Fundamentals of Space Medicine / Edition 1

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About 1200 human space flights have been completed to date, including more than 500 astronauts from various countries, for a combined total presence in space of about 90 years. The 21st expedition crew is currently in residence aboard the International Space Station, continuing a permanent presence in space that began in 2000. During that time, investigations have been conducted on both humans and animal models to study bone demineralization, muscle de-conditioning, space motion sickness, changes in immune function, crew and crew-ground interactions, post flight orthostatic intolerance, and the medical issues of living in a space environment, such as the effects of radiation and the risk of developing kidney stones. Results of these investigations have led to fundamental discoveries about the adaptation of the human body to the space environment. Gilles Cl ment has been active in this research. This book presents in a readable text the findings from life science experiments conducted during and after space missions. "Fundamentals of Space Medicine, 2nd Edition" looks at the future of human space flight and what comes next. For the next ten years, the ISS will be a fully operational material and life science laboratory with a permanent crew of six astronauts. A new spacecraft named Orion will soon replace the Space Shuttle for transporting humans to the ISS and later to the Moon and Mars. However, many physiological, psychological, operational, and scientific issues need to be solved before establishing manned Moon and Mars bases. Finally, the emerging commercial sub-orbital flight capability captures the imagination of both the public and the scientific community. This book also identifies the showstoppers that are foreseen for all these space missions, and what do we need to learn to understand fully the implications and risks for space explorers and space tourists.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781402032462
  • Publisher: Springer Netherlands
  • Publication date: 9/27/2007
  • Series: Space Technology Library Series, #17
  • Edition description: 2004
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 361
  • Product dimensions: 6.10 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Gilles Clément received Doctoral degrees in Neurobiology from the University of Lyon in 1981 and in Natural Science from the University of Paris in 1986. Dr. Clément is currently Professor of Space Life Sciences in International Space University (ISU), Strasbourg, France. Prior to this position, he was Director of Research from the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), Toulouse, France. Research in space life sciences has been his primary focus with experiments on Salyut-7 (1982), MIR (1988), and on more than 25 Space Shuttle flights (1985 – present). His research topics include influence of microgravity on posture, eye movements, spatial orientation, and cognition in humans. To date, he gathered data on more than 100 astronauts, during and after space missions on the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. Dr. Clément has written more than 100 peer-viewed research papers in scientific journals. His other books include Fundamentals of Space Biology (Springer, 2006), Artificial Gravity (Springer 2007), and Neuroscience in Space (Springer 2008).

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Table of Contents

Preface by Dr. Didier Schmitt. Preface by Dr. Douglas Hamilton. Foreword. Acknowledgements. I: Introduction to Space Life Sciences. 1: Space Life Sciences: What Is It? 1.1. Objectives. 1.2. The Space Environment. 1.3. Justification for Human Spaceflight. 1.4. Where we are. 2: The Legacy of Space Life Sciences Research. 2.1. Major Space Life Sciences Event. 2.2. Survising the Odyssey. 2.3. Life Support Systems. 3: Challenges Facing Humans in Space. 3.1. Astronauts' Health Maintenance. 3.2. Environmental Health during Space Missions. 3.3. Human Mars Mission. 3.4. Countermeasures. 3.5. Artificial Gravity. 3.6. A New Science is Born. 4: References. II: Space Biology. 1: What is Life? 1.1. Life on Earth. 1.2. Life on Mars. 2: Gravitational Biology. 2.1. Questions. 2.2. Results of Space Experiments. 2.3. Bioprocessing in Space. 3: Development Biology. 3.1. Questions. 3.2. Results of Space Experiments. 4: Plant Biology. 4.1. Questions. 4.2. Results of Space Experiments. 5: Radiation Biology. 5.1. Ionized Radiation in Space. 5.2. Biological Effects of Radiation. 6: ISS Facilities for Space Biology. 7: References. III: The Neuro-Sensory System in Space. 1: The Problem: Space Motion Sickness. 2: Vestibular Function. 2.1. The Vestibular System. 2.2. The Other Senses. 3: Effects of Spaceflight on Posture and Movement. 3.1. Rest Posture. 3.2. Vestibulo-Spinal Reflexes. 3.3. Locomotion. 3.4.Body Movement. 3.5. Eye Movement. 4: Effects of Spaceflight on Spatial Orientation. 4.1. Visual Orientation. 4.2. Cognition. 5: What Do We Know? 5.1. Space Motion Sickness (SMS) Experience. 5.2. Theories for Space Motion Sickness. 5.3. Countermeasures. 6: References. IV: The Cardio-Vascular System in Space. 1: The Problem: Postflight Orthostatic Intolerance. 2: Physiology of the Cardio-Vascular System. 2.1. Basics. 2.2. Control Mechanism. 3: Effects of Spaceflight on the Cardio-Vascular System. 3.1. Launch Position. 3.2. Early On-Orbit. 3.3. Later On-Orbit. 3.4. Postflight. 4: What Do We Know? 4.1. Orthostatic Intolerance. 4.2. Pulmonary Function. 4.3. Bed Rest. 5: Countermeasures. 5.1. In-flight. 5.2. End of Mission. V: The Musculo-Skeletal System in Space. 1: The Problem: Muscle Atrophy and Bone Loss. 1.1. Muscle Atrophy. 1.2. Bone Loss. 2: Muscle and Bone Physiology. 2.1. Muscle Physiology. 2.2. Bone Physiology. 3: Effects of Spaceflight on Muscle. 3.1. Decrease in Body Mass. 3.2. Decrease in Muscle Volume and Strength. 3.3. Changes in Muscle Structure. 4: Effects of Spaceflight on Bone. 4.1. Human Studies. 4.2. Animal Studies. 5: What Do We Know? 5.1. Muscle Atrophy. 5.2. Bone Demineralization. 6: Countermeasures. 6.1. Muscle. 6.2. Bone. 6.3. Aging and Space. 7: References. VI: Psycho-Sociological Issues of Spaceflight. 1: The Problem: Reaction to Stress. 1.1. Analogs. 1.2. Space Simulators. 1.3. Actual Space Missions. 1.4. Rules. 2: Individual Selection. 2.1. Select-Out Criteria. 2.2. Select-In Criteria. 2.3. Psychological Profile of Astronauts and Cosmonauts. 3: Crew Selection. 3.1. Sociological issues. 3.2. Selection issues. 4: Assessment of Behavior and Performance. 5: Psychological Training and Support. 5.1. Training. 5.2. Support. 6: References. VII: Operational Space Medicine. 1: What Is It? 1.1. Objectives. 1.2. Risk Assessment. 2: Astronaut Selection and Training. 2.1. Crew Position. 2.2. Physical Requirements for Astronaut Selection. 2.3. Astronaut Training. 3: Prevention: Health Hazards in Space. 3.1. Medical Events during Spaceflight. 3.2. Medical Aspects of Extra-Vehicular Activity. 3.3. Medical Problems of Radiation in Space. 3.4. Conclusion on Space Health Hazards. 4: Treatment: Space Medical Facilities. 4.1. Crew Health Care System (CHeCS). 4.2. Telemedicine. 4.3. Emergency and Rescue. 5: Future Challenges. 5.1. Human Needs for Long-Duration Missions. 5.2. Controlled Ecological Life Support System. 5.3. Terraforming. 5.4. Conclusion. 6: References. VIII: Space Life Sciences Investigator's Guide. 1: Resources and Constraints of Space Life Sciences Missions. 1.1. Opportunities for Space Life Sciences Experiments. 1.2. Constraints. 2: How to "Fly" an Experiment. 2.1. Flight Experiment Selection. 2.2. Experiment Design. 2.3. Hardware Selection. 2.4. Feasability. 2.5. Experiment Integration. 2.6. Crew Science Training. 2.7. In-Flight Science Operations. 2.8. Data Analysis. 3: References and Documentation. Index.
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