Fundamentals of Wireless Sensor Networks: Theory and Practice / Edition 1

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Overview

In this book, the authors describe the fundamental concepts and practical aspects of wireless sensor networks. The book provides a comprehensive view to this rapidly evolving field, including its many novel applications, ranging from protecting civil infrastructure to pervasive health monitoring. Using detailed examples and illustrations, this book provides an inside track on the current state of the technology. The book is divided into three parts. In Part I, several node architectures, applications and operating systems are discussed. In Part II, the basic architectural frameworks, including the key building blocks required for constructing large-scale, energy-efficient sensor networks are presented. In Part III, the challenges and approaches pertaining to local and global management strategies are presented – this includes topics on power management, sensor node localization, time synchronization, and security. At the end of each chapter, the authors provide practical exercises to help students strengthen their grip on the subject. There are more than 200 exercises altogether.

Key Features:

  • Offers a comprehensive introduction to the theoretical and practical concepts pertaining to wireless sensor networks
  • Explains the constraints and challenges of wireless sensor network design; and discusses the most promising solutions
  • Provides an in-depth treatment of the most critical technologies for sensor network communications, power management, security, and programming
  • Reviews the latest research results in sensor network design, and demonstrates how the individual components fit together to build complex sensing systems for a variety of application scenarios
  • Includes an accompanying website containing solutions to exercises (http://www.wiley.com/go/dargie_fundamentals)

This book serves as an introductory text to the field of wireless sensor networks at both graduate and advanced undergraduate level, but it will also appeal to researchers and practitioners wishing to learn about sensor network technologies and their application areas, including environmental monitoring, protection of civil infrastructure, health care, precision agriculture, traffic control, and homeland security.

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Product Details

Read an Excerpt

http://catalogimages.wiley.com/images/db/pdf/9780470997659.excerpt.pdf

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Table of Contents

About the Series Editors

Preface

Part One INTRODUCTION

1 Motivation for a Network of Wireless Sensor Nodes 3

1.1 Definitions and Background 4

1.1.1 Sensing and Sensors 4

1.1.2 Wireless Sensor Networks 7

1.2 Challenges and Constraints 9

1.2.1 Energy 10

1.2.2 Self-Management 11

1.2.3 Wireless Networking 11

1.2.4 Decentralized Management 12

1.2.5 Design Constraints 12

1.2.6 Security 13

1.2.7 Other Challenges 13

Exercises 14

References 15

2 Applications 17

2.1 Structural Health Monitoring 17

2.1.1 Sensing Seismic Events 18

2.1.2 Single Damage Detection Using Natural Frequencies 19

2.1.3 Multiple Damage Detection Using Natural Frequencies 19

2.1.4 Multiple Damage Detection Using Mode Shapes 20

2.1.5 Coherence 21

2.1.6 Piezoelectric Effect 22

2.1.7 Prototypes 24

2.2 Traffic Control 26

2.2.1 The Sensing Task 26

2.2.2 Prototypes 30

2.3 Health Care 30

2.3.1 Available Sensors 32

2.3.2 Prototypes 32

2.4 Pipeline Monitoring 35

2.4.1 Prototype 35

2.5 Precision Agriculture 36

2.5.1 Prototypes 37

2.6 Active Volcano 38

2.6.1 Prototypes 39

2.7 Underground Mining 40

2.7.1 Sources of Accidents 41

2.7.2 The Sensing Task 42

Exercises 42

References 44

3 Node Architecture 47

3.1 The Sensing Subsystem 48

3.1.1 Analog-to-Digital Converter 48

3.2 The Processor Subsystem 51

3.2.1 Architectural Overview 52

3.2.2 Microcontroller 54

3.2.3 Digital Signal Processor 54

3.2.4 Application-Specific Integrated Circuit 55

3.2.5 Field Programmable Gate Array 56

3.2.6 Comparison 57

3.3 Communication Interfaces 58

3.3.1 Serial Peripheral Interface 58

3.3.2 Inter-Integrated Circuit 59

3.3.3 Summary 61

3.4 Prototype 62

3.4.1 The IMote Node Architecture 63

3.4.2 The XYZ Node Architecture 64

3.4.3 The Hogthrob Node Architecture 65

Exercises 66

References 68

4 Operating Systems 69

4.1 Functional Aspects 70

4.1.1 Data Types 70

4.1.2 Scheduling 70

4.1.3 Stacks 71

4.1.4 System Calls 71

4.1.5 Handling Interrupts 71

4.1.6 Multithreading 72

4.1.7 Thread-Based vs Event-Based Programming 72

4.1.8 Memory Allocation 73

4.2 Nonfunctional Aspects 73

4.2.1 Separation of Concern 73

4.2.2 System Overhead 74

4.2.3 Portability 74

4.2.4 Dynamic Reprogramming 74

4.3 Prototypes 75

4.3.1 TinyOS 75

4.3.2 SOS 78

4.3.3 Contiki 80

4.3.4 LiteOS 85

4.4 Evaluation 88

Exercises 90

References 91

Part Two BASIC ARCHITECTURAL FRAMEWORK

5 Physical Layer 95

5.1 Basic Components 95

5.2 Source Encoding 96

5.2.1 The Efficiency of a Source Encoder 98

5.2.2 Pulse Code Modulation and Delta Modulation 100

5.3 Channel Encoding 101

5.3.1 Types of Channels 103

5.3.2 Information Transmision over a Channel 104

5.3.3 Error Recognition and Correction 106

5.4 Modulation 106

5.4.1 Modulation Types 106

5.4.2 Quadratic Amplitude Modulation 114

5.4.3 Summary 117

5.5 Signal Propagation 117

Exercises 119

References 123

6 Medium Access Control 125

6.1 Overview 125

6.1.1 Contention-Free Medium Access 127

6.1.2 Contention-Based Medium Access 127

6.2 Wireless MAC Protocols 128

6.2.1 Carrier Sense Multiple Access 129

6.2.2 Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (MACA) and MACAW 129

6.2.3 MACA by Invitation 130

6.2.4 IEEE 802.11 130

6.2.5 IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee 132

6.3 Characteristics of MAC Protocols in Sensor Networks 133

6.3.1 Energy Efficiency 133

6.3.2 Scalability 134

6.3.3 Adaptability 134

6.3.4 Low Latency and Predictabilty 135

6.3.5 Reliability 135

6.4 Contention-Free MAC Protocols 135

6.4.1 Characteristics 136

6.4.2 Traffic-Adaptive Medium Access 136

6.4.3 Y-MAC 137

6.4.4 DESYNC-TDMA 139

6.4.5 Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy 140

6.4.6 Lightweight Medium Access Control 143

6.5 Contention-Based MAC Protocols 144

6.5.1 Power Aware Multi-Access with Signaling 144

6.5.2 Sensor MAC 146

6.5.3 Timeout MAC 146

6.5.4 Pattern MAC 148

6.5.5 Routing-Enhanced MAC 149

6.5.6 Data-Gathering MAC 151

6.5.7 Preamble Sampling and WiseMAC 152

6.5.8 Receiver-Initiated MAC 153

6.6 Hybrid MAC Protocols 154

6.6.1 Zebra MAC 154

6.6.2 Mobility Adaptive Hybrid MAC 156

6.7 Summary 157

Exercises 157

References 161

7 Network Layer 163

7.1 Overview 163

7.2 Routing Metrics 165

7.2.1 Commonly Used Metrics 166

7.3 Flooding and Gossiping 168

7.4 Data-Centric Routing 170

7.4.1 Sensor Protocols for Information via Negotiation 170

7.4.2 Directed Diffusion 172

7.4.3 Rumor Routing 174

7.4.4 Gradient-Based Routing 175

7.5 Proactive Routing 176

7.5.1 Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector 176

7.5.2 Optimized Link State Routing 177

7.6 On-Demand Routing 178

7.6.1 Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector 178

7.6.2 Dynamic Source Routing 179

7.7 Hierarchical Routing 180

7.8 Location-Based Routing 183

7.8.1 Unicast Location-Based Routing 183

7.8.2 Multicast Location-Based Routing 188

7.8.3 Geocasting 189

7.9 QoS-Based Routing Protocols 192

7.9.1 Sequential Assignment Routing 192

7.9.2 Speed 193

7.9.3 Multipath Multi-Speed 194

7.10 Summary 196

Exercises 197

References 203

Part Three NODE AND NETWORK MANAGEMENT

8 Power Management 207

8.1 Local Power Management Aspects 208

8.1.1 Processor Subsystem 208

8.1.2 Communication Subsystem 209

8.1.3 Bus Frequency and RAM Timing 210

8.1.4 Active Memory 210

8.1.5 Power Subsystem 212

8.2 Dynamic Power Management 216

8.2.1 Dynamic Operation Modes 216

8.2.2 Dynamic Scaling 219

8.2.3 Task Scheduling 222

8.3 Conceptual Architecture 223

8.3.1 Architectural Overview 223

Exercises 225

References 227

9 Time Synchronization 229

9.1 Clocks and the Synchronization Problem 229

9.2 Time Synchronization in Wireless Sensor Networks 231

9.2.1 Reasons for Time Synchronization 231

9.2.2 Challenges for Time Synchronization 232

9.3 Basics of Time Synchronization 234

9.3.1 Synchronization Messages 234

9.3.2 Nondeterminism of Communication Latency 236

9.4 Time Synchronization Protocols 237

9.4.1 Reference Broadcasts Using Global Sources of Time 237

9.4.2 Lightweight Tree-Based Synchronization 238

9.4.3 Timing-sync Protocol for Sensor Networks 239

9.4.4 Flooding Time Synchronization Protocol 240

9.4.5 Reference-Broadcast Synchronization 242

9.4.6 Time-Diffusion Synchronization Protocol 244

9.4.7 Mini-Sync and Tiny-Sync 245

Exercises 246

References 247

10 Localization 249

10.1 Overview 249

10.2 Ranging Techniques 250

10.2.1 Time of Arrival 250

10.2.2 Time Difference of Arrival 251

10.2.3 Angle of Arrival 251

10.2.4 Received Signal Strength 252

10.3 Range-Based Localization 252

10.3.1 Triangulation 252

10.3.2 Trilateration 253

10.3.3 Iterative and Collaborative Multilateration 255

10.3.4 GPS-Based Localization 256

10.4 Range-Free Localization 258

10.4.1 Ad Hoc Positioning System (APS) 258

10.4.2 Approximate Point in Triangulation 259

10.4.3 Localization Based on Multidimensional Scaling 260

10.5 Event-Driven Localization 262

10.5.1 The Lighthouse Approach 262

10.5.2 Multi-Sequence Positioning 263

Exercises 264

References 264

11 Security 267

11.1 Fundamentals of Network Security 267

11.2 Challenges of Security in Wireless Sensor Networks 269

11.3 Security Attacks in Sensor Networks 270

11.3.1 Denial-of-Service 270

11.3.2 Attacks on Routing 272

11.3.3 Attacks on Transport Layer 272

11.3.4 Attacks on Data Aggregation 273

11.3.5 Privacy Attacks 273

11.4 Protocols and Mechanisms for Security 274

11.4.1 Symmetric and Public Key Cryptography 274

11.4.2 Key Management 274

11.4.3 Defenses Against DoS Attacks 275

11.4.4 Defenses Against Routing Attacks 276

11.4.5 Defenses Against Routing Attacks 277

11.4.6 Security Protocols for Sensor Networks 278

11.4.7 TinySec 279

11.4.8 Localized Encryption and Authentication Protocol 280

11.5 IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee Security 280

11.6 Summary 281

Exercises 282

References 283

12 Sensor Network Programming 285

12.1 Challenges in Sensor Network Programming 285

12.2 Node-Centric Programming 286

12.2.1 nesC Language 286

12.2.2 TinyGALS 289

12.2.3 Sensor Network Application Construction Kit 291

12.2.4 Thread-based Model 292

12.3 Macroprogramming 293

12.3.1 Abstract Regions 293

12.3.2 EnviroTrack 293

12.3.3 Database Approaches 294

12.4 Dynamic Reprogramming 295

12.5 Sensor Network Simulators 297

12.5.1 Network Simulator Tools and Environments 297

Exercises 299

References 300

Index 303

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