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Table of Contents
Electric Charge 561
How can a video monitor in a surgical room increase the risk of bacterial contamination?
What Is Physics? 562
Electric Charge 562
Conductors and Insulators 563
Coulomb's Law 565
Charge Is Quantized 571
Charge Is Conserved 572
Review & Summary 573
Questions 573
Problems 575
Electric Fields 580
How does a bee use electrostatics to collect and then distribute pollen grains?
What Is Physics? 581
The Electric Field 581
Electric Field Lines 582
The Electric Field Due to a Point Charge 583
The Electric Field Due to an Electric Dipole 585
The Electric Field Due to a Line of Charge 586
The Electric Field Due to a Charged Disk 590
A Point Charge in an Electric Field 591
A Dipole in an Electric Field 594
Review & Summary 596
Questions 597
Problems 598
Gauss' Law 605
How can lightning harm you even if it does not strike you?
What Is Physics? 606
Flux 606
Flux of an Electric Field 607
Gauss' Law 609
Gauss' Law and Coulomb's Law 611
A Charged Isolated Conductor 612
Applying Gauss' Law: Cylindrical Symmetry 615
Applying Gauss' Law: Planar Symmetry 616
Applying Gauss' Law: Spherical Symmetry 618
Review & Summary 620
Questions 620
Problems 621
Electric Potential 628
What danger does a sweater pose to a computer?
What Is Physics? 629
Electric Potential Energy 629
Electric Potential 630
Equipotential Surfaces 632
Calculating the Potential from the Field 633
Potential Due to a Point Charge 635
Potential Due to a Group of Point Charges 636
Potential Due to an Electric Dipole 637
Potential Due to a Continuous Charge Distribution 638
Calculating the Field from the Potential 640
Electric Potential Energy of a System of Point Charges 641
Potential of a Charged Isolated Conductor 644
Review & Summary 645
Questions 646
Problems 647
Capacitance 656
How can a spark set up an explosion in airborne powder?
What Is Physics? 657
Capacitance 657
Calculating the Capacitance 659
Capacitors in Parallel and in Series 662
Energy Stored in an Electric Field 666
Capacitor with a Dielectric 670
Dielectrics: An Atomic View 672
Dielectrics and Gauss' Law 672
Review & Summary 675
Questions 675
Problems 676
Current and Resistance 682
What precautions should you take if caught outdoors during a lightning storm?
What Is Physics? 683
Electric Current 683
Current Density 685
Resistance and Resistivity 688
Ohm's Law 692
A Microscopic View of Ohm's Law 693
Power in Electric Circuits 695
Semiconductors 696
Superconductors 697
Review & Summary 698
Questions 699
Problems 700
Circuits 705
How can a pit crew avoid a fire while fueling a charged race car?
What Is Physics? 706
"Pumping" Charges 706
Work, Energy, and Emf 707
Calculating the Current in a SingleLoop Circuit 708
Other SingleLoop Circuits 710
Potential Difference Between Two Points 711
Multiloop Circuits 714
The Ammeter and the Voltmeter 720
RC Circuits 720
Review & Summary 724
Questions 725
Problems 726
Magnetic Fields 735
What causes an aurora and why is it so thin?
What Is Physics? 736
What Produces a Magnetic Field? 736
The Definition of B 736
Crossed Fields: Discovery of the Electron 740
Crossed Fields: The Hall Effect 741
A Circulating Charged Particle 743
Cyclotrons and Synchrotrons 748
Magnetic Force on a CurrentCarrying Wire 750
Torque on a Current Loop 752
The Magnetic Dipole Moment 754
Review & Summary 755
Questions 756
Problems 757
Magnetic Fields Due to Currents 764
How can the human brain produce a detectable magnetic field without any magnetic material?
What Is Physics? 765
Calculating the Magnetic Field Due to a Current 765
Force Between Two Parallel Currents 771
Ampere's Law 772
Solenoids and Toroids 776
A CurrentCarrying Coil as a Magnetic Dipole 778
Review & Summary 780
Questions 781
Problems 782
Induction and Inductance 791
How can magnetic induction melt metal in a foundry?
What Is Physics? 792
Two Experiments 792
Faraday's Law of Induction 793
Lenz's Law 795
Induction and Energy Transfers 798
Induced Electric Fields 801
Inductors and Inductance 805
SelfInduction 806
RL Circuits 807
Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field 810
Energy Density of a Magnetic Field 812
Mutual Induction 814
Review & Summary 816
Questions 816
Problems 818
Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current 826
How did a solar eruption knock out the powergrid system of Quebec?
What Is Physics? 827
LC Oscillations, Qualitatively 827
The ElectricalMechanical Analogy 830
LC Oscillations, Quantitatively 831
Damped Oscillations in an RLC Circuit 834
Alternating Current 835
Forced Oscillations 835
Three Simple Circuits 837
The Series RLC Circuit 842
Power in AlternatingCurrent Circuits 846
Transformers 849
Review & Summary 853
Questions 854
Problems 855
Maxwell's Equations; Magnetism of Matter 861
How can a mural painting record the direction of Earth's magnetic field?
What Is Physics? 862
Gauss' Law for Magnetic Fields 862
Induced Magnetic Fields 864
Displacement Current 866
Maxwell's Equations 868
Magnets 869
Magnetism and Electrons 870
Magnetic Materials 874
Diamagnetism 874
Paramagnetism 876
Ferromagnetism 877
Review & Summary 881
Questions 882
Problems 883
Appendices A1
The International System of Units (SI) A1
Some Fundamental Constants of Physics A3
Some Astronomical Data A4
Conversion Factors A5
Mathematical Formulas A9
Properties of the Elements A12
Periodic Table of the Elements A15
Answers to Checkpoints and OddNumbered Questions and Problems AN1
Index I1