Fundamentals of Site Remediation: For Metal and Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils / Edition 1

Fundamentals of Site Remediation: For Metal and Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils / Edition 1

by John Pichtel
     
 

ISBN-10: 0865876894

ISBN-13: 9780865876897

Pub. Date: 04/01/2000

Publisher: Government Institutes

This introductory manual addresses environmental site restoration practices that both ensure compliance with federal statutes and prevent further contamination or expense. Emphasizing environmental chemistry, soil science, microbiology, plant science, and the underlying chemical processes, Fundamentals of Site Remediation incorporates relevant chemical principles into…  See more details below

Overview

This introductory manual addresses environmental site restoration practices that both ensure compliance with federal statutes and prevent further contamination or expense. Emphasizing environmental chemistry, soil science, microbiology, plant science, and the underlying chemical processes, Fundamentals of Site Remediation incorporates relevant chemical principles into the cleanup and removal of hazardous chemicals from soil, geological strata, and groundwater.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780865876897
Publisher:
Government Institutes
Publication date:
04/01/2000
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
358
Product dimensions:
6.06(w) x 9.00(h) x 0.84(d)

Table of Contents

List of Figures, Photos, and Tablesxv
Prefacexxi
Acknowledgementsxxiii
About the Authorxxiv
Chapter 1How Did We Get Here? A Brief History1
Introduction1
Brownfields9
CERCLA and the Superfund9
"It ain't over 'til it's over"14
References21
Chapter 2Chemistry of Common Contaminant Elements23
Introduction23
The Elements25
Arsenic25
Barium27
Cadmium29
Chromium31
Lead33
Mercury37
Nickel41
Selenium42
Zinc44
References46
Chapter 3Hydrocarbon Chemistry and Properties53
Introduction53
Structure and Nomenclature54
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons54
Alkanes55
Substitution in Aliphatics56
Alkenes57
Alkynes58
Aromatic Hydrocarbons58
Alkylaromatics59
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons59
Substituted Aromatics60
Properties of Hydrocarbon Fuels61
Composition61
Refining64
Gasoline65
Diesel Fuel68
Kerosene68
Fuel Oil69
Lubricating Oils69
Chemical and Physical Properties of Fuels70
Solubility70
Specific Gravity72
Viscosity72
Vapor Pressure73
References73
Chapter 4Subsurface Properties and Remediation75
Introduction75
Relevant Chemistry and Mineralogy76
pH76
Oxidation-Reduction Status77
The Colloidal Fraction78
Water Holding Capacity82
The Biological Compoent83
Relevant Physical Properties84
Basic Hydrogeology84
Porosity87
Permeability88
Hydraulic Conductivity88
References91
Chapter 5Environmental Site Assessments93
Introduction93
The Phase I ESA96
The Site Reconnaissance104
Beyond the Phase I112
Release Considerations113
Contaminant Considerations115
Site Considerations118
A Note on Field Sampling122
Testing in the Field123
Field Testing Instruments125
References128
Suggested Readings129
Chapter 6Isolation of the Contaminant Plume131
Introduction131
Diverting Groundwater Flow132
Groundwater Pumping132
Subsurface Drains134
Subsurface Barriers134
Slurry Walls135
Grout Curtains138
Sheet Piling140
Capping141
Synthetic Membranes141
Low Permeability Soils142
Multilayer Cap142
Other Practical Considerations144
General Design144
Equipment145
Monitoring145
References145
Selected Readings146
Chapter 7Extraction Processes147
Introduction147
Extracting Solutions149
Flushing Metals from Soil150
Chelant Recovery152
Flushing Organics from Soil153
Technical/Practical Considerations in Soil Flushing156
Contaminant Forms and Concentrations156
Effects of Flushing Agent on Soil Properties158
Vertical and Lateral Distribution of Contamination159
Suitability of Site to Flooding and Installation of Subsurface Drains159
Trafficability of the Site160
Degree of Site Preparation161
By-products161
The Good and the Bad161
Case Study: King of Prussia Superfund Site164
References168
Chapter 8Solidification/Stabilization173
Introduction173
Cement-based Technologies174
Organic Stabilization/Solidification176
Field Technologies: Ex Situ177
In Situ S/S Treatment179
Technical Considerations181
Overview of S/S Technologies182
Case Study: The Selma Pressure Treating Site184
References190
Chapter 9Soil Vapor Extraction193
Introduction193
Site Characterization195
Field Design Considerations196
Condensation200
Vapor Combustion Units200
Catalytic Oxidation Units200
Carbon Beds201
Chemical Oxidation201
Biofilters201
Diffuser Stacks201
Technical Considerations202
Contaminant-specific202
Site-specific203
Management-specific204
Case Study: The Fairchild Superfund Site204
References209
Chapter 10Microbial Remediation211
Introduction211
Overview of Relevant Microbiological Principles212
Bacteria212
Fungi215
Actinomycetes216
Microbial Requirements for Growth and Remediation217
Oxygen218
Moisture219
pH219
Nutrients220
Contaminant Properties224
Pathways of Hydrocarbon Metabolism225
Indigenous versus Exogenous Participants229
Field Technologies230
In Situ Processes230
Slurry Biodegradation244
Liquid Phase Bioremediation250
Land Treatment256
Bioremediation: An Overview263
Case Study: The French Limited Superfund Site264
Case Study: The Burlington Northern Superfund Site270
References275
Chapter 11Green Remediation281
Introduction281
Phytoextraction of Metals283
Technical Feasibility288
Treatment of Biomass290
Benefits of Phytoextraction291
Disadvantages of Phytoextraction291
Organic Contamination292
The Rhizosphere and Associated Microbial Consortia294
Phytostabilization295
Future Development296
Summary297
Case Study: Aberdeen Proving Grounds297
References301
Chapter 12Innovative Technologies305
Introduction305
Electrokinetic Remediation305
Reactive Metallic Walls311
Reductive Dehalogenation311
In Situ Vitrification312
Plasma Centrifugal Furnace316
Pneumatic Fracturing and Hot Gas Injection318
Low Temperature Thermal Aeration320
Evaporation-Catalytic Oxidation322
Steam Enhanced Recovery325
AquaDetox/SVE327
References329
AppendixCost Analysis of Remediation Projects331
Glossary of Terms339
Index351

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