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Gender, Conflict, and Development

Gender, Conflict, and Development

by Tsjeard Bouta, Georg Frerks, Ian Bannon, Georg Frerks, Ian Bannon

ISBN-10: 0821359681

ISBN-13: 9780821359686

Pub. Date: 11/15/2004

Publisher: World Bank Publications

Gender, Conflict, and Development was written as an effort to fill a gap between the Bank's work on gender mainstreaming and its agenda in conflict and development. The authors identify a link between gender and conflict issues and provide the most comprehensive review of external and internal sources on gender and conflict, with a particular focus on policy relevance


Gender, Conflict, and Development was written as an effort to fill a gap between the Bank's work on gender mainstreaming and its agenda in conflict and development. The authors identify a link between gender and conflict issues and provide the most comprehensive review of external and internal sources on gender and conflict, with a particular focus on policy relevance for an institution such as the Bank.

The book highlights the gender dimensions of conflict, organized around major relevant themes such as female combatants, sexual violence, formal and informal peace processes, the legal framework, work, the rehabilitation of social services and community-driven development. And for each theme it analyzes how conflict changes gender roles and the policy options that might be considered to build on positive aspects while minimizing adverse changes.

The suggested policy options and approaches aim to take advantage of the opportunity afforded by violent conflict to encourage change and build more inclusive and gender balanced social, economic and political relations in post-conflict societies. The book concludes by identifying some of the remaining challenges and themes that require additional analysis and research.

The book will be of interest to policymakers, scholars, researchers, graduate and upper-level undergraduate students of conflict studies/regional studies/gender studies.

Product Details

World Bank Publications
Publication date:
Stand Alones Series
Edition description:
New Edition
Product dimensions:
6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 0.51(d)

Table of Contents

About the Authorsxv
Executive Summaryxix
Objectives and Focus2
Terminology and Concepts2
The Bank's Approach to Gender and Conflict6
The Links among Gender, Conflict, and Development8
2Gender and Warfare: Female Combatants and Soldiers' Wives9
Women in Conflict11
Gender Roles in Armies12
Gender Relations in the Army15
Development Challenges: Providing Post-Conflict Assistance to Female Ex-Soldiers17
Policy Options22
3Gender-Based and Sexual Violence: A Multidimensional Approach33
GBV and Conflict34
Gender-Specific Roles: Types of GBV35
Dynamics: A GBV Continuum37
Development Challenges: A Multidimensional Approach38
Policy Options39
4Gender and Formal Peace Processes49
Gender Roles in the Peace Process50
Dynamics: Struggling for Participation54
Development Challenges: Gender-Sensitizing the Political Process57
Policy Options58
5Gender, Informal Peace Processes, and Rebuilding Civil Society65
Gender Roles in Informal Peace Processes66
Dynamics: Readjusting the Work on Peace, Rehabilitation, and Development69
Development Challenges: The Need for Sustained External Support70
Policy Options71
6Gender-Sensitizing the Post-Conflict Legal Framework77
Gender-Specific Laws, Adequate Judicial Recourse, and Equal Access to Legal Services78
Dynamics: Non-Statutory Law and the Legacy of Violence80
Development Challenges: Post-Conflict Legal Foundations and Engendering the Rule of Law81
Policy Options83
7Gender and Work: Creating Equal Labor Market Opportunities89
Linking Gender and Work91
Gender-Specific Roles in Urban and Agricultural Work93
Dynamics: Changing Labor Market Prospects95
Development Challenges: Capitalizing on Changing Labor Divisions and New Skills99
General Policy Options99
Rural Policy Options101
Informal Sector Policy Options103
Formal Sector Policy Options107
8Gender and Rehabilitating Social Services: A Focus on Education111
Gender-Specific Roles and Needs113
Dynamics: Complex Interactions but Also Opportunities114
Development Challenges: Sustained, Gender-Sensitive Services117
Policy Options118
9Gender and Community-Driven Development123
Gender Aspects of Social Capital and Cohesion124
Development Dynamics: Empowering Communities and Promoting Social Cohesion through CDD124
Development Challenges: Addressing Constraints on Women's Participation125
Policy Options128
10Policy Options133
Capitalizing on Empowering Gender Role Changes134
Intra-Organizational Requirements140
Objectives, Timing, Target Groups, and Dilemmas142
11Further Analysis on Gender, Conflict, and Development145
Specific Gender Roles146
Masculinity, Feminity, and Gender Relations148
Young Men at Risk148
Is There a Gender Dimension in Reintegrating Child Soldiers?149
Gender and Other Differential Factors150
Macroeconomic Policies and Institution Building in Post-Conflict Settings150
Linking Gender, Conflict, and Development Cooperation151
Social Capital, Cohesion, and Gender152
More Attention to Transformative Approaches153
2.1Women Tamil Tigers Take on Combat Roles13
2.2Soldiers in Support Roles Are Excluded from Assistance14
2.3Women, Girls, and Boys Are Forcefully Recruited into Civil Wars15
2.4Gender Relations Break with Tradition in Nepal's Maoist Army16
2.5Female Soldiers Hide Their Identity18
2.6Abducted Women in Sierra Leone Flee from the Army19
2.7Mozambique's AMODEG, a Veterans' Organization, Reaches Out to Women30
2.8Women Support Reintegration in Sierra Leone31
3.1Medica Zenica Project Aids Female GBV Survivors in Bosnia and Herzegovina39
3.2Anima Establishes a GBV Hotline40
3.3Different Methods Are Used to Raise GBV Awareness among Men41
3.4Is There Too Much Research and Not Enough Action?42
3.5IRC's Tanzania GBV Program Helps Burundian Female Refugees44
3.6Peace Operations in Cambodia Had Negative Social Impacts46
4.1Building Women's Alliances in Burundi, Liberia, and Northern Ireland53
4.2Women Participated in El Salvador's Peace Negotiations54
4.3Women's Post-Conflict Political Participation Increases over Time56
4.4A "Women Can Do It" Campaign Unfolds in Southeastern Europe58
4.5Burundi's Peace Process Incorporates Gender and Women's Issues59
4.6Cambodian Women's NGOs Train Successful Women Political Candidates60
4.7Women Played an Active Political Role in Post-Conflict East Timor62
5.1Women Rally to Promote Peace in Colombia66
5.2Women's Peace Activism Brought on Pivotal Changes in Sierra Leone68
5.3Women's Refugee NGOs Lose Power in Post-Conflict Guatemala70
5.4Rwandan Women Move from Informal to Formal Politics73
6.1Taking Constitutional Steps in Post-Conflict Afghanistan81
6.2Centers Provide Legal Advice to Women in Southeastern Europe82
6.3CEDAW Gender Balances Uganda's Constitution83
6.4Inclusive Legislation Is Drafted in Cambodia and Eritrea85
7.1Women Faced Discrimination in Land Transfer Program94
7.2Women's Access to Land Remains an Issue in Rwanda96
7.3Women's Post-Conflict Participation in Formal Employment Varies98
7.4Women Face a Post-Conflict Struggle for Land Access and Ownership102
7.5Women's Organizations Are Revived in Rwanda103
7.6Women Can Benefit from Microcredit Programs105
7.7Vocational Training Programs for Women Are Found Lacking106
7.8Gender Analysis Identifies Measures to Increase Female Participation109
8.1Community Education Fills the Schooling Gap during Conflict116
8.2Home-Schooling Girls in Afghanistan Addresses Educational Needs119
9.1CDD in the West Bank and Gaza Embraces Women126
9.2Women Gain Equal Representation on Local Councils in Timor-Leste127
10.1Policy Options135

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