Fundamentals of Microelectronics / Edition 2

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Overview

Designed to build a strong foundation in both design and analysis of electronic circuits, Razavi teaches conceptual understanding and mastery of the material by using modern examples to motivate and prepare students for advanced courses and their careers. Razavi's unique problem-solving framework enables students to deconstruct complex problems into components that they are familiar with which builds the confidence and intuitive skills needed for success.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781118156322
  • Publisher: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 4/1/2013
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 903
  • Sales rank: 572,132
  • Product dimensions: 8.10 (w) x 10.10 (h) x 1.40 (d)

Meet the Author

Behzad Razavi is an award-winning teacher, researcher, and author. He holds a Ph.D. degree from Stanford University and has been Professor of Electrical Engineering at University of California, Los Angeles, since 1996. His current research encompasses RF and wireless design, broadband data communication circuits, phase-locking phenomena, and data converter design.

Professor Razavi's research and teaching have garnered numerous awards. He received the Beatrice Winner Award for Editorial Excellence at the 1994 ISSCC, the best paper award at the 1994 European Solid-State Circuits Conference, the best panel award at the 1995 and 1997 ISSCC, the TRW Innovative Teaching Award in 1997, and the best paper award at the IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference in 1998. He was the co-recipient of both the Hack Kilby Outstanding Student Paper Award and the Beatrice Winner Award for Editorial Excellence at teh 2001. International Solid-State Circuits conference (ISSCC). He received the Lockheed Martin Excellence in Teaching Award in 2006 and the UCLA Faculty Senate Teaching Award in 2007. He was also recognized as one of the top ten authors in the fifty-year history of ISSCC.

Professor Razavi is an IEEE Distinguished Lecturer, a Fellow of IEEE, and the author of a number of books, including Principles of Data Conversion System Design, RF Microelectronics (translated to Chinese and Japanese), Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits (translated to Chinese and Japanese), Design of Integrated Circuits for Optical communications, and Fundamentals of Microelectronics. he is also the editor of Monolithic Phase-Locked Loops and Clock recovery circuits and Phase-Locking in High-Performance Systems.

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Table of Contents

1 INTRODUCTION TO MICROELECTRONICS 1
1.1 Electronics versus Microelectronics 1
1.2 Examples of Electronic Systems 2
 1.2.1 Cellular Telephone 2
 1.2.2 Digital Camera 5
 1.2.3 Analog Versus Digital 7
1.3 Basic Concepts 8
 1.3.1 Analog and Digital Signals 8
 1.3.2 Analog Circuits 10
 1.3.3 Digital Circuits 11
 1.3.4 Basic Circuit Theorems 13
1.4 Chapter Summary 20

2 BASIC PHYSICS OF SEMICONDUCTORS 21
2.1 Semiconductor Materials and Their Properties 22
 2.1.1 Charge Carriers in Solids 22
 2.1.2 Modification of Carrier Densities 25
 2.1.3 Transport of Carriers 28
2.2 pn Junction 36
 2.2.1 pn Junction in Equilibrium 37
 2.2.2 pn Junction Under Reverse Bias 42
 2.2.3 pn Junction Under Forward Bias 46
 2.2.4 I/V Characteristics 49
2.3 Reverse Breakdown 54
 2.3.1 Zener Breakdown 54
 2.3.2 Avalanche Breakdown 55
2.4 Chapter Summary 55
Problems 56
SPICE Problems 60

3 DIODE MODELS AND CIRCUITS 62
3.1 Ideal Diode 62
 3.1.1 Initial Thoughts 62
 3.1.2 Ideal Diode 64
 3.1.3 Application Examples 68
3.2 pn Junction as a Diode 73
3.3 Additional Examples 75
3.4 Large-Signal and Small-Signal Operation 80
3.5 Applications of Diodes 89
 3.5.1 Half-Wave and Full-Wave Rectifiers 89
 3.5.2 Voltage Regulation 102
 3.5.3 Limiting Circuits 104
 3.5.4 Voltage Doublers 108
 3.5.5 Diodes as Level Shifters and Switches 112
3.6 Chapter Summary 115
Problems 116
SPICE Problems 126

4 PHYSICS OF BIPOLAR TRANSISTORS 128
4.1 General Considerations 128
4.2 Structure of Bipolar Transistor 130
4.3 Operation of Bipolar Transistor in Active Mode 131
 4.3.1 Collector Current 134
 4.3.2 Base and Emitter Currents 137

4.4 Bipolar Transistor Models and Characteristics 139
 4.4.1 Large-Signal Model 139
 4.4.2 I/V Characteristics 141
 4.4.3 Concept of Transconductance 143
 4.4.4 Small-Signal Model 145
 4.4.5 Early Effect 150
4.5 Operation of Bipolar Transistor in Saturation Mode 156
4.6 The PNP Transistor 159
 4.6.1 Structure and Operation 160
 4.6.2 Large-Signal Model 160
 4.6.3 Small-Signal Model 163
4.7 Chapter Summary 167
Problems 167
SPICE Problems 178

5 BIPOLAR AMPLIFIERS 181
5.1 General Considerations 181
 5.1.1 Input and Output Impedances 182
 5.1.2 Biasing 186
 5.1.3 DC and Small-Signal Analysis 186
5.2Operating Point Analysis and Design 188
 5.2.1 Simple Biasing 189
 5.2.2 Resistive Divider Biasing 192
 5.2.3 Biasing with Emitter Degeneration 195
 5.2.4 Self-Biased Stage 199
 5.2.5 Biasing of PNP Transistors 202
5.3 Bipolar Amplifier Topologies 206
 5.3.1 Common-Emitter Topology 207
 5.3.2 Common-Base Topology 233
 5.3.3 Emitter Follower 250
5.4 Summary and Additional Examples 258
5.5 Chapter Summary 264
Problems 264
SPICE Problems 285

6 PHYSICS OF MOS TRANSISTORS 288
6.1 Structure of MOSFET 288
6.2 Operation of MOSFET 291
 6.2.1 Qualitative Analysis 291
 6.2.2 Derivation of I/V Characteristics 297
 6.2.3 Channel-Length Modulation 306
 6.2.4 MOS Transconductance 308
 6.2.5 Velocity Saturation 310
 6.2.6 Other Second-Order Effects 310
6.3 MOS Device Models 311
 6.3.1 Large-Signal Model 311
 6.3.2 Small-Signal Model 313
6.4 PMOS Transistor 314
6.5 CMOS Technology 316
6.6 Comparison of Bipolar and MOS Devices 317
6.7 Chapter Summary 317
Problems 318
SPICE Problems 327

7 CMOS AMPLIFIERS 329

7.1 General Considerations 329
 7.1.1 MOS Amplifier Topologies 329
 7.1.2 Biasing 329
 7.1.3 Realization of Current Sources 333
7.2 Common-Source Stage 334
 7.2.1 CS Core 334
 7.2.2 CS Stage With Current-Source Load 337
 7.2.3 CS Stage With Diode-Connected Load 338
 7.2.4 CS Stage With Degeneration 340
 7.2.5 CS Core With Biasing 343
7.3 Common-Gate Stage 345
 7.3.1 CG Stage With Biasing 350
7.4 Source Follower 351
 7.4.1 Source Follower Core 352
 7.4.2 Source Follower With Biasing 354
7.5 Summary and Additional Examples 356
7.6 Chapter Summary 360
Problems 360
SPICE Problems 378

8 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER AS A BLACK BOX 380
8.1 General Considerations 381
8.2 Op-Amp-Based Circuits 383
 8.2.1 Noninverting Amplifier 383
 8.2.2 Inverting Amplifier 385
 8.2.3 Integrator and Differentiator 388
 8.2.4 Voltage Adder 395
8.3 Nonlinear Functions 396
 8.3.1 Precision Rectifier 396
 8.3.2 Logarithmic Amplifier 397
 8.3.3 Square-Root Amplifier 398
8.4 Op Amp Nonidealities 399
 8.4.1 DC Offsets 399
 8.4.2 Input Bias Current 402
 8.4.3 Speed Limitations 405
 8.4.4 Finite Input and Output Impedances 410
8.5 Design Examples 411
8.6 Chapter Summary 413
Problems 414
SPICE Problems 423

9 CASCODE STAGES AND CURRENT MIRRORS 425
9.1 Cascode Stage 425
 9.1.1 Cascode as a Current Source 425
 9.1.2 Cascode as an Amplifier 432
9.2 Current Mirrors 441
 9.2.1 Initial Thoughts 441
 9.2.2 Bipolar Current Mirror 442
 9.2.3 MOS Current Mirror 451
9.3 Chapter Summary 454
Problems 455
SPICE Problems 470

10 DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIERS 473
10.1 General Considerations 473
 10.1.1 Initial Thoughts 473
 10.1.2 Differential Signals 475
 10.1.3 Differential Pair 478
10.2 Bipolar Differential Pair 479
 10.2.1 Qualitative Analysis 479
 10.2.2 Large-Signal Analysis 484
  10.2.3 Small-Signal Analysis 488
10.3 MOS Differential Pair 494
 10.3.1 Qualitative Analysis 495
 10.3.2 Large-Signal Analysis 499
 10.3.3 Small-Signal Analysis 503
10.4 Cascode Differential Amplifiers 507
10.5 Common-Mode Rejection 511
10.6 Differential Pair with Active Load 515
 10.6.1 Qualitative Analysis 516
 10.6.2 Quantitative Analysis 518
10.7 Chapter Summary 523
Problems 524
PICE Problems 541

11 FREQUENCY RESPONSE 544
11.1 Fundamental Concepts 544
 11.1.1 General Considerations 544
 11.1.2 Relationship Between Transfer Function and Frequency Response 547
 11.1.3 Bode’s Rules 550
 11.1.4 Association of Poles with Nodes 551
 11.1.5 Miller’s Theorem 553
 11.1.6 General Frequency Response 556
11.2 High-Frequency Models of Transistors 559
 11.2.1 High-Frequency Model of Bipolar Transistor 559
 11.2.2 High-Frequency Model of MOSFET 561
 11.2.3 Transit Frequency 563
11.3 Analysis Procedure 564
11.4 Frequency Response of CE and CS Stages 565
 11.4.1 Low-Frequency Response 565
 11.4.2 High-Frequency Response 566
 11.4.3 Use of Miller’s Theorem 566
 11.4.4 Direct Analysis 569
 11.4.5 Input Impedance 572
11.5 Frequency Response of CB and CG Stages 573
 11.5.1 Low-Frequency Response 573
 11.5.2 High-Frequency Response 574
11.6 Frequency Response of Followers 576
 11.6.1 Input and Output Impedances 580
11.7 Frequency Response of Cascode Stage 583
 11.7.1 Input and Output Impedances 587
11.8 Frequency Response of Differential Pairs 588
 11.8.1 Common-Mode Frequency Response 590
11.9 Additional Examples 591
11.10 Chapter Summary 595
Problems 596
SPICE Problems 607

12 FEEDBACK 610
12.1 General Considerations 610
 12.1.1 Loop Gain 613
12.2 Properties of Negative Feedback 614
 12.2.1 Gain Desensitization 614
 12.2.2 Bandwidth Extension 616
 12.2.3 Modification of I/O Impedances 618
 12.2.4 Linearity Improvement 622
12.3 Types of Amplifiers 622
 12.3.1 Simple Amplifier Models 623
 12.3.2 Examples of Amplifier Types 624
12.4 Sense and Return Techniques 626
12.5 Polarity of Feedback 629
12.6 Feedback Topologies 631
 12.6.1 Voltage-Voltage Feedback 631
 12.6.2 Voltage-Current Feedback 636
 12.6.3 Current-Voltage Feedback 639
 12.6.4 Current-Current Feedback 644
12.7 Effect of Nonideal I/O Impedances 647
 12.7.1 Inclusion of I/O Effects 648
12.8 Stability in Feedback Systems 660
 12.8.1 Review of Bode’s Rules 660
 12.8.2 Problem of Instability 662
 12.8.3 Stability Condition 665
 12.8.4 Phase Margin 668
 12.8.5 Frequency Compensation 670
 12.8.6 Miller Compensation 673
12.9 Chapter Summary 674
Problems 675
SPICE Problems 691

13 OUTPUT STAGES AND POWER AMPLIFIERS 694
13.1 General Considerations 694
13.2 Emitter Follower as Power Amplifier 695
13.3 Push-Pull Stage 698
13.4 Improved Push-Pull Stage 701
 13.4.1 Reduction of Crossover Distortion 701
 13.4.2 Addition of CE Stage 705
13.5 Large-Signal Considerations 708
 13.5.1Biasing Issues 708
 13.5.2Omission of PNP Power Transistor 709
 13.5.3High-Fidelity Design 712
13.6 Short-Circuit Protection 713
13.7 Heat Dissipation 713
 13.7.1 Emitter Follower Power Rating
 13.7.2 Push-Pull Stage Power Rating
 13.7.3 Thermal Runaway 716
13.8 Efficiency 718
 13.8.1 Efficiency of Emitter Follower
 13.8.2 Efficiency of Push-Pull Stage 719
13.9 Power Amplifier Classes 720
13.10 Chapter Summary 721
Problems 722
SPICE Problems 728

14 ANALOG FILTERS 731
14.1 General Considerations 731
 14.1.1 Filter Characteristics 732
 14.1.2 Classification of Filters 733
 14.1.3 Filter Transfer Function 737
 14.1.4 Problem of Sensitivity 740
14.2 First-Order Filters 741
14.3 Second-Order Filters 744
 14.3.1 Special Cases 744
 14.3.2 RLC Realizations 748
14.4 Active Filters 753
 14.4.1 Sallen and Key Filter 753
 14.4.2 Integrator-Based Biquads 758
 14.4.3 Biquads Using Simulated Inductors 762
14.5 Approximation of Filter Response 768
 14.5.1 Butterworth Response 768
 14.5.2 Chebyshev Response 772
14.6 Chapter Summary 777Problems 778SPICE Problems 784

15 DIGITAL CMOS CIRCUITS 786
15.1 General Considerations 786
 15.1.1 Static Characterization of Gates 787
 15.1.2 Dynamic Characterization of Gates 794
 15.1.3 Power-Speed Trade-Off 797
15.2 CMOS Inverter 799
 15.2.1 Initial Thoughts 799
 15.2.2 Voltage Transfer Characteristic 801
 15.2.3 Dynamic Characteristics 807
 15.2.4 Power Dissipation 812
15.3 CMOS NOR and NAND Gates 816
 15.3.1 NOR Gate 816
 15.3.2 NAND Gate 819
15.4 Chapter Summary 820
Problems 821
SPICE Problems 827

16 CMOS AMPLIFIERS 829
16.1 General Considerations 829
 16.1.1 Input and Output Impedances 830
 16.1.2 Biasing 834
 16.1.3 DC and Small-Signal Analysis 835
16.2 Operating Point Analysis and Design 836
 16.2.1 Simple Biasing 838
 16.2.2 Biasing with Source Degeneration 840
 16.2.3 Self-Biased Stage 843
 16.2.4 Biasing of PMOS Transistors 844
 16.2.5 Realization of Current Sources 845
16.3 CMOS Amplifier Topologies 846
16.4 Common-Source Topology 847
 16.4.1 CS Stage with Current-Source Load 852
 16.4.2 CS Stage with Diode-Connected Load 853
 16.4.3 CS Stage with Source Degeneration 854
 16.4.4 Common-Gate Topology 866
 16.4.5 Source Follower 877
16.5 Additional Examples 883
16.6 Chapter Summary 887
Problems 888
SPICE Problems 906

Appendix A Introduction to SPICE

Index

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