Fundamentals of Site Remediation: For Metal and Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils / Edition 1

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This introductory manual addresses environmental site restoration practices that both ensure compliance with federal statutes and prevent further contamination or expense. Emphasizing environmental chemistry, soil science, microbiology, plant science, and the underlying chemical processes, Fundamentals of Site Remediation incorporates relevant chemical principles into the cleanup and removal of hazardous chemicals from soil, geological strata, and groundwater.
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Editorial Reviews

Addresses environmental site restoration practices that ensure compliance with federal statutes and prevent further contamination and expense. Discussion of clean-up and removal of hazardous chemicals from soil, geologic strata, and groundwater emphasizes introductory level environmental chemistry, soil science, microbiology, plant science, and the underlying chemical processes for both metal- and hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Pichtel (natural resources and environmental management, Ball State U.) covers the recent history of environmental contamination and regulations, as well as aspects of site remediation, soil properties, and site assessment. The remainder examines field remediation technologies, theories, and practical issues. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780865876897
  • Publisher: Government Institutes
  • Publication date: 4/1/2000
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 358
  • Product dimensions: 6.06 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.84 (d)

Table of Contents

List of Figures, Photos, and Tables xv
Preface xxi
Acknowledgements xxiii
About the Author xxiv
Chapter 1 How Did We Get Here? A Brief History 1
Introduction 1
Brownfields 9
CERCLA and the Superfund 9
"It ain't over 'til it's over" 14
References 21
Chapter 2 Chemistry of Common Contaminant Elements 23
Introduction 23
The Elements 25
Arsenic 25
Barium 27
Cadmium 29
Chromium 31
Lead 33
Mercury 37
Nickel 41
Selenium 42
Zinc 44
References 46
Chapter 3 Hydrocarbon Chemistry and Properties 53
Introduction 53
Structure and Nomenclature 54
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons 54
Alkanes 55
Substitution in Aliphatics 56
Alkenes 57
Alkynes 58
Aromatic Hydrocarbons 58
Alkylaromatics 59
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons 59
Substituted Aromatics 60
Properties of Hydrocarbon Fuels 61
Composition 61
Refining 64
Gasoline 65
Diesel Fuel 68
Kerosene 68
Fuel Oil 69
Lubricating Oils 69
Chemical and Physical Properties of Fuels 70
Solubility 70
Specific Gravity 72
Viscosity 72
Vapor Pressure 73
References 73
Chapter 4 Subsurface Properties and Remediation 75
Introduction 75
Relevant Chemistry and Mineralogy 76
pH 76
Oxidation-Reduction Status 77
The Colloidal Fraction 78
Water Holding Capacity 82
The Biological Compoent 83
Relevant Physical Properties 84
Basic Hydrogeology 84
Porosity 87
Permeability 88
Hydraulic Conductivity 88
References 91
Chapter 5 Environmental Site Assessments 93
Introduction 93
The Phase I ESA 96
The Site Reconnaissance 104
Beyond the Phase I 112
Release Considerations 113
Contaminant Considerations 115
Site Considerations 118
A Note on Field Sampling 122
Testing in the Field 123
Field Testing Instruments 125
References 128
Suggested Readings 129
Chapter 6 Isolation of the Contaminant Plume 131
Introduction 131
Diverting Groundwater Flow 132
Groundwater Pumping 132
Subsurface Drains 134
Subsurface Barriers 134
Slurry Walls 135
Grout Curtains 138
Sheet Piling 140
Capping 141
Synthetic Membranes 141
Low Permeability Soils 142
Multilayer Cap 142
Other Practical Considerations 144
General Design 144
Equipment 145
Monitoring 145
References 145
Selected Readings 146
Chapter 7 Extraction Processes 147
Introduction 147
Extracting Solutions 149
Flushing Metals from Soil 150
Chelant Recovery 152
Flushing Organics from Soil 153
Technical/Practical Considerations in Soil Flushing 156
Contaminant Forms and Concentrations 156
Effects of Flushing Agent on Soil Properties 158
Vertical and Lateral Distribution of Contamination 159
Suitability of Site to Flooding and Installation of Subsurface Drains 159
Trafficability of the Site 160
Degree of Site Preparation 161
By-products 161
The Good and the Bad 161
Case Study: King of Prussia Superfund Site 164
References 168
Chapter 8 Solidification/Stabilization 173
Introduction 173
Cement-based Technologies 174
Organic Stabilization/Solidification 176
Field Technologies: Ex Situ 177
In Situ S/S Treatment 179
Technical Considerations 181
Overview of S/S Technologies 182
Case Study: The Selma Pressure Treating Site 184
References 190
Chapter 9 Soil Vapor Extraction 193
Introduction 193
Site Characterization 195
Field Design Considerations 196
Condensation 200
Vapor Combustion Units 200
Catalytic Oxidation Units 200
Carbon Beds 201
Chemical Oxidation 201
Biofilters 201
Diffuser Stacks 201
Technical Considerations 202
Contaminant-specific 202
Site-specific 203
Management-specific 204
Case Study: The Fairchild Superfund Site 204
References 209
Chapter 10 Microbial Remediation 211
Introduction 211
Overview of Relevant Microbiological Principles 212
Bacteria 212
Fungi 215
Actinomycetes 216
Microbial Requirements for Growth and Remediation 217
Oxygen 218
Moisture 219
pH 219
Nutrients 220
Contaminant Properties 224
Pathways of Hydrocarbon Metabolism 225
Indigenous versus Exogenous Participants 229
Field Technologies 230
In Situ Processes 230
Slurry Biodegradation 244
Liquid Phase Bioremediation 250
Land Treatment 256
Bioremediation: An Overview 263
Case Study: The French Limited Superfund Site 264
Case Study: The Burlington Northern Superfund Site 270
References 275
Chapter 11 Green Remediation 281
Introduction 281
Phytoextraction of Metals 283
Technical Feasibility 288
Treatment of Biomass 290
Benefits of Phytoextraction 291
Disadvantages of Phytoextraction 291
Organic Contamination 292
The Rhizosphere and Associated Microbial Consortia 294
Phytostabilization 295
Future Development 296
Summary 297
Case Study: Aberdeen Proving Grounds 297
References 301
Chapter 12 Innovative Technologies 305
Introduction 305
Electrokinetic Remediation 305
Reactive Metallic Walls 311
Reductive Dehalogenation 311
In Situ Vitrification 312
Plasma Centrifugal Furnace 316
Pneumatic Fracturing and Hot Gas Injection 318
Low Temperature Thermal Aeration 320
Evaporation-Catalytic Oxidation 322
Steam Enhanced Recovery 325
AquaDetox/SVE 327
References 329
Appendix Cost Analysis of Remediation Projects 331
Glossary of Terms 339
Index 351
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