Fundamentals of Soil Behavior / Edition 3

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The improved, new edition of the classic book on the physical properties of soil
Fundamentals of Soil Behavior, Third Edition is the thoroughly updated, expanded, and revised edition of this highly distinguished publication in geotechnical engineering. Filled with useful tables and graphs illustrating correlations among composition, classification, state, and static and dynamic properties, this Third Edition continues the tradition of providing the latest information on the physical properties of soil and the fundamentals of its behavior over time.
Students and busy professionals will connect with this new edition's timesaving, streamlined format and its greater emphasis on practical exercise problems involving advanced concepts of soil behavior. Other must-read features of this Third Edition include:
* New, expanded material on micro-mechanical behavior at the particulate level and its influences on engineering properties at the macro-scale
* A new chapter on time effects on soil deformation at different stress and strain levels
* New coverage of such important topics as environmental geotechnics, biological influences on soil behavior, soil fracturing, the effects of time, and geochemical problems

* Sets of questions and problems at the end of each chapter, a feature not available in prior editions
Fundamentals of Soil Behavior, Third Edition is an essential text for graduate students and researchers as well as a peerless reference for geotechnical, environmental, and civil engineers and geologists.

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Editorial Reviews

A revised and updated text-reference (first edition, 1975), primarily for graduate students and researchers in geotechnical engineering, having as its purpose the development of an understanding of the factors determining and controlling the engineering properties of soils, with emphasis on the why aspect of soil behavior. It examines the composition of soils in terms of their mineralogy and pore fluid and the interactions of these phases with each other and the surrounding environment. The particulate nature of soils is given special attention in the development of considerations of soil fabric and structure and then in connection with volume change properties, strength and deformation behavior, and conduction phenomena. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780471463023
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 5/13/2005
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 592
  • Sales rank: 1,086,681
  • Product dimensions: 8.84 (w) x 11.18 (h) x 1.43 (d)

Meet the Author

James K. Mitchell, ScD, is University Distinguished ProfessorEmeritus in Civil Engineering at the Virginia Polytechnic Instituteand State University and Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering,Emeritus, University of California, Berkeley. He serves as aconsultant on geotechnical problems and projects to manygovernmental and private organizations. He is an Honorary Member ofthe American Society of Civil Engineers and was elected to both theU.S. National Academy of Engineering and Academy of Sciences.

Kenichi Soga, PhD, is Reader in Geomechanics. He has been on thefaculty at the University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, since 1994.He is an editorial board member of Géotechnique, Journal ofGeotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, and Soils andFoundations. He also serves as a member of Engineering and PhysicalSciences Research Council Peer Review College and a core member ofthe Technical Committee on Geotechnics of Particulate Media of theInternational Society for Soil Mechanics and GeotechnicalEngineering.

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Table of Contents



1.1 Soil Behavior in Civil and Environmental Engineering.

1.2 Scope and Organization.

1.3 Getting Started.


2.1 Introduction.

2.2 The Earth’s Crust.

2.3 Geologic Cycle and Geological Time.

2.4 Rock and Mineral Stability.

2.5 Weathering.

2.6 Origin of Clay Minerals and Clay Genesis.

2.7 Soil Profiles and Their Development.

2.8 Sediment Erosion, Transport, and Deposition.

2.9 Postdepositional Changes in Sediments.

2.10 Concluding Comments.

Questions and Problems.


3.1 Importance of Soil Mineralogy in GeotechnicalEngineering.

3.2 Atomic Structure.

3.3 Interatomic Bonding.

3.4 Secondary Bonds.

3.5 Crystals and Their Properties.

3.6 Crystal Notation.

3.7 Factors Controlling Crystal Structures.

3.8 Silicate Crystals.

3.9 Surfaces.

3.10 Gravel, Sand, and Silt Particles.

3.11 Soil Minerals and Materials Formed by Biogenic andGeochemical Processes.

3.12 Summary of Nonclay Mineral Characteristics.

3.13 Structural Units of the Layer Silicates.

3.14 Synthesis Pattern and Classification of the ClayMinerals.

3.15 Intersheet and Interlayer Bonding in the Clay Minerals.

3.16 The 1:1 Minerals.

3.17 Smectite Minerals.

3.18 Micalike Clay Minerals.

3.19 Other Clay Minerals.

3.20 Summary of Clay Mineral Characteristics.

3.21 Determination of Soil Composition.

3.22 X-ray Diffraction Analysis.

3.23 Other Methods for Compositional Analysis.

3.24 Quantitative Estimation of Soil Components.

3.25 Concluding Comments.

Questions and Problems.


4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Approaches to the Study of Composition and PropertyInterrelationships.

4.3 Engineering Properties of Granular Soils.

4.4 Dominating Influence of the Clay Phase.

4.5 Atterberg Limits.

4.6 Activity.

4.7 Influences of Exchangeable Cations and pH.

4.8 Engineering Properties of Clay Minerals.

4.9 Effects of Organic Matter.

4.10 Concluding Comments.

Questions and Problems.


5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Definitions of Fabrics and Fabric Elements.

5.3 Single-Grain Fabrics.

5.4 Contact Force Characterization Using Photoelasticity.

5.5 Multigrain Fabrics.

5.6 Voids and Their Distribution.

5.7 Sample Acquisition and Preparation for Fabric Analysis.

5.8 Methods for Fabric Study.

5.9 Pore Size Distribution Analysis.

5.10 Indirect Methods for Fabric Characterization.

5.11 Concluding Comments.

Questions and Problems.


6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Nature of Ice and Water.

6.3 Influence of Dissolved Ions on Water.

6.4 Mechanisms of Soil–Water Interaction.

6.5 Structure and Properties of Adsorbed Water.

6.6 Clay–Water–Electrolyte System.

6.7 Ion Distributions in Clay–Water Systems.

6.8 Elements of Double-Layer Theory.

6.9 Influences of System Variables on the Double Layer.

6.10 Limitations of the Gouy–Chapman Diffuse Double LayerModel.

6.11 Energy and Force of Repulsion.

6.12 Long-Range Attraction.

6.13 Net Energy of Interaction.

6.14 Cation Exchange—General Considerations.

6.15 Theories for Ion Exchange.

6.16 Soil–Inorganic Chemical Interactions.

6.17 Clay–Organic Chemical Interactions.

6.18 Concluding Comments.

Questions and Problems.


7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Principle of Effective Stress.

7.3 Force Distributions in a Particulate System.

7.4 Interparticle Forces.

7.5 Intergranular Pressure.

7.6 Water Pressures and Potentials.

7.7 Water Pressure Equilibrium in Soil.

7.8 Measurement of Pore Pressures in Soils.

7.9 Effective and Intergranular Pressure.

7.10 Assessment of Terzaghi’s Equation.

7.11 Water–Air Interactions in Soils.

7.12 Effective Stress in Unsaturated Soils.

7.13 Concluding Comments.

Questions and Problems.


8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Structure Development.

8.3 Residual Soils.

8.4 Surficial Residual Soils and Taxonomy.

8.5 Terrestrial Deposits.

8.6 Mixed Continental and Marine Deposits.

8.7 Marine Deposits.

8.8 Chemical and Biological Deposits.

8.9 Fabric, Structure, and Property Relationships: GeneralConsiderations.

8.10 Soil Fabric and Property Anisotropy.

8.11 Sand Fabric and Liquefaction.

8.12 Sensitivity and Its Causes.

8.13 Property Interrelationships in Sensitive Clays.

8.14 Dispersive Clays.

8.15 Slaking.

8.16 Collapsing Soils and Swelling Soils.

8.17 Hard Soils and Soft Rocks.

8.18 Concluding Comments.

Questions and Problems.


9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Flow Laws and Interrelationships.

9.3 Hydraulic Conductivity.

9.4 Flows Through Unsaturated Soils.

9.5 Thermal Conductivity.

9.6 Electrical Conductivity.

9.7 Diffusion.

9.8 Typical Ranges of Flow Parameters.

9.9 Simultaneous Flows of Water, Current, and Salts ThroughSoil-Coupled Flows.

9.10 Quantification of Coupled Flows.

9.11 Simultaneous Flows of Water, Current, and Chemicals.

9.12 Electrokinetic Phenomena.

9.13 Transport Coefficients and the Importance of CoupledFlows.

9.14 Compatibility—Effects of Chemical Flows onProperties.

9.15 Electroosmosis.

9.16 Electroosmosis Efficiency.

9.17 Consolidation by Electroosmosis.

9.18 Electrochemical Effects.

9.19 Electrokinetic Remediation.

9.20 Self-Potentials.

9.21 Thermally Driven Moisture Flows.

9.22 Ground Freezing.

9.23 Concluding Comments.

Questions and Problems.


10.1 Introduction.

10.2 General Volume Change Behavior of Soils.

10.3 Preconsolidation Pressure.

10.4 Factors Controlling Resistance to Volume Change.

10.5 Physical Interactions in Volume Change.

10.6 Fabric, Structure, and Volume Change.

10.7 Osmotic Pressure and Water Adsorption Influences onCompression and Swelling.

10.8 Influences of Mineralogical Detail in Soil Expansion.

10.9 Consolidation.

10.10 Secondary Compression.

10.11 In Situ Horizontal Stress(K0).

10.12 Temperature–Volume Relationships.

10.13 Concluding Comments.

Questions and Problems.


11.1 Introduction.

11.2 General Characteristics of Strength and Deformation.

11.3 Fabric, Structure, and Strength.

11.4 Friction Between Solid Surfaces.

11.5 Frictional Behavior of Minerals.

11.6 Physical Interactions Among Particles.

11.7 Critical State: A Useful Reference Condition.

11.8 Strength Parameters for Sands.

11.9 Strength Parameters for Clays.

11.10 Behavior After Peak and Strain Localization.

11.11 Residual State and Residual Strength.

11.12 Intermediate Stress Effects and Anisotropy.

11.13 Resistance to Cyclic Loading and Liquefaction.

11.14 Strength of Mixed Soils.

11.15 Cohesion.

11.16 Fracturing of Soils.

11.17 Deformation Characteristics.

11.18 Linear Elastic Stiffness.

11.19 Transition from Elastic to Plastic States.

11.20 Plastic Deformation.

11.21 Temperature Effects.

11.22 Concluding Comments.

Questions and Problems.


12.1 Introduction.

12.2 General Characteristics.

12.3 Time-Dependent Deformation–Structure Interaction.

12.4 Soil Deformation as a Rate Process.

12.5 Bonding, Effective Stresses, and Strength.

12.6 Shearing Resistance as a Rate Process.

12.7 Creep and Stress Relaxation.

12.8 Rate Effects on Stress–Strain Relationships.

12.9 Modeling of Stress–Strain–Time Behavior.

12.10 Creep Rupture.

12.11 Sand Aging Effects and Their Significance.

12.12 Mechanical Processes of Aging.

12.13 Chemical Processes of Aging.

12.14 Concluding Comments.

Questions and Problems.

List of Symbols.



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