Fungal Dimorphism: With Emphasis on Fungi Pathogenic for Humans

Fungal Dimorphism: With Emphasis on Fungi Pathogenic for Humans

by Paul J. Szaniszlo, James L. Harris
     
 

ISBN-10: 0306420201

ISBN-13: 9780306420207

Pub. Date: 09/28/1985

Publisher: Basic Books

The tendency of fungi pathogenic for humans to have shapes in tissue distinct from their usual saprophytic morphologies has fascinated the pathologist and medical mycologist for almost a century. A primary rea­ son for this fascination is the possibility that fungal duality of form, or dimorphism, may be an important virulence factor that allows the zoo­

Overview

The tendency of fungi pathogenic for humans to have shapes in tissue distinct from their usual saprophytic morphologies has fascinated the pathologist and medical mycologist for almost a century. A primary rea­ son for this fascination is the possibility that fungal duality of form, or dimorphism, may be an important virulence factor that allows the zoo­ pathogenic fungus to survive host defenses. A second reason relates to the desire to gain basic insights into the regulation of cellular develop­ ment and morphogenesis among the etiological agents of human mycoses. Many excellent treatises have appeared within the recent past dealing with fungal dimorphism. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that it may be beyond the capability of one or a few authors to review this subject adequately. Instead, the ever-increasing volume ofliterature asso­ ciated with fungal dimorphism and the diversity offungi now recognized to exhibit a type of dimorphism suggest that a volume comprised of con­ tributions by numerous researchers may be more appropriate. This per­ ception provided me with the motivation to compile a multiauthor volume.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780306420207
Publisher:
Basic Books
Publication date:
09/28/1985
Pages:
414

Table of Contents

I. Introduction and General Morphology.- 1 An Introduction to Dimorphism among Zoopathogenic Fungi.- 1. Dimorphism: Application of the Term.- 2. Dimorphic Pathogenic Fungi.- 3. General Introductory Thoughts.- References.- 2 Cytological and Ultrastructural Aspects of Dimorphism.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Aspects of Ultrastructural Cytology.- 2.1. Yeast Cell.- 2.2. Hypha.- 2.3. Conidium.- 3. Ultrastructural Aspects of Dimorphism.- 3.1. Yeast-to-Hyphal Cell Transition.- 3.2. Hyphal-to-Yeast Cell Transition.- 3.3. Conidial-to-Yeast Cell Transition.- 4. Concluding Remarks.- References.- II. Fungi with Yeast Tissue Morphologies.- 3 Blastomyces dermatitidis.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Growth Requirements.- 3. Microscopy.- 4. Cell Walls.- 5. Metabolic Considerations.- 6. Summary.- References.- 4 Studies on Phase Transitions in the Dimorphic Pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Experimental Studies on Dimorphism.- 2.1. Morphological Studies.- 2.2. Growth Requirements of the Two Phases: Cysteine Metabolism.- 2.3. Role of Cysteine in Regulating Morphogenesis and Mitochondrial Activity.- 2.4. RNA and Protein Synthesis.- 2.5. Cyclic AMP Levels.- 3. Discussion of Dimorphism.- References.- 5 Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Morphology of Dimorphism.- 3. Biochemistry of Dimorphism.- 4. Cell Wall and Dimorphism.- 5. A Model of Dimorphism.- 6. Regulation of Glucan Synthesis in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Cell Walls.- 7. Conclusions.- References.- 6 Sporothrix schenckii.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Morphological Phase Transition.- 2.1. Sporothrix schenckii Cell Types: In Vitro and in Vivo Morphology.- 2.2. Growth Conditions and Cell Types.- 2.3. Morphologically Related Ceratocystis.- 2.4. Ultrastructure of the Phase Transition.- 3. Biochemical Activities and Cell Constituents.- 3.1. Teleomorph of Sporothrix schenckii.- 4. Cell-Surface Reactivity and Composition.- 4.1. Cell-Wall Composition in Different Cell Types.- 4.2. Reactivity with Lectins.- 4.3. Anionic Groups.- 4.4. Immunofluorescence Reactions.- 4.5. Surface Components and Yeast Phagocytosis.- 5. Sporothrix schenckii Polysaccharides.- 5.1. Rhamnomannans at Different Growth Temperatures.- 5.2. Rhamnomannans of Ceratocystis.- 5.3. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Polysaccharide Structure.- 5.4. Galactomannans.- 5.5. Glucans in Different Cell Types.- 6. Immunochemistry of Sporothrix schenckii Antigens.- 6.1. Antigenic Determinants and Cross-Reactions.- 6.2. Delayed Hypersensitivity and Other Cell-Mediated Reactions.- 7. Perspectives.- References.- III. Fungi with Yeast and Hyphal Tissue Morphologies.- 7 Candida albicans.- 1. General Introduction.- 2. Phenotypic Repertoire of Candida albicans.- 3. Minimum Requirements for Growth in Culture.- 4. A Simple Method for Regulating Dimorphism Employing pH as the Sole Determining Factor.- 5. Stationary Phase, the Cell Cycle, and Hyphal Induction.- 6. Phenotypic Commitment, Septum Formation, and Filament-Ring Formation.- 7. Biochemical and Physiological Comparisons of the Two Growth Forms.- 7.1. Cyclic AMP.- 7.2. Chitin Synthesis.- 8. Macromolecular Synthesis during Outgrowth in the Two Growth Forms of Candida.- 9. Genetics of Candida.- 10. Conclusion.- References.- 8 Exophiala werneckii.- 1. Introduction and Brief History of Exophiala werneckii as a Pathogen.- 2. Taxonomic Position of the Organism.- 3. Morphological Forms of Exophiala werneckii.- 4. Control of Morphology.- References.- 9 Polymorphism of Wangiella dermatitidis.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Yeast Cell.- 2.1. Morphology.- 2.2. Yeast-Cell Division.- 2.3. Yeast-Cell Cycle.- 3. Hypha.- 4. Multicellular Form.- 4.1. Stage I.- 4.2. Stage II.- 5. Transitions between Morphologies.- 5.1. Hyphae to Yeasts.- 5.2. Yeasts to Multicellular Forms.- 5.3. Stage I Forms to Yeasts.- 5.4. Stage I and II Forms to Hyphae.- 6. Cell-Wall Alterations during Multicellular-Form Development.- 6.1. Quantitative Analyses of Cell Walls.- 6.2. Cell-Wall Polymers.- 6.3. Dynamics of Polysaccharide Synthesis during Development.- 6.4. Effect of Polysaccharide Synthetase Inhibitors.- 6.5. Relevance of Cell-Wall Carbohydrate Polymers to Differentiation.- 7. Integration of the Yeast-Cell Cycle and Multicellular-Form Development.- 7.1. “Start”.- 7.2. Divergence of Control Sequences.- 7.3. Convergence of Sequences.- 7.4. Cell Separation.- 8. Nature of the Mutations in Mc Strains and Their Relevance to Morphological Development.- 9. Possible Roles of the Defective Gene Products.- 9.1. Nature of the Polarization Director.- 9.2. Candidates for the Polarization Director.- 10. Conclusions.- References.- IV. Fungi with Isotropically Enlarged Tissue Morphologies.- 10 Dimorphism in Chrysosporium parvum.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Taxonomy.- 2. Morphology.- 3. Growth Rate.- 4. Adiaspore-Host Interactions.- 5. Structure and Cytochemistry.- 5.1. Adiaspore Wall.- 5.2. Plasmalemma.- 5.3. Adiaspore Content.- 5.4. Structure of Hyphae and Conidia.- 6. Biochemical and Immunochemical Aspects.- 7. Conidiogenesis.- 8. Development of the Adiaspore.- 8.1. Development from Conidia.- 8.2. Development from Hyphal Cells.- 8.3. Conversion of Colony and Inoculum.- 8.4. Blastic and Thallic Development.- 9. Reproduction of Adiaspores.- 10. Genetic Control.- 11. Environmental Control.- 12. Conclusion.- References.- 11 Phialophora verrucosa and Other Chromoblastomycotic Fungi.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Clinical Features of Chromoblastomycosis.- 3. Microscopic Observations of Infected Tissue.- 3.1. Light Microscopy.- 3.2. Scanning Electron Microscopy.- 3.3. Transmission Electron Microscopy.- 4. Experimental and Natural Infections of Animals.- 5. In Vitro Cultivation of Sclerotic Cells.- 5.1. Early Cultural Methods.- 5.2. Chick-Embryo and Tissue-Culture Methods.- 5.3. Nutritional Studies in Chemically Defined Media.- 6. Control of Morphogenesis in Chromoblastomycotic Fungi.- References.- 12 Arthroconidium-Spherule-Endospore Transformation in Coccidioides immitis.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Saprobic Cycle.- 2.1. Mycelial Growth.- 2.2. Conidiogenesis.- 2.3. Ultrastructure.- 2.4. Karyology: Mycelium-Arthroconidium Transformation.- 3. Parasitic Cycle.- 3.1. Karyology: Arthroconidium-Spherule-Endospore Transformation.- 3.2. Spherule Segmentation and Endospore Formation.- 3.3. Ultrastructure.- 3.4. In Vivo Morphogenesis and Fungus-Host Interaction.- 4. Cell Envelope.- 4.1. Wall Isolation and Chemical Composition.- 4.2. Identification of Wall Antigens.- References.- V. Dimorphic Mucors.- 13 Mucor racemosus.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Biology of Mucor racemosus.- 2.1. Preface.- 2.2. Vegetative Life Cycle.- 3. Biochemistry and Physiology of Mucor racemosus.- 3.1. Respiration and Fermentation.- 3.2. Cyclic 3?,5?-Adenosine Monophosphate.- 3.3. Lipid Synthesis.- 3.4. Enzyme Synthesis.- 3.5. S-Adenosylmethionine Metabolism.- 4. Molecular Biology of Mucor racemosus.- 4.1. Preface.- 4.2. Protein Synthesis.- 4.3. Gene Organization.- 4.4. DNA Synthesis and Nuclear Division.- 5. Multiple Drug Resistance of Mucor racemosus.- 6. Conclusion.- References.- 14 Dimorphism in Mucor Species with Emphasis on M. rouxii and M. bacilliformis.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Growth Characteristics of Mucor Species.- 2.1. Spore Germination.- 2.2. Hyphal and Yeast Growth.- 2.3. Hyphal-Yeast Transitions.- 3. Factors that Affect Morphology in Mucorales.- 3.1. Atmospheric Environment.- 3.2. Nutritional Factors.- 3.3. Effect of Inhibitors.- 4. Metabolic and Biochemical Alterations Related to Dimorphism.- 4.1. General Considerations.- 4.2. Carbon Metabolism.- 4.3. Respiratory Enzymes.- 4.4. Nitrogen Metabolism.- 4.5. Biosynthesis of Proteins and Nucleic Acids.- 5. Cell-Wall Structure and Biosynthesis during the Dimorphic Transition.- 5.1. Chemical Composition.- 5.2. Cell-Wall Biosynthesis and Polarization.- 6. Genetic Approaches to the Study of Dimorphism.- 7. General Conclusions and Perspectives.- References.

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