymer Crystallinity 122

4.12 Polymer Crystals 125

Summary 128

Equation Summary 129

Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 130

Important Terms and Concepts 130

References 131

Questions and Problems 131

Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 133

5. Imperfections in Solids 134

Learning Objectives 135

5.1 Introduction 135

POINT DEFECTS 136

5.2 Point Defects in Metals 136

5.3 Point Defects in Ceramics 137

5.4 Impurities in Solids 140

5.5 Point Defects in Polymers 143

5.6 Specification of Composition 143

MISCELLANEOUS IMPERFECTIONS 147

5.7 Dislocations—Linear Defects 147

5.8 Interfacial Defects 150

5.9 Bulk or Volume Defects 153

5.10 Atomic Vibrations 153

MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION 153

5.11 Basic Concepts of Microscopy 153

Materials of Importance—Catalysts (and Surface Defects) 154

5.12 Microscopic Techniques 155

5.13 Grain Size Determination 159

Summary 161

Equation Summary 163

Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 164

Important Terms and Concepts 165

References 165

Questions and Problems 165

Design Problems 169

Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 169

6. Diffusion 170

Learning Objectives 171

6.1 Introduction 171

6.2 Diffusion Mechanisms 172

6.3 Steady-State Diffusion 173

6.4 Nonsteady-State Diffusion 175

6.5 Factors That Influence Diffusion 179

6.6 Diffusion in Semiconducting Materials 184

Material of Importance—Aluminum for Integrated Circuit Interconnects 187

6.7 Other Diffusion Paths 188

6.8 Diffusion in Ionic and Polymeric Materials 188

Summary 191

Equation Summary 192

Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 193

Important Terms and Concepts 194

References 195

Questions and Problems 195

Design Problems 198

Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 199

7. Mechanical Properties 200

Learning Objectives 201

7.1 Introduction 201

7.2 Concepts of Stress and Strain 202

ELASTIC DEFORMATION 205

7.3 Stress–Strain Behavior 205

7.4 Anelasticity 209

7.5 Elastic Properties of Materials 209

MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR—METALS 211

7.6 Tensile Properties 212

7.7 True Stress and Strain 219

7.8 Elastic Recovery After Plastic

Deformation 222

7.9 Compressive, Shear, and Torsional Deformation 222

MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR—CERAMICS 223

7.10 Flexural Strength 223

7.11 Elastic Behavior 224

7.12 Influence of Porosity on the Mechanical Properties of Ceramics 224

MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR—POLYMERS 226

7.13 Stress–Strain Behavior 226

7.14 Macroscopic Deformation 228

7.15 Viscoelastic Deformation 229

HARDNESS AND OTHER MECHANICAL PROPERTY CONSIDERATIONS 233

7.16 Hardness 233

7.17 Hardness of Ceramic Materials 238

7.18 Tear Strength and Hardness of Polymers 239

PROPERTY VARIABILITY AND DESIGN/SAFETY FACTORS 239

7.19 Variability of Material Properties 239

7.20 Design/Safety Factors 242

Summary 243

Equation Summary 246

Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 248

Important Terms and Concepts 249

References 250

Questions and Problems 250

Design Problems 258

Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 259

8. Deformation and Strengthening Mechanisms 260

Learning Objectives 261

8.1 Introduction 261

DEFORMATION MECHANISMS FOR METALS 261

8.2 Historical 262

8.3 Basic Concepts of Dislocations 262

8.4 Characteristics of Dislocations 264

8.5 Slip Systems 265

8.6 Slip in Single Crystals 267

8.7 Plastic Deformation of Polycrystalline Metals 270

8.8 Deformation by Twinning 272

MECHANISMS OF STRENGTHENING IN METALS 273

8.9 Strengthening by Grain Size Reduction 273

8.10 Solid-Solution Strengthening 275

8.11 Strain Hardening 276

RECOVERY, RECRYSTALLIZATION, AND GRAIN GROWTH 279

8.12 Recovery 279

8.13 Recrystallization 280

8.14 Grain Growth 284

DEFORMATION MECHANISMS FOR CERAMIC MATERIALS 285

8.15 Crystalline Ceramics 285

8.16 Noncrystalline Ceramics 286

MECHANISMS OF DEFORMATION AND FOR STRENGTHENING OF POLYMERS 287

8.17 Deformation of Semicrystalline Polymers 287

8.18 Factors That Influence the Mechanical Properties of Semicrystalline Polymers 290

Materials of Importance—Shrink-Wrap Polymer Films 292

8.19 Deformation of Elastomers 293

Summary 295

Equation Summary 298

Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 299

Important Terms and Concepts 302

References 302

Questions and Problems 302

Design Problems 307

Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 307

9. Failure 308

Learning Objectives 309

9.1 Introduction 309

FRACTURE 310

9.2 Fundamentals of Fracture 310

9.3 Ductile Fracture 310

9.4 Brittle Fracture 312

9.5 Principles of Fracture Mechanics 314

9.6 Brittle Fracture of Ceramics 322

9.7 Fracture of Polymers 326

9.8 Fracture Toughness Testing 328

FATIGUE 332

9.9 Cyclic Stresses 333

9.10 The S-N Curve 334

9.11 Fatigue in Polymeric Materials 337

9.12 Crack Initiation and Propagation 337

9.13 Factors That Affect Fatigue Life 339

9.14 Environmental Effects 341

CREEP 342

9.15 Generalized Creep Behavior 343

9.16 Stress and Temperature Effects 344

9.17 Data Extrapolation Methods 346

9.18 Alloys for High-Temperature Use 347

9.19 Creep in Ceramic and Polymeric Materials 347

Summary 348

Equation Summary 351

Important Terms and Concepts 352

References 352

Questions and Problems 352

Design Problems 357

Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 357

10. Phase Diagrams 359

Learning Objectives 360

10.1 Introduction 360

DEFINITIONS AND BASIC CONCEPTS 360

10.2 Solubility Limit 361

10.3 Phases 362

10.4 Microstructure 362

10.5 Phase Equilibria 362

10.6 One-Component (or Unary) Phase Diagrams 363

BINARY PHASE DIAGRAMS 365

10.7 Binary Isomorphous Systems 365

10.8 Interpretation of Phase Diagrams 367

10.9 Development of Microstructure in Isomorphous Alloys 371

10.10 Mechanical Properties of Isomorphous Alloys 374

10.11 Binary Eutectic Systems 374

10.12 Development of Microstructure in Eutectic Alloys 380

Materials of Importance—Lead-Free Solders 381

10.13 Equilibrium Diagrams Having Intermediate Phases or Compounds 387

10.14 Eutectoid and Peritectic Reactions 390

10.15 Congruent Phase Transformations 391

10.16 Ceramic Phase Diagrams 391

10.17 Ternary Phase Diagrams 395

10.18 The Gibbs Phase Rule 396

THE IRON–CARBON SYSTEM 398

10.19 The Iron–Iron Carbide (Fe–Fe3C) Phase Diagram 398

10.20 Development of Microstructure in Iron–Carbon Alloys 401

10.21 The Influence of Other Alloying Elements 408

Summary 409

Equation Summary 411

Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 412

Important Terms and Concepts 412

References 414

Questions and Problems 414

Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 420

11. Phase Transformations 421

Learning Objectives 422

11.1 Introduction 422

PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN METALS 422

11.2 Basic Concepts 423

11.3 The Kinetics of Phase Transformations 423

11.4 Metastable Versus Equilibrium States 433

MICROSTRUCTURAL AND PROPERTY CHANGES IN IRON–CARBON ALLOYS 434

11.5 Isothermal Transformation Diagrams 434

11.6 Continuous-Cooling Transformation Diagrams 445

11.7 Mechanical Behavior of Iron–Carbon Alloys 448

11.8 Tempered Martensite 452

11.9 Review of Phase Transformations and Mechanical Properties for Iron–Carbon Alloys 455

Materials of Importance—Shape-Memory Alloys 456

PRECIPITATION HARDENING 459

11.10 Heat Treatments 459

11.11 Mechanism of Hardening 461

11.12 Miscellaneous Considerations 464

CRYSTALLIZATION, MELTING, AND GLASS TRANSITION PHENOMENA IN POLYMERS 464

11.13 Crystallization 464

11.14 Melting 465

11.15 The Glass Transition 466

11.16 Melting and Glass Transition Temperatures 466

11.17 Factors That Influence Melting and Glass Transition Temperatures 467

Summary 469

Equation Summary 472

Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 473

Important Terms and Concepts 475

References 475

Questions and Problems 476

Design Problems 480

Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 481

12. Electrical Properties 483

Learning Objectives 484

12.1 Introduction 484

ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION 484

12.2 Ohm’s Law 484

12.3 Electrical Conductivity 485

12.4 Electronic and Ionic Conduction 486

12.5 Energy Band Structures in Solids 486

12.6 Conduction in Terms of Band and Atomic Bonding Models 488

12.7 Electron Mobility 490

12.8 Electrical Resistivity of Metals 491

12.9 Electrical Characteristics of Commercial Alloys 494

Materials of Importance—Aluminum Electrical Wires 494

SEMICONDUCTIVITY 496

12.10 Intrinsic Semiconduction 496

12.11 Extrinsic Semiconduction 499

12.12 The Temperature Dependence of Carrier Concentration 502

12.13 Factors That Affect Carrier Mobility 503

12.14 The Hall Effect 507

12.15 Semiconductor Devices 509

ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION IN IONIC CERAMICS AND IN POLYMERS 515

12.16 Conduction in Ionic Materials 516

12.17 Electrical Properties of Polymers 516

DIELECTRIC BEHAVIOR 517

12.18 Capacitance 517

12.19 Field Vectors and Polarization 519

12.20 Types of Polarization 522

12.21 Frequency Dependence of the Dielectric Constant 524

12.22 Dielectric Strength 525

12.23 Dielectric Materials 525

OTHER ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MATERIALS 525

12.24 Ferroelectricity 525

12.25 Piezoelectricity 526

Summary 527

Equation Summary 530

Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 531

Important Terms and Concepts 535

References 535

Questions and Problems 535

Design Problems 539

Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 540

13. Types and Applications of Materials 542

Learning Objectives 543

13.1 Introduction 543

TYPES OF METAL ALLOYS 543

13.2 Ferrous Alloys 543

13.3 Nonferrous Alloys 556

Materials of Importance—Metal Alloys Used for Euro Coins 565

TYPES OF CERAMICS 566

13.4 Glasses 567

13.5 Glass-Ceramics 567

13.6 Clay Products 569

13.7 Refractories 569

13.8 Abrasives 571

13.9 Cements 571

13.10 Advanced Ceramics 573

Materials of Importance—Piezoelectric Ceramics 575

13.11 Diamond and Graphite 576

TYPES OF POLYMERS 577

13.12 Plastics 577

Materials of Importance—Phenolic Billiard Balls 580

13.13 Elastomers 580

13.14 Fibers 582

13.15 Miscellaneous Applications 583

13.16 Advanced Polymeric Materials 584

Summary 588

Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 590

Important Terms and Concepts 592

References 592

Questions and Problems 592

Design Questions 593

Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 594

14. Synthesis, Fabrication, and Processing of Materials 595

Learning Objectives 596

14.1 Introduction 596

FABRICATION OF METALS 596

14.2 Forming Operations 597

14.3 Casting 598

14.4 Miscellaneous Techniques 600

THERMAL PROCESSING OF METALS 601

14.5 Annealing Processes 601

14.6 Heat Treatment of Steels 604

FABRICATION OF CERAMIC MATERIALS 613

14.7 Fabrication and Processing of Glasses and Glass-Ceramics 615

14.8 Fabrication and Processing of Clay Products 620

14.9 Powder Pressing 624

14.10 Tape Casting 626

SYNTHESIS AND FABRICATION OF POLYMERS 627

14.11 Polymerization 627

14.12 Polymer Additives 630

14.13 Forming Techniques for Plastics 631

14.14 Fabrication of Elastomers 634

14.15 Fabrication of Fibers and Films 634

Summary 635

Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 637

Important Terms and Concepts 641

References 642

Questions and Problems 642

Design Problems 644

Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 645

15. Composites 646

Learning Objectives 647

15.1 Introduction 647

PARTICLE-REINFORCED COMPOSITES 649

15.2 Large-Particle Composites 649

15.3 Dispersion-Strengthened Composites 653

FIBER-REINFORCED COMPOSITES 653

15.4 Influence of Fiber Length 654

15.5 Influence of Fiber Orientation and Concentration 655

15.6 The Fiber Phase 663

15.7 The Matrix Phase 665

15.8 Polymer-Matrix Composites 665

15.9 Metal-Matrix Composites 671

15.10 Ceramic-Matrix Composites 672

15.11 Carbon–Carbon Composites 674

15.12 Hybrid Composites 674

15.13 Processing of Fiber-Reinforced Composites 675

STRUCTURAL COMPOSITES 677

15.14 Laminar Composites 677

15.15 Sandwich Panels 678

Materials of Importance—Nanocomposite Barrier Coatings 679

Summary 681

Equation Summary 683

Important Terms and Concepts 684

References 684

Questions and Problems 684

Design Problems 687

Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 688

16. Corrosion and Degradation of Materials 689

Learning Objectives 690

16.1 Introduction 690

CORROSION OF METALS 691

16.2 Electrochemical Considerations 691

16.3 Corrosion Rates 697

16.4 Prediction of Corrosion Rates 699

16.5 Passivity 705

16.6 Environmental Effects 706

16.7 Forms of Corrosion 707

16.8 Corrosion Environments 714

16.9 Corrosion Prevention 715

16.10 Oxidation 717

CORROSION OF CERAMIC MATERIALS 720

DEGRADATION OF POLYMERS 720

16.11 Swelling and Dissolution 720

16.12 Bond Rupture 722

16.13 Weathering 724

Summary 724

Equation Summary 726

Important Terms and Concepts 728

References 728

Questions and Problems 728

Design Problems 731

Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 732

17. Thermal Properties 733

Learning Objectives 734

17.1 Introduction 734

17.2 Heat Capacity 734

17.3 Thermal Expansion 738

Materials of Importance—Invar and Other Low-Expansion Alloys 740

17.4 Thermal Conductivity 741

17.5 Thermal Stresses 744

Summary 746

Equation Summary 747

Important Terms and Concepts 748

References 748

Questions and Problems 748

Design Problems 750

Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 750

18. Magnetic Properties 751

Learning Objectives 752

18.1 Introduction 752

18.2 Basic Concepts 752

18.3 Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism 756

18.4 Ferromagnetism 758

18.5 Antiferromagnetism and Ferrimagnetism 759

18.6 The Influence of Temperature on Magnetic Behavior 763

18.7 Domains and Hysteresis 764

18.8 Magnetic Anisotropy 767

18.9 Soft Magnetic Materials 768

Materials of Importance—An Iron–Silicon Alloy That Is Used in Transformer Cores 769

18.10 Hard Magnetic Materials 770

18.11 Magnetic Storage 773

18.12 Superconductivity 776

Summary 779

Equation Summary 781

Important Terms and Concepts 782

References 782

Questions and Problems 782

Design Problems 785

Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 785

19. Optical Properties 786

Learning Objectives 787

19.1 Introduction 787

BASIC CONCEPTS 787

19.2 Electromagnetic Radiation 787

19.3 Light Interactions With Solids 789

19.4 Atomic and Electronic Interactions 790

OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS 791

OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF NONMETALS 792

19.5 Refraction 792

19.6 Reflection 794

19.7 Absorption 794

19.8 Transmission 798

19.9 Color 798

19.10 Opacity and Translucency in Insulators 800

APPLICATIONS OF OPTICAL PHENOMENA 801

19.11 Luminescence 801

19.12 Photoconductivity 801

Materials of Importance—Light-Emitting Diodes 802

19.13 Lasers 804

19.14 Optical Fibers in Communications 808

Summary 810

Equation Summary 812

Important Terms and Concepts 813

References 813

Questions and Problems 814

Design Problem 815

Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 815

20. Economic, Environmental, and Societal Issues in Materials Science and Engineering 816

Learning Objectives 817

20.1 Introduction 817

ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS 817

20.2 Component Design 818

20.3 Materials 818

20.4 Manufacturing Techniques 818

ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIETAL CONSIDERATIONS 819

20.5 Recycling Issues in Materials Science and Engineering 821

Materials of Importance—Biodegradable and Biorenewable Polymers/Plastics 824

Summary 826

References 827

Design Questions 827

Appendix A The International System of Units (SI) 828

Appendix B Properties of Selected Engineering Materials 830

B.1 Density 830

B.2 Modulus of Elasticity 833

B.3 Poisson’s Ratio 837

B.4 Strength and Ductility 838

B.5 Plane Strain Fracture Toughness 843

B.6 Linear Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 845

B.7 Thermal Conductivity 848

B.8 Specific Heat 851

B.9 Electrical Resistivity 854

B.10 Metal Alloy Compositions 857

Appendix C Costs and Relative Costs for Selected Engineering Materials 859

Appendix D Repeat Unit Structures for Common Polymers 864

Appendix E Glass Transition and Melting Temperatures for Common Polymeric Materials 868

Mechanical Engineering Online Support Module Library of Case Studies Glossary 869

Answers to Selected Problems 882

Index 886

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