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The determination of machinery performance depends on an engineer’s understanding of measurement theory and technique. This self-contained guide to the measurement of temperature, pressure, and flow rate presents the latest standards and industrial practices. It shows how measurement techniques were developed and then applies them to many practical cases through completely worked-out numerical examples. The book deals with all types of sensors and transducers, detailing construction, installation, supporting electronic circuitry, calibration, response time, and recovery factor for each type of sensor. This Third Edition incorporates important changes that have occurred during the past decade. It treats revisions in the International Practical Temperature Scale that have affected all thermometry. New thermocouple reference tables that correspond to standard equations issued by the National Bureau of Standards are given. Other new materials include: thermocouple analysis; temperature response; pressure tap errors; ASME discharge coefficients; and expansion factors. The chapter on measurement uncertainties and statistics has been completely revised in accord with the latest national standards because of the increasing importance of determining Best Values and Confidence Intervals. Numerous tables and graphs provide a wealth of supporting data never before assembled in so concise a form. Engineers, physicists, chemists, technicians, and students will find this a thorough review of fundamentals and techniques for measuring temperature, pressure, and flow rate.
TEMPERATURE AND ITS MEASUREMENT.
Early Attempts to Measure Degrees of Heat.
The Air Thermometer.
Thermodynamic Viewpoints of Temperature.
The International Practical Temperature Scale.
Calibration of Temperature Sensors.
Uncertainties and Statistics.
Temperature Measurement in Moving Fluids.
Installation Effects on Temperature Sensors.
Transient Temperature Measurement.
PRESSURE AND ITS MEASUREMENT.
The Concepts of Pressure.
Principles of Conventional Pressure Transducers.
Pressure Measurement in Moving Fluids.
Transient Pressure Measurement.
FLOW AND ITS MEASUREMENT.
The Concept of Flow Rate.
Theoretical Rates in Closed-Channel Flow.
The Discharge Coefficient.
The Expansion Factor.
Installations and Uncertainties.
Answers to Problems.
Solutions to Problems.