Fundamentals of the Petrophysics of Oil and Gas Reservoirs

Overview

Written by some of the world’s most renowned petroleum and environmental engineers, Petrophysics: The Fundamentals of Oil and Gas Revervoirs is the first book to offer the practicing engineer and engineering student these new cutting-edge techniques for prediction and forecasting in petroleum engineering and environmental management.

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Overview

Written by some of the world’s most renowned petroleum and environmental engineers, Petrophysics: The Fundamentals of Oil and Gas Revervoirs is the first book to offer the practicing engineer and engineering student these new cutting-edge techniques for prediction and forecasting in petroleum engineering and environmental management.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781118344477
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 7/24/2012
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 400
  • Product dimensions: 6.42 (w) x 9.21 (h) x 1.02 (d)

Meet the Author

Leonid Buryakovsky, PhD, is a well-known specialist in petroleum geology, geophysics, petrophysics, geochemistry, and mathematical geology. For twenty-five years, Dr. Buryakovsky was the head of the Department of Petrophysics and Well Log Analysis and Interpretation at the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences. He was a professor at the Azerbaijan State Oil Academy in Baku, Azerbaijan, and he has published over 420 scientific and technical papers and twenty-two books. He has six patents and many awards to his name.

George V. Chilingar, PhD, is an Emeritus Professor of Engineering at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles. He is one of the most well-known petroleum geologists in the world and the founder of several prestigious journals in the oil and gas industry. He has published over seventy books and 500 articles and has received over 100 awards over his career.

Herman H. Rieke, PhD, is a Professor of Petroleum Engineering and Geology at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette. He has authored or coauthored seven technical books and over 120 technical papers. His accomplishments include many international honors from governments and academies.

Sanghee Shin is a Research Associate of Rudolf W. Gunnerman Energy and Environment Laboratory, University of Southern California, Los Angeles. He is the author of ten articles in the fields of electrokinetics and environmental science.

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Table of Contents

Preface xi

List of Contributors xvii

Acknowledgement xix

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Characterization of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs 1

1.1.1 Geographical and Geological Background of the South Caspian Basin 5

1.1.2 Sedimentary Features of Productive Horizons in the South Caspian Basin 9

1.1.3 Depositional Environment of Productive Series, Azerbaijan 13

1.2 Reservoir Lithologies 16

1.2.1 Clastic Rocks 16

1.2.2 Pore Throat Distribution in Carbonate Rocks 24

1.2.3 Carbonate Rocks 35

1.2.4 Carbonate versus Sandstone Reservoirs 47

1.2.5 Volcanic/Igneous Rocks 47

1.2.6 Classification of Hydrocarbon Accumulations Based on the Type of Traps 52

2 Characterization of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs 57

2.1 Petrophysical Parameters 57

2.2 Porosity Void Ratio, and Density 57

2.2.1 Quantitative Evaluation of Porosity in Argillaceous Sediments 63

2.3 Permeability 66

2.3.1 Porosity/Permeability Relationship 73

2.4 Specific Surface Area 79

2.4.1 Derivation of Theoretical Equation Relating Porosity Permeability, and Surface Area 79

2.4.2 Relationship Between Specific Surface Area (Area Per Unit of Pore Volume) and Permeability of Carbonate Rocks 85

2.4.3 Relationship Between Specific Surface Area and Residual Water Saturation of Carbonate Rocks 85

2.5 Interrelationship Among Prorosity, Permeability, and Specific Surface Area 86

2.5.1 Vuktyl'skiy Gas-Condensate Field, Russia 88

2.5.2 Central Asia 88

2.5.3 Kuybyshev, Along-Volga Region, Russia 89

2.5.4 Orenburg Field, Russia 90

2.6 Wettability - Capillarity 98

2.6.1 Interfacial Tension and Contact Angle 98

2.6.2 Capillary Pressure Curves 107

2.6.3 Compressibility 108

2.7 Elastic Properties 118

2.7.1 Classification of Stresses 119

2.8 Acoustic Properties 123

2.8.1 Borehole Seismic and Well Logging Methods 125

2.8.2 Practical Use of Acoustic Properties of Rocks 126

2.9 Electrical Resistivity 128

2.9.1 Spontaneous Potential 131

2.10 Radioactivity 137

2.10.1 Atomic Structure 138

2.10.2 Radioactivity Logging Applications 145

2.11 Chemistry of Waters in Shales versus those in Sandstones 149

3 Seismic Parameters 151

3.1 Introduction 152

3.2 Elastic Properties 152

3.3 Velocity and Rock Properties 154

3.4 Pore Pressure 159

3.5 Seismic Anisotropy 154

3.5.1 Effective Medium Theories 168

3.5.2 The Effect of Pore Space and Pore Geometry on Moduli 174

3.5.3 Gassmann's Equations 176

3.5.4 Bounding Average Method 178

3.5.5 Kuster and Toksöz Theory 179

A Historical Review 183

A.1 Introduction 183

A.2 Initial Phases of Development 183

A.3 Gus Archie's Equations and the Dawn of Quantitative Petrophysics 195

A.4 Air-Filled Boreholes, Oil-Based Muds, and Induction Logs 197

A.5 World War II Technology Legacy 198

A.6 Cased-Hole Correlation and Natural Gamma Ray Logs 198

A.7 Seismic Velocities, Acoustic Logs, and Jessie Wylie's Time Average Equation 199

A.8 The Manhattan Project and Nuclear Logging 201

A.9 Space Program Technology Legacy 201

A.10 SANDIA Geothermal Log Program and Hardened Microcircuits 202

A.11 Extended-Reach Directional Drilling, Horizontal Wells, Deep Water, Ultra Deep Wells and Measurements While Drilling 203

A.12 Data Acquisition, Data Recording, and Data Transmission Developments 203

A.13 Log Analysis Developments 206

A.14 Formation True Resistivity, Rt, Hushed Zone Resistivity, Rxo, Water Saturation, Sw, and Flushed Zone Saturation, Sxo 210

A.15 Rat Holes, Bed Resolution, Depth of Investigation, and Laterolog Developments 212

A.16 Air, Mist and Oil-Based Muds: Induction Log Developments 220

A.17 Departure Curves, Tornado Charts and Inversion 225

A.18 Acoustic Log - The Accidental Porosity Tool 228

A.19 Neutron Log - The First True Porosity Tool 233

A.20 Density Log-The Porosity Tool that almost did not Make It 237

A.21 Pulsed Neutron Capture Logs - The All Purpose Tool 242

A.22 Through Casing Resistivity Measurements - Well Logging's Holy Grail 245

A.23 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Log ? Patience and Persistence 248

A.24 Sxo Tool Developments 252

A.25 Dielectric Tool Developments 253

A.26 Dipmeters to Borehole Imaging 256

A.27 Wireline Formation Testers 264

A.28 Shaly Sands 266

A.29 Golden Era and Black Period of Petrophysics 267

A.30 The Future 269

Bibliography 271

Web Pages 278

B Mechanics of Fluid Flow 279

B.1 Fundamental Equation of Fluid Statics 279

B.2 Buoyancy 280

B.3 General Energy Equation 281

B.4 Derivation of Formula for How Through Orifice Meter 282

B.5 Compressible Flow Formula 284

B.6 Farshad's Surface Roughness Values and Relative-Roughness Equations 290

B.7 Flow Through Fractures 293

B.8 Permeability of a Fracture-Matrix System 294

B.9 Fluid Flow in Deformable Rock Fractures 294

B.10 Electrokinetic Flow 299

References 301

C Glossary 303

References 347

Bibliography 349

Subject Index 369

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