Gateways to Academic Writing: Effective Sentences, Paragraphs, and Essays / Edition 1

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Overview

Gateways to Academic Writing: Effective Sentences, Paragraphs, and Essays, by Alan Meyers, provides a fully integrated program of writing instruction for high-intermediate to advanced students of English. The book's four units give students the tools they need to improve their academic writing. Unit I introduces the writing process, from exploring ideas, organizing, and drafting to revising, editing, and proofreading. Unit II examines the ten modes of writing, including narration, all forms of exposition, persuasion, and summary and response. Unit III presents key terminology, sentence structures, and verb tenses and forms. Unit IV gives students extensive editing practice, including Editing for Mastery exercises.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780131408883
  • Publisher: Pearson Education ESL
  • Publication date: 8/27/2004
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 436
  • Sales rank: 1,260,639
  • Product dimensions: 8.24 (w) x 10.75 (h) x 0.63 (d)

Table of Contents

Rhetorical Contents.

 

The Writing Process.

 

Hints and Help for Writers.

 

UNIT I. BUILDING YOUR WRITING SKILLS.

1. Why Write?

Speaking and Writing.

Writing with Confidence.

Finding the Right Way to Write.

Writing for Every Reason.

        Writing to Work.

        Writing to Learn.

        Writing to Communicate.

        Writing for Yourself.

Getting a Head Start.

2. The Writing Process: Laying the Foundation.

Writing with Confidence in Six Steps.

Step 1: Exploring Ideas.

        Your Subject.

        Your Purpose.

        Your Audience.

Step 2: Prewriting.

        Brainstorming.

        Clustering.

        Freewriting.

Step 3: Organizing.

        Selecting.

        Outlining.

Step 4: Writing a First Draft.

Step 5: Revising the Draft.

        Reviewing.

        Reading Aloud.

        Predicting.

        Making a Clean Copy.

Step 6: Producing the Final Copy.

         Editing.

        Proofreading.

3. Writing a Powerful Paragraph: Building the Foundation.

What Is a Paragraph?

Exploring and Planning.

Writing the Topic Sentence.

        General and Specific Statements.

        Making a Point.

        Expressing an Attitude or Opinion.

Writing the Body and Conclusion.

        Generating Ideas.

        Selecting and Organizing Ideas.

        Developing Ideas.

        Looking at Paragraph Development.

        Writing a First Draft.

        Writing a Conclusion.

Revising the Paragraph.

        Unity.

        Coherence.

        Refining the Topic Sentence and Conclusion.

        Using Peer Review.

Revision Guidelines.

4. Writing an Effective Essay: Building a Larger Structure.

What Is an Essay?

Composing an Essay.

        Getting Started.

        Developing the Thesis Statement.

        Writing the First Draft.

        Revising.

Revision Guidelines.

        Editing and Proofreading.

Unit I Blueprint for Success.

UNIT II. BUILDING AND REPAIRING SENTENCES.

5. Recognizing Sentences and Fixing Fragments.

What Is a Sentence?

        Identifying Subjects.

        Identifying Verbs.

What Is a Fragment?

Fixing Simple Fragments.

        Missing Subjects.

        Missing or Incomplete Verbs.

        Infinitives and -ing Words.

        Hanging Details or Examples.

Fixing Complex Fragments.

        Although and Because Types.

        Who, That, and Which Types.

Editing for Mastery.

6. Joining Sentences through Coordination.

Connecting Words.

         The Coordinating Conjunctions.

Joining Sentences with Coordination.

Punctuating Compound Sentences.

Joining Sentences with Semicolons.

        The Semicolon.

        Transitional Words after the Semicolon.

Editing for Mastery.

7. Joining Sentences through Subordination.

What Is Subordination?

Subordinating with Clauses.

        Common Subordinating Conjunctions.

        Punctuating Dependent Clauses.

Subordinating with Phrases.

Editing for Mastery.

8. Joining Sentences with Pronouns.

Relative Clauses.

        Placement of Relative Clauses.

        Commas with Relative Clauses

Noun Clauses.

Phrases.

Editing for Mastery.

9. Repairing Run-ons and Correcting Comma Splices.

Run-on Sentences.

Comma-Spliced Sentences.

Editing for Mastery.

Unit II Blueprint for Success.

III. REVISING WITH CARE: BUILDING ON THE FRAMEWORK.

10. Making Subjects and Verbs Agree.

What Is Subject-Verb Agreement?

Subjects.

        Nouns as Subjects (and Objects).

        Irregular Plurals.

        Pronouns as Subjects.

        Subjects Joined by and.

Special Present Tense Verbs.

        To Be.

         To Do.

        To Have.

Special Problems with Subject-Verb Agreement.

        Questions.

        Sentences That Begin with There.

        Collective Nouns.

        Indefinite Pronouns.

        Phrases Between the Subject and Verb.

        Relative Clauses.

Editing for Mastery.

11. Using the Past Tense and the Past Participle.

The Past Tense in Its Usual Forms.

        Regular Verbs.

        To Be.

        Could and Would.

The Present-Perfect Tense.

         Forming the Present-Perfect Tense.

        Using the Present-Perfect Tense.

The Past-Perfect Tense.

        Forming the Past-Perfect Tense.

        Using the Past-Perfect Tense.

Irregular Verbs.

        Category 1: -d to —y.

        Category 2: -d and Possible Vowel Change.

        Category 3: -t and Possible Vowel Change.

        Category 4: Single Vowel Change.

        Category 5: Double Vowel Change.

        Category 6: No Change.

        Category 7 —n or —en and Possible Vowel Change.

Other Uses of the Past Participle.

         In Three-Word Verb Phrases.

        In the Passive Voice.

        As an Adjective.

Editing for Mastery.

12. Using Pronouns.

Selecting the Right Pronoun.

        Personal Pronouns as Subjects and Objects.

        Personal Pronouns in Comparisons.

Avoiding Pronoun Confusion and Bias.

        Agreement in Number.

        Pronouns without Antecedents.

        Pronouns Referring to Pronouns.

        Pronouns Referring to Collective Nouns.

Special Pronouns.

        Reflexive Pronouns.

        Demonstrative Pronouns.

        Relative Pronouns.

Editing for Mastery.

13. Using Modifiers.

What Are Modifiers?

Placing Modifiers Correctly.

        Misplaced Modifiers.

        Dangling Modifiers.

Editing for Mastery.

14. Making Comparisons.

Comparing with Adjectives and Adverbs.

Adjective Forms.

        The Simple Form.

        The Comparative Forms.

        The Superlative Forms.

Adverb Forms.

Irregular Adjectives and Adverbs.

        Adjectives and Adverbs That Are the Same.

        Good and Well, Bad and Badly.

Lively Comparisons.

Editing for Mastery.

15. Being Consistent.

Keeping Pronouns Straight.

Keeping Tense Consistent.

Keeping Structures Parallel.

Editing for Mastery.

16. Writing Concretely and Concisely.

Choosing Words That Work.

        Strong Verbs.

        Vivid Adjectives and Details.

Discarding Words That Don’t Contribute.

        Empty Sentence Starters.

        Vague Expressions.

        Repetition.

        Wordiness.

        Tired Expressions.

Editing for Mastery.

Unit III Blueprint for Success.

IV. WRITING TYPES OF PARAGRAPHS: SHAPING THE STRUCTURE.

17.   Describing a Scene.

A Model Paragraph: Describing a Scene.

Writing Assignment for Describing a Scene.

        Gathering, Generating, and Arranging the Materials.

        Composing the Paragraph.

        Revising Your First Draft.

Revision Guidelines.

        Further Revising and Editing.

Additional Writing Assignment.

A Student Model Paragraph.

Final Writing Assignment.

18. Describing a Person.

A Model Paragraph: Describing a Person.

Writing Assignment for Describing a Person.

        Gathering, Generating, and Arranging the Materials.

        Composing the Paragraph.

        Revising Your First Draft.

Revision Guidelines.

        Further Revising and Editing.

Additional Writing Assignment.

A Student Model Paragraph.

Final Writing Assignment.

19. Writing Narration.

A Model of Narration.

Writing Assignment for Narration.

        Gathering, Generating, and Arranging the Materials.

        Composing the Paragraph or Essay.

        Revising Your First Draft.

Revision Guidelines.

        Further Revising and Editing.

Additional Writing Assignment.

A Student Model Essay.

Final Writing Assignment.

20. Writing a Report.

A Model Paragraph: A Report.

Writing Assignment for a Report.

        Gathering, Generating, and Arranging the Materials.

        Composing the Report.

        Revising Your First Draft.

Revision Guidelines.

        Further Revising and Editing.

Additional Writing Assignment.

A Student Model Report.

Final Writing Assignment.

21. Describing a Process.

A Model Paragraph: Process Analysis.

Writing Assignment for Describing a Process.

        Gathering, Generating, and Arranging the Materials.

        Composing the Paragraph.

         Revising Your First Draft.

Revision Guidelines.

        Further Revising and Editing.

Additional Writing Assignment.

A Student Model Essay.

Final Writing Assignment.

22. Writing about Causes and Effects.

A Model Paragraph: Causal Analysis.

Writing Assignment for Causal Analysis.

        Gathering, Generating, and Arranging the Materials.

        Composing the Paragraph.

        Revising Your First Draft.

Revision Guidelines.

        Further Revising and Editing.

Additional Writing Assignment.

A Student Model Paragraph.

Final Writing Assignment.

23. Classifying Information.

A Model Paragraph: Classification.

Writing Assignment for Classification.

        Gathering, Generating, and Arranging the Materials.

        Composing the Paragraph.

        Revising Your First Draft.

Revision Guidelines.

        Further Revising and Editing.

Additional Writing Assignment.

A Student Model Essay.

Final Writing Assignment.

24. Writing Comparisons and Contrasts.

A Model Paragraph: Comparison-Contrast.

Writing Assignment for Comparison-Contrast Gathering, Generating, and Arranging the Materials.

        Composing the Paragraph.

        Revising Your First Draft.

Revision Guidelines.

        Further Revising and Editing.

Additional Writing Assignment.

A Student Model Essay.

Final Writing Assignment.

25. Defining Terms.

A Model of Definition.

Writing Assignment for a Definition Gathering, Generating, and Arranging the Materials.

        Composing the Paragraph.

        Revising Your First Draft.

Revision Guidelines.

        Further Revising and Editing.

Additional Writing Assignment.

A Student Model Essay.

Final Writing Assignment.

26. Summarizing and Responding.

A Student Model: A Summary.

Writing Assignment for a Summary.

        Gathering, Generating, and Arranging the Materials.

        Composing the Summary.

        Revising Your First Draft.

Revision Guidelines.

        Further Revising and Editing.

Writing Assignment for a Response, with a Student Model.

        Gathering, Generating, and Arranging the Materials.

        Composing the Response.

        Revising Your First Draft.

Revision Guidelines.

        Further Revising and Editing.

Final Writing Assignment.

Unit IV Blueprint for Success.

V. EDITING FOR GRAMMAR AND MECHANICS: FINISHING THE JOB.

27. Punctuating Sentences.

The Comma [,].

        Items in a Series.

        Independent Clauses.

        Interrupters.

        Introductory or Concluding Expressions.

        Two or More Adjectives.

        Dates, Places, and Addresses.

The Period [.].

        Statements.

        Abbreviations.

The Question Mark [?].

The Exclamation Point [!].

The Semicolon [;].

        Independent Clauses.

        Items in a Series.

The Colon [:].

The Dash [–].

Parentheses [()].

Quotation Marks [“”].

        Titles.

        Definitions.

        Words Used in a Special Way.

        Speech.

Editing for Mastery.

28. Checking Spelling, Apostrophes, Hyphens, and Capitals.

Spelling.

        The Long and Short Vowel Sounds.

        Plurals of Nouns and Singulars of Verbs.

        Suffixes.

        Prefixes.

The Apostrophe [’].

        Possessives.

        Contractions.

        Plurals of Letters.

Hyphens [-].

        Hyphens to Join Words.

        Syllables.

Capitalization.

Editing for Mastery.

29. Writing the Right Word.

The Most Common Sound-Alikes and Look-Alikes.

        Contractions.

        Too/Two/To.

        The of Error.

        Three Words Ending in —d.

Commonly Confused Words.

        Accept/Except.

        Advice/Advise.

        Affect/Effect.

        An/And.

        Breath/Breathe.

        Buy/By.

        Clothes/Cloths.

        Conscience/Conscious.

        -ence/-ent; -ance/-ant.

        Fine/Find.

        Know/No Knew/New.

        Led/Lead.

        Lie/Lay.

        Lose/Loose.

        Mine/Mind.

        Passed/Past.

        Quiet/Quite/Quit.

        Rise/Raise.

        Sit/Set.

        Then/Than.

        There is/It is.

        Whether/Weather.

Editing for Mastery.

30. Keeping Verbs in Order.

The Continuous Tenses.

        In the Present.

        In the Past.

More Verb Phrases.

        Two-Word Verb Phrases.

        Three-Word Verb Phrases.

        Four-Word Verb Phrases.

Indirect Questions.

Objects after Verbs.

        Objects with Phrasal Verbs.

        Common Phrasal Verbs.

        Direct and Indirect Objects.

Adverbs.

        Single Adverbs.

        Placing Two or More Adverbs.

Past Participles and Present Participles.

Double Negatives.

Editing for Mastery.

31. Mastering the Little Words: Articles and Prepositions.

Articles.

        A/An.

        Singular Countable Nouns: A/An versus The.

        The.

        Plural Countable Nouns and Uncountable Nouns: Using The or Nothing.

        Additional Advice about A/An and The.

Prepositions.

        To Indicate Time.

        To Indicate Place.

        For Vehicles and Chairs.

        Other Prepositions.

        To Repeat the Meaning of Prefixes.

Editing for Mastery.

Unit V Blueprint for Success.

Reading Selections.

Jimmy Carrasquillo, “Needing and Wanting Are Different.”

Malcolm X with Alex Haley, “My Prison Studies.”

Kurt Vonnegut, “How to Write with Style.”

Elizabeth Wong, “The Struggle to Be an All-American Girl.

Isabelle Allende, “Penance.”

Mark Schlitt, “My Fifteen Minutes of Fame” [Student Essay].

Ehsan Ghoreishi, “Tough Pitches” [Student Essay].

Jessica Shattuck, “Hellraiser.”

Mark Twain, “Two Views of the Mississippi.”

Ellen Goodman, “Divining the Strange Eating Habits of Kids.”

“The Natchez Indians,” adapted from The People’s Almanac #3.

Rita Pyrillis, “Sorry for Not Being a Stereotype.”

“The Writing on the Wall,” adapted from The People’s Almanac.

Robert Hughes, “Running with Walker.”

Annie Dillard, “Living Like Weasels.”

Sam Lubell, “Block That Ringtone!”

Appendix A   Common Irregular Verbs.

 

Appendix B   Commonly Misspelled Words.

 

Appendix C   Common Expressions Using Prepositions.

 

Answers to Chapter Exercises.

 

Glossary.

 

Credits.

 

Index.

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