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GED Math Test Tutor

Overview

GED® MATH TEST TUTOR

100% ALIGNED For the 2014 GED® Test

It’s like having your own tutor…

Every year, test-takers report that the math test is the toughest of all the GED® tests. That’s why REA offers the most complete guide to success on the new GED® Math test. Let our expert math tutor help you get one step closer to your GED® diploma!

...

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GED® Math Test Tutor, For the New 2014 GED® Test

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Overview

GED® MATH TEST TUTOR

100% ALIGNED For the 2014 GED® Test

It’s like having your own tutor…

Every year, test-takers report that the math test is the toughest of all the GED® tests. That’s why REA offers the most complete guide to success on the new GED® Math test. Let our expert math tutor help you get one step closer to your GED® diploma!

GED® Test tutor Sandra Rush gives you all the tools you need to succeed:

- Refresh your knowledge on all things math – from Polynomials and Powers to Statistics and Equations, Fractions, Decimals, and Scientific Notation

- Know your way around the TI-30XS MultiView™ calculator – you’ll be a power-user in no time
- Helpful hints throughout – including secrets of rounding off, calculating with fractions, quickly knowing the difference between domain and range, a neat way to remember negative and absolute values, and much more

- 2 Full-Length Practice Tests mimic the real GED® Math test – preview all the new question types

You’ll be confident on test day after you discover how the test works!


Learn from an Expert
Sandra Rush, M.A., is a math tutor who has taught mathematics and physics from junior high school through university level, in three states. She takes great pride in her success in working with students who are looking to earn their high school equivalency diploma. She is an acclaimed writer and editor. This book is her latest effort to provide students with a practical application and knowledge of real-world math.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780738611365
  • Publisher: Research & Education Association
  • Publication date: 9/20/2013
  • Series: GED & TABE Test Preparation
  • Edition description: Fourth
  • Pages: 288
  • Sales rank: 62,197
  • Product dimensions: 8.50 (w) x 10.90 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Sandra Rush earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in mathematics from Temple University in Philadelphia. While an undergraduate student, she served as a math tutor for members of the basketball team as well as for local public school students. In these early years of her own higher education, she realized that teaching mathematics had a special appeal.

She has taught mathematics and physics from the junior high school to university levels in three states. Sandra has also continued her side career of tutoring and coaching students at all levels. Her one-on- one approach with young adults has yielded excellent results.

Sandra’s interest in education has extended beyond the classroom to the field of publishing, including writing and editing manuals on preparation for standardized tests at all levels. This book is the latest of her efforts to make mathematics both understandable and enjoyable for generations of students.

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Read an Excerpt

About the Next-Generation GED® Math Test

This introductory chapter is as important as any of the following chapters. The subject review chapters will show you what you need to know about mathematics for the GED® test, but if you don’t know how to take the test and what to expect, you may not be successful, even if you understand the math. To be successful with the GED® Mathematical Reasoning test, it is essential that you know three skill sets: math skills, calculator skills, and some computer skills.

How This Book Can Help
For all three skill sets, practice, practice, practice will pay off. This book helps with the mathematical reasoning skills, so read the book carefully and be sure you understand each section before you advance to the next. Numerous examples will give you the practice and confidence you need to do well. To paraphrase the GED® Testing Service, it’s not just about knowing how, but rather why!

Remembering isn’t the same as memorizing. This book is designed to help you remember facts that you need without having to memorize. Each mathematical topic is introduced, accompanied by several example questions with answers and explanations that are designed as further teaching aids to help you remember what has been presented.

Exercises at the end of each chapter allow you to assess how well you understood the concepts introduced in the chapter. These exercises are presented in GED® test formats so you can get used to how questions will be presented on the actual test. Answers and explanations for those answers appear after the exercises.

You probably have heard the saying “We learn from our mistakes.” If you do make a mistake on any of the exercises, use that as a further learning experience and don’t be discouraged. If you ever locked the key in your car, that was a learning experience (a frustrating one, for sure) and, at least for a while after that, you always made sure you had the key in your hand when you locked the door. So if you choose the wrong answer to an exercise in the book, go to the explanation of the correct answer and learn from it so you won’t make that type of mistake again.

The last half of this chapter presents step-by-step instructions for using the TI-30XS MultiView™ virtual calculator that will be provided on the test. In addition, calculator instructions are given in the chapters for which a certain calculation is relevant.

The final part of the book contains two full-length practice GED® Mathematical Reasoning tests followed by the correct answer choices with explanations. Time yourself (90 minutes) to get a sense of how quickly you must come up with answers. You can go back to any question at any time and you can change your answers if you want to, but you need to do it all within the 90-minute time frame. Admittedly, taking the test on paper is different from taking the test on a computer, but the goal here is to learn the math to answer the problems correctly.

As of the printing of this book, the GED® Testing Service is continuing to refine aspects of the GED® Math Reasoning test that will be available in January 2014. Continuing releases of test information from the GED® Testing Service are available on the official GED® website, www.gedtestingservice.com.

What to Expect on the GED® Mathematical Reasoning Test
The latest version of the GED® math test is called “Mathematical Reasoning.” Previously, the GED® test emphasized mathematical skills, knowing mathematical facts and formulas, and how to perform specific calculations for a problem. Starting in 2014, the emphasis is on understanding and logical thinking rather than memorization, and it is based on real-world problem-solving skills. The next-generation test expects the test-taker to understand what a problem is asking for and proceed to answer it based on the information given. Use the four-part plan for reasoning skills to answer the questions:

1. Figure out what is known, what is necessary to solve the problem, what information is missing (usually your solution), and what is unnecessary (just because something is mentioned doesn’t mean it has anything to do with your solution).

2. Devise a strategy to solve the problem. This may involve making a sketch or a table (use the erasable note board) or looking for a pattern, for example.

3. Solve the problem according to your strategy and choose or enter the correct answer.

4. Make sure the answer makes sense.

The problems on the 2014 GED® test mimic the real world. Almost everyone is carrying around a calculator—it’s in the form of a cell phone. Almost no one multiplies 63 X 24 on paper, much less in their heads—they all reach for the calculator. Many store clerks don’t count out change anymore, they just give the customer what the register (also a calculator) tells them to.

In addition, with so much knowledge available via the Internet, memorization of many formulas is no longer necessary because people can look them up and avoid “misremembering.” So the GED® Math Reasoning test measures how well you can figure out what is asked for and then apply mathematical skills, whether from your own memory bank or by using the tools that are available on the test, to come up with answers.

The total test time is 90 minutes, but that includes 2 minutes for an introduction and wrap-up, so the actual testing time is only 88 minutes. The test is worth 50 points, but there aren’t necessarily 50 questions. Some questions are worth twice as much as others—that is because they are twice as difficult. Also, one chart, table, or problem scenario may have several questions associated with it. The computer uses a split screen for this type of question. On a split screen, the graphic or scenario stays on the left side of the screen, and the questions appear one by one on the right screen. Fortunately, there is a “Previous” button if any of these questions depend at all on a response to a prior question.

Fifty-five percent of the questions involve algebra, but that doesn’t mean you are just given an equation and asked to solve it. Questions on any of the math subjects on the test (each of which is covered in a chapter of this book) may involve algebraic reasoning. The other 45 percent of the questions are computational.

The scoring on the test is strictly the number of correct answers, with no penalty deducted for wrong answers or bad guesses. Therefore, you should answer every question. Once you have selected an answer to a question, take an extra second or two to make sure it makes sense. As obvious examples, the change you receive from a purchase shouldn’t be more than the money you gave the clerk, or the discounted cost of an item shouldn’t be more than the original price.

Types of Questions
The GED® Math Reasoning test has five types of questions: multiple-choice, drop-down, fill-in-the-blank, hot-spot, and drag-and-drop.

Multiple-Choice Items
The usual multiple-choice questions are a major part of the test, but not all of the questions are multiple-choice. These questions have four answers from which to choose, designated A, B, C, and D. You don’t necessarily have to come up with the correct answer from scratch—you only have to be able identify the correct answer among the four choices. You should be able to eliminate one or more of the answer choices without any calculation if they are obviously wrong (for example, the problem asks for a whole number and one answer choice is a fraction or decimal), or inappropriate (for example, the problem indicates that the answer will be in the set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} and the answer choice is 6). To choose an answer, click next to the letter for that choice.

Drop-Down Items
Drop-down items
are a variation of multiple-choice questions. These are responses that are embedded directly in the text, and you click on one of three to five given choices to make the statement true.

Fill-in-the-Blank Items
Fill-in-the-blank
questions involve problems for which you type your answer in a box. It can be the value you got from doing a specific calculation, a one-word or one-phrase answer to a question, or an equation you would use to solve a problem. Fill-in-the-blank questions may have more than one blank to fill in. These questions are similar to multiple-choice questions except that you aren’t given any choices for your answer. You must come up with the answer on your own and type it in a box that is part of the question. Don’t be concerned about entering extra spaces as you type your answer because the extra spaces are automatically deleted when the test is scored.

A symbol selector sheet is provided on-screen so that you can use symbols in your answer. Each question of this type will state which symbols may be used in your answer.

Hot-Spot Items
Hot-spot
items require some computer skill in moving the cursor exactly where you want it. These items accompany some sort of graphic on which you click a location to insert a point on a coordinate grid, number line, dot plot, or an edge on a geometric figure. If you change your mind about the placement of a point, clicking that point again will delete it and you will be able to insert a new point on the graph. Occasionally, you will be asked to plot, say, three points. If you try to insert a fourth one, you will be prompted that you have already inserted the requested number of points. You can then delete one of the other points to replace it with the new point.

Drag-and-Drop Items
Likewise, drag-and-drop items require computer dexterity in moving the cursor to drag small images on the screen, such as words or parts of numerical expressions (e.g., numbers, operators, or variables), and drop them into boxes where they make sense. Typically, you are given some choices to drag into boxes.

Online Resources
The test provides many helpful resources (virtual calculator, calculator reference sheet, a formula sheet, and erasable note boards that are to be used as scratchpads—even a time clock so you can pace yourself ). It is essential that you be familiar with each of these so you can easily use them during the test. They will cut down on your test-taking time as well as help with the accuracy of your answers.

The two choices at the lower right corner of each screen are important to bear in mind. One is “Next,” which you have to click to go to the next question. The other is “Previous,” which comes in handy when all of a sudden you remember how to do a former question, or when you need the results from the last question to answer the present question. This may happen in a split-screen situation, where a graphic or table, for example, is displayed on the left side of the screen, and two or more questions about the same visual are asked on the right side of the screen.

Calculator
The GED® test is completely computer-based. Therefore, just as important as sharpening your mathematical reasoning skills is sharpening your computer and calculator skills. Calculator pages at the end of this chapter give step-by-step instructions for using the virtual TI-30XS MultiView™ calculator that is supplied on the test as a drop-down item on 90% of the questions.

The virtual calculator will help you do the computations, so you won’t have to worry about making mathematical errors—the calculator does most of the computations for you. Your main focus should be on understanding what is being asked. For that reason, this book presents the skills needed to do a problem and then lots of “word” problems so you can improve your mathematical reasoning skills. The actual computations are the easier parts of the problems.

Another drop-down item is a calculator reference sheet, which is an abbreviated chart that will give instructions on using the virtual calculator during the test. Even though you will have this sheet to help you during the test, it is highly recommended that you become familiar with a calculator prior to taking the test so you are not spending time during the test learning what you should already know. The step-by-step instructions provided at the end of this chapter are more detailed than the summary of steps provided on the calculator reference sheet.

Formula Sheet
A formula sheet is a drop-down item on the GED® test. It provides essential information necessary for answering problems. This formula sheet provides:

- The areas of a parallelogram and trapezoid
- The surface area and volume of various three-dimensional figures
- The slope of a line and the slope-intercept form and point-slope form of the equation of a line
- The standard form of a quadratic equation as well as the quadratic formula
- The Pythagorean Theorem
- The formula for simple interest

Throughout this book, whenever one of these formulas is used, the text tells whether it is on the formula sheet. You are expected to know certain formulas that are not on the sheet. These are also identified in this book when they are used.

Symbol Selector Sheet
For fill-in-the-blank questions, you may have to use symbols that are not readily available on the keyboard. To facilitate using symbols, the GED® test provides a symbol selector sheet as a drop-down item for those questions that require a symbol. When you choose a symbol, be sure to click on “Choose” and “Insert” from the bottom of the symbol selector sheet so that the symbol is included in your answer.

Erasable Note Board
You will be given an erasable note board on which to do your calculations or make notes (see gedtestingservice.com and search for “noteboards”). You are not allowed to use the note board before the test begins. If you need an additional note board during the test, you can request a “fresh” one but you must turn in the one that is used. You may have only one note board at a time, and you must turn in the note board at the end of the test. The note board takes the place of scratch paper, so use it for that purpose. It is erasable.

The best advice for using the note board is to practice writing small so you don’t have to get another note bord. Erase when you are sure you won’t need that information anymore. Before you even start with question 1 (but certainly after the test has begun), write (small) at the top of the note board anything you may need to jog your memory during the test. As examples, write PEMDAS to remind you of the order of operations, or the formulas for the circumference or area of a circle—whatever you think you might need and perhaps forget in the stress of taking the test.

Leave these reminders on the note board for the duration of the test. That’s why it’s a good idea to write small—you’ll still have space on the board to do calculations or sketch a figure.

Time Clock
A test-timer clock is located on the upper right-hand corner of the test display. You can minimize the clock or maintain it in view. However, during the final few minutes of the test, in order to make certain that you are aware that time is running out, the clock will appear and cannot be minimized.

It is a good idea to keep the clock in view to help you to pace yourself. The test allows a little less than two minutes per question, so if any multiple-choice or drop-down question seems to be taking more than a minute of your time, answer it to the best of your ability (eliminating obvious wrong choices), flag it for review (see next section), and go on to the next question.

It might be a good idea to mark on your note board the test number and the answers that you should look at again, so when you go back you aren’t rereading answers that you have already eliminated. Mark for review any other type of question that baffles you. Then, when you finish all of the questions, you should have enough time to go back to these questions.

Flag for Review
If you think you want to go back to any question, answer it to the best of your ability and then press the “Flag for Review” button to return to it later. If you can eliminate one or two choices, you can make an informed guess, but rather than taking too much time right then, flag that question, mark the number of the question and the remaining choices on your note board, go on to the next question, and come back later.

Often, your brain is working in the background while you continue the test, still mulling over the ones you flagged, and when you return to them, the answers may come to you right away. You definitely do not want any unread questions at the end of the test just because you ran out of time by spending too much time on a question that momentarily baffled you. By the way, the question number (written in the form “Question 1 of 50,” for example) is in the upper right corner above the Flag for Review option.

Flagging a question for review is an excellent idea. If it is taking more than a minute to figure out an answer, especially on a multiple-choice or drop-down question, mark your best guess (eliminating all of the obviously wrong options) and click on “Flag for Review” on the upper right side of the screen. When you have finished all of the questions, an Item Review Screen will appear, which will show which questions were answered and unanswered. The flag next to the question number will be filled in if you have flagged a question for review.

A menu at the right bottom of the screen will give you three choices: Review All, Review Unanswered, Review Flagged. If you choose Review Flagged, which you should at this point, it will take you through all of the flagged questions so you don’t have to waste time looking for them. Of course, if you click any specific question on the Review Screen, that question will pop up on the screen as well. But the Review Flagged button will save some time because it presents the flagged questions only, one right after the other when you press the “Next” button on the bottom right of the screen. To answer the flagged questions, refer to your notes on the note board about which choices you should consider (these should have excluded the already eliminated ones). Those notes will save time, as stated above in the Time Clock section.

When you have finished answering all of the flagged questions, the Item Review Screen reappears, and now you can choose Review Unanswered. If you absolutely don’t know an answer, just guess as best you can, click “Next,” and go on to the next unanswered question. Do not leave any question unanswered. There is always a chance that you guessed the correct answer, which will improve your score. If you answer incorrectly or not at all, you get a zero for that question, so it is better to guess than to give up.

At the end of the test, click on “End Test” in the lower left corner of the Item Review Screen, if it indicates that all questions have been answered. If there are any that are still unanswered, click on them individually to fill in an answer before you click “End Test.”

Practice Tests
This book, although paper-based, presents practice test questions in a format that is easily translatable to the computer-based format.

The GED® Testing Service provides a free sample test (not full-length) with limited functionality (go to www.gedtestingservice.com to find it). In addition, starting in November 2013, the official GED® practice test, called GED Ready™, will be available for a nominal fee (go to www.gedmarketplace.com, and be sure you get the 2014 version).

You are expected to be familiar with the testing environment before you take the actual test. Therefore, the GED® Testing Service provides a no-cost computer skills tutorial to be taken prior to the actual testing appointment. Go to www.gedtestingservice.com and search for “computer tutorials”.

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Table of Contents

About the Author
Author Acknowledgments
Author Dedication
About Correlations to GED® Assessment Targets
About Research & Education Association
Research & Education Association Acknowledgments

Chapter 1: About the Next-Generation GED® Math Test
How This Book Can Help
What to Expect on the GED® Mathematical Reasoning Test
Types of Questions
Online Resources
Practice Tests
Calculator Instructions

Chapter 2: “I Was Born Knowing That”
The Number Line
Addition and Subtraction
Multiplication
Division
Exercises
Solutions

Chapter 3: The Parts of the Whole
Decimals
Fractions
Ratios and Proportions
Percentages
The Relations Among Decimals, Fractions, and Percentages
Real-World Situations
Exercises
Solutions

Chapter 4: Power Play
Powers
Roots
Order of Operations
Scientific Notation
Exercises
Solutions

Chapter 5: Algebra—Not a Four-letter Word
Setting up Equations
Working with Algebraic Expressions
Evaluating Algebraic Expressions
Solving Linear Equations
Simultaneous Equations
Inequalities
Exercises
Solutions

Chapter 6: The X (Squared) Factor
Polynomials
Quadratic Equations
Functions
Exercises
Solutions

Chapter 7: The Shape of Things
Lines and Angles
Triangles
Quadrilaterals
Circles
Composite Two-Dimensional Figures
Three-Dimensional Figures
Composite Three-Dimensional Figures
Exercises
Solutions

Chapter 8: What Are the Chances?
Counting
Permutations and Combinations
Probability
Data
Central Tendency
Spread of Data
Statistics
Exercises
Solutions

GED® Math Practice Test 1
Answer Key
Detailed Solutions

GED® Math Practice Test 2
Answer Key
Detailed Solutions

Glossary
Index

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