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A Garden of Flowers
All 104 Engravings from the Hortus Floridus of 1614
By Crispin van de Pass
Dover Publications, Inc.Copyright © 2002 Dover Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved.
HEPATICA WITH SNOW-WHITE FLOWER.
HEPATICA TRIFOLIA WITH BLUE DOUBLE FLOWER.
As Hepatica trifolia in general has elsewhere been described by us, we will show here in addition two species of it, not common: one-abounding in a double deep blue flower, which is also called Hepatica trifolia caerulea polyanthos; the flower of which differs from the common form by the great number of petals and is of a deeper blue colour, and according to Clusius grows commonly in certain places in Hungary, but in our own country it is somewhat difficult of cultivation. The flower of the second species agrees with the common one in form but is altogether of a transparent snow-white colour, the depth of which seems to contain something of a red-purple, and in the centre is bedecked with scarlet threads, from which the—white anthers hanging like pearls afford quite a pleasing sight.
CROCUS VERNUS WITH A SMALLER PURPLE FLOWER
CROCUS NEAPOLITANUS WITH A LARGER PURPLE FLOWER.
The flower of the Crocus, also not unknown in the stories of the poets, into which the youth, inflamed with hopeless love for the maid Smilax, was transformed according to Ovid, as it is written in this verse, li, 4 Metam: Et Crocum in parvos versum cum Smilace flores. There are several species: here we illustrate the vernal broadleaved purple Crocus, varying very much in size. The earlier agrees almost with Crocus silvestris violaceus of Lobel: its flower emerges from its sheath in the same manner as the others from a short stalk, with six petals of a violet colour tending to purple; although the top of the little stem together with the beginning of the flower approaches a very dark hue. The later called from its place of origin Neapolitanus, puts forth a flower larger, and distinguished by its more pleasing appearance; likewise consisting of six petals, the three inner and shorter of which are encompassed by the outer as with a caressing embrace. In the centre a golden style emerges surrounded by white threads passing into yellow nodules, and diffusing a somewhat pleasant scent.
YELLOW PSEUDONARCISSUS WITH DOUBLE FLOWER.
PSEUDONARCISSUS WITH DOUBLE FLOWER & TRIPLE TUBE.
The Pseudonarcissus multiplex or pleno flore luteus [yellow with double flower] puts forth leaves much resembling those of a leek or a true Narcissus: but owing to the great number of its petals it has in the centre of the flower no projecting cup as in the other species. Its colour is deeper round the edges and the root also is bulbous.
The other Narcissus here pourtrayed, of the nature of a monstrosity, produces root and leaves in the same way, and bears a flower remarkable for a triple tube, of golden colour and with fringed edges, in the centre of which projects a solitary style, shorter and not reaching the mouth of the tube: Flowers in the month of April and is rarely found after that time.
THE LARGEST NARCISSUS OF ALL.
THE LARGEST NARCISSUS, WITH DOUBLED PETALS.
This rare kind of Narcissus, which Christianus Porretus, pharmacist of Leyden in Holland, patron of all the graces, grows in his own garden, and with which is found no other of its kind comparable, or equal in size–whence also it gets its French name: It has leaves a foot-and-a-half tall, gray, rather broad and almost keeled. The two feet long stem bears a single large flower consisting of six pale or faint yellow petals, broad but shortly pointed, surrounding a central yellow tube more than one inch long, narrower in the lower part but more open above, crinkled at the edges: in the middle is a short saffron-yellow style surrounded, by six anthers, sprinkled as it were with a yellow meal, rather than by stamens. The scent of the flower is not unpleasing but faint.
The second Narcissus Maximus is not very different from the former except that with its doubled petals and more open and sinuous tube it shows itself with greater elegance.
MUSCARI WITH SCENTED YELLOW FLOWER.
MUSCARI WITH DULL WHITE COLOUR OF DODENS.
Muscari is a kind of false Hyacinth producing long slightly keeled leaves: it sends forth long not very firm stems often more than nine inches tall and from the middle upwards and all round the stem many flowers, small, hollow and of a very pleasant scent recalling somewhat musk [whence also this plant takes its name among the Greeks]: it has a root, like other Hyacinths, bulbous, reddish, and clinging rather deeply and firmly in the earth by somewhat thick fibres [which even last through winter].
Two species are illustrated here, of which the former bears a faintly yellowish flower, while the flower of the latter is whitish and of a dull colour. In other respects with a slight difference they seem almost to agree.
THE STELLATE HYACINTH OF AQUITANIA WITH BLUE FLOWER.
THE STELLATE HYACINTH OF SPAIN WITH SNOW-WHITE FLOWER.
This stellate Hyacinth with the leaf of a lily is common in the mountains of Aquitania, called by the shepherds Sarahaig, noxious to cattle, is often deadly. It has broad leaves, like the leaves of white lilies, between which comes forth a stem a foot Long, quite firm, supporting at intervals several flowers provided with six petals spreading like a star of a violet or deep blue colour. In the centre of these swells up a round disk provided with a circle of filaments: whence appears in triangular pods the seed, black and rather thick, not shining, The bulb does not diner much from the root of Lilium, but is sometimes covered with a distinct cortex with closely crowded bulbils.
The Stellate Hyacinth, with the leaf of Lilium, from Spain, which follows, is almost, exactly like the former except that the Leaves appear longer and the flower is distinctly snow-white in colour.
PRIMULA VERIS OF BRITAIN WITH DOUBLE FLOWER.
PRIMULA VERIS WITH TWIN FLOWER.
The largest Primula veris of English gardens, with double flower, here-pourtrayed, has leaves of a roundish oval, with somewhat crinkled edges, wrinkled with manifold veinlets, resembling Betony, but larger and of a fainter colour, from the centre springs a thin stem, a hand's breadth in height, on the top of which are seen eight, ten or more yellow flowers, remarkable For the great number of petals, with the top of the cup slightly toothed, of the same shape as here illustrated. The root with very many fibres spreads widely and makes it firm in the ground. Very different from the former is the Primula veris with a twin flower, one of which grows in the other, similarly of a yellow colour, each like the flowers of primula veris: this plant is now being cultivated with the utmost care in the gardens of Belgium by lovers of Nature's wonders, with its remarkable form not a little delighting the eyes of those who see it. The leaves of the plant are less wrinkled and the stalks from which the flowers hang seem a little thinner and more oblong.
AURICULA URSI WITH YELLOW FLOWER OF DODOENS.
AURICULA URSI MAJOR WITH PURPLE FLOWER.
Auricula Ursi seems to be a species of Solidago, and does not differ much in form from Primula Veris, having almost similar leaves, but smooth, not wrinkled with veins or nerves, rather thick and sprinkled as it were with meal, and more crinkled at the edges; among the leaves springs round thin stem, from the top of which arise florets each with a little stalk, of a yellow colour but faint and sometimes tending to sulphur-yellow, adorned with five or six incisions in place of petals; having in the centre a white circlet provided with some filaments and sometimes also a small style. The smell is mostly sweet and honey-like. After the flowers comes the seed, unequal in size and black, enclosed in little sacs.
The other species here pourtrayed, has shorter leaves, broader and nearly round except that round about the root they become narrow and are less thick: the stem also is shorter and bears flowers not indeed so numerous but larger, with a deep purple colour and in a measure recalling a ripe mulberry, which however gradually shows a beautiful violet; becoming somewhat pale purple around the centre and approaching rather to whiteness: in scent they are surpassed by the former.
CHAMAEIRIS WITH VIOLET BLUE FLOWER.
CHAMAEIRIS WITH DEEP PURPLE FLOWER.
The Chamaeiris here described, by us is provided with short broad leaves, and puts forth a flower from a short knotty stem which overtops all the leaves, is broad, and in, colour between, sky-blue and violet, and marked with darker lines – truly an, uncommon spectacle of Nature. It grows in gardens but rarely unless planted. Its roots are jointed, solid, often projecting above the ground, scented, although the flowers are rendered agreeable by no scent.
Subjoined is another species or Chamaeiris, with a flower of a deeper purple colour, resembling somewhat a rough silky purple, and especially bright in the three spreading petals in the middle of which there arises from the lower portion a fringe composed as it were of many slender short yellowish hairs, almost resembling a man's eyebrow: otherwise it does not differ much in shape from other Irises.
HYACINTHUS ORIENTALIS LATIFOLIUS WITH BLUE OR PURPLISH FLOWER.
HYACINTHUS LATIFOLIUS WITH TWO STEMS & PALE PURPLE FLOWER.
Hyacinthus Orientalis, so called because it was originally brought intoltaly from the East, is here illustrated; it has many flowers the colour of which is generally blue, sometimes approaching purple, and sometimes even distinctly snow-white: although they have sprung from the same seed. This Hyacinth has more juicy and broader leaves than the common species, thicker stems and larger more open flowers.
The second and larger Orientalis shows flowers appearing from all round the stem, rarely more than ten in number, of a palish, purple colour; it also very often luxuriates with a second stem besides the usual one, to the pleasure of those who see it.
HYACINTHUS ORIENTALIS WITH LEAFY STEM.
HYACINTHUS ORIENTALIS WITH GREENISH TWIN FLOWER.
Although nearly all the Hyacinths produce a naked stem, there appeared not many years ago the Hyacinth here illustrated, which, the very elegant Clusius related that he owed to Mathaeus Caccinus of Florence. Furthermore this has a bulbous root, on a par with the other Asiatic Hyacinth, from which appear five or six leaves, green and keeled, between which arises a nodose stem, nine inches high, surrounded by some leaves closely joined together; the flowers are then unfolded, when the stem takes on its growth, and are observed to surround the stem in no fixed order; on the other hand later and in the month of May fruit appears in pleasing abundance. To the same Caccinus we are indebted for notice of this foreign and rare Hyacinth of Constantinople, likewise first seen a few years ago, the flower of which when it first appears is green, then acquires a bluish colour while it begins to be unfolded; but when opened is white and green, and all its petals retain that green outer nerve occupying the middle of the petals. The stalk bearing the flower is a little longer than in the rest of the Hyacinths. What also adds beauty to the flower, is a second little flower consisting of three petals, bursting from, tine middle of the flower, which forthwith changes colour like the primary flower; a few stamens occupy the centre of the flower, provided with black anthers.
WITH A DOUBLE TIER OF FLOWERS.
The Grown Imperial, a plant foreign to us, first sent by Clusius from Constantinople, but Persian, in origin, and hence called also by him the Persian lily, belongs to the genus of wild lilies; it has smooth, oblong leaves, surrounding the stem in the form of a star as in other wild lilies; and has a stem like to these, except that it is provided on the top with a cluster of several leaves, whence from slender stalks hang the flowers, of six petals, pourtraying in form a lily, but smaller and more closed, and not curved with any flexures; generally of a yellowish colour but sometimes approaching a reddish hue: In the middle of the petals stand forth, six little stamens which surround a whitish style. And in place of a root it has a round smooth bulb, not as in the rest of the lilies uneven with crowded bulbils, the smell is unpleasant. Sometimes it grows luxuriantly with several tiers of flowers: And the one which is here figured is remarkable for a double rank of flowers.
WITH A SINGLE VIOLET FLOWER.
WITH A SINGLE SCARLET FLOWER
WITH A CRIMSON FLOWER CALLED PRINCEPS.
Anemone, that is wind flower, rightly so called because it never opens except when the wind is blowing, lovely in its wondrous beauty and variety of colours, is wont to delight beyond measure, to attract and as it were to hold the eyes of those who see it. In this place three species of slender-leaved Anemone are figured, distinguished by diversity of colours in the flowers, otherwise with very slight difference. The leaves of the plant are cut, most like the leaves of the wild Ranunculus or Coriander; the root: when fairly young resembles a fallen olive, but when old looks like a mass of many spread olives, and appears very much knotted: The flowers spring from slender and downy stalks, and are usually of six petals of a very pleasing aspect in the centre of which are seen the almost purple heads [although these are not always of one colour] surrounded by their stamens and anthers. The first species shows a flower with violet or purple colour; the second purple-red, but the flower of the third species recalls as nearly as possible a crimson silky hairy cloth and on account of its extreme beauty is known as Anemone princeps.
THE SECOND KIND OF CACCINUS WITH DOUBLE PALE-RED FLOWER.
BYZANTINE WITH MANY-PETALLED FLOWER.
This former species of Anemone with double flower does not differ much from the Byzantine which follows: The colour of the flower is, in the outer petals that of a fading Rosa Alabandica, but the main portion consisting of many smaller petals is a blush-red. The Latter, the Byzantine [called lalè by the Turks] has the leaves of Bulbocastanum; the flower is remarkable with ten or more broader downy leaves round the circumferernce, on, the outside pale-red but inside resplendent with a deeper colour; a larger and almost endless number of slender smaller petals, of a crimson or even pale purple colour, fill the centre of the flower. The root is knotted and more oblong, not black on the outside but dusky. This plant is sometimes seen to produce flowers a second time in Autumn, but they are less elegant; the central small petals of these flowers maintain a quince-like and greenish colour, due [as I think] to want of warmth, and are as it were crude and immature.
VERDUNIA, WITH SINGLE VIOLET FLOWER. SPANISH, WITH FLOWER FLESH COLOUR.
SINGLE WITH ORANGE FLOWER.
In the flowers of the broad-leaved Anemones so great variety of colours is seen that it is very difficult to express in words; the number also of the petals of which they consist varies in a remarkable manner. The leaves of the plant are broader and divided into fewer segments; the root also is tuberous and surrounded by its root-fibres. Three species are figured here; the first, Verdunia, commonly so called by a certain grower in Holland, has a flower of seven petals, the colour of which passes into a violet or lanthine from a silver base; the downy head becomes black and is surrounded by white filaments with bluish anthers. The second, Hispanica, the flower of which of flesh colour [which is commonly called incamatus] consists of twelve or thirteen petals, forming a circle round the head and stamens: The third has a flower of eight petals, resplendent in a beautiful red and yellow colour [which the Belgians call Orange], the small stamens of which, bedecked with blue anthers, surround the head.
PAVO [PEACOCK] WITH SINGLE FLOWER.
PAVO MAJOR MULTIPLEX
The broad leaved garden Anemone, called Pavo secunda, produces a single flower, provided with broader petals passing into a point, seven, eight or more in number of a scarlet colour. The second species of Anemone, bears a flower, with twenty or thirty petals sometimes an inch in length, the colour of which is a rather deep purple-red, with a crimson base passing into a yellowish circlet around the central portion [which is downy, blackish and girt with crimson stamens ending in blue anthers]. The roots of these Anemones are rather thick, knotty, firm, of a dusky colour externally, dead white inside, and surrounded with many slender fibres.
CHALCEDONICA MAXIMA MANY FLOWERED. CHALCEDONICA CACUMENI.
This Chalcedonica maxima, has leaves larger than the other Anemones, harder and provided with several nerves; a broad and spreading flower, of many petals, of which the ten or twelve outer are green, remarkable for a network of scarlet veins, the inner petals are smaller and more slender, brilliant with a somewhat pale purple and soft red colour, about the centre they retain the same colour but appear bent back and somewhat crisped.
The second Anemone Chalcedonica ex Cacumenis of which the worthy Mathaeus Caccinus of Florence made mention in his letters, was indeed named by Clusius but not yet fully known, nor at all events described; it is figured here; it bears a flower with a triple series of striking petals, not of one colour only but flame-colour crimson and snow-white, a very pleasing variety of mixture, embellished also with a whitish base, and has instead of stamens certain small narrow erect petals of a yellow-green colour occupying the centre.
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