Gender in Cross-Cultural Perspective / Edition 5

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Overview

This reader introduces students/readers to the most significant topics in the field of anthropology of gender–drawing not only from classic sources, but also from the most recent, diverse literature on gender roles and ideology around the world. It takes a clear, accessible approach to the subject matter, making coverage appropriate for students from various levels.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780136061328
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 7/17/2008
  • Series: MySearchLab Series 15% off Series
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 5
  • Pages: 600
  • Product dimensions: 6.80 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Caroline Brettell received her BA degree from Yale University and her MA and Ph.D. degrees from Brown University. She joined the faculty of the Department of Anthropology at Southern Methodist University in 1988, and in 2003 was named Dedman Family Distinguished Professor. From 1989-1994 she served as Director of Women's Studies and from 1994-2004 she served as Chair of the Department of Anthropology. She is the author of Men Who Migrate, Women Who Wait: Population and History in a Portuguese Parish (1986), We Have Already Cried Many Tears: The Stories of Three Portuguese Migrant Women (1982, 1995), Writing Against the Wind: A Mother's Life History (1999) and Anthropology and Migration: Essays on Transnationalism, Ethnicity and Identity (2003); co-author with Richard Brettell of Painters and Peasants in the 19th Century (1983); editor of When The Read What We Write: The Politics of Ethnography (1993); coeditor of International Migration: The Female Experience (1986), Gender in Cross-Cultural Perspective (Prentice-Hall 1993, 1997, 2001, 2005), Gender and Health: An International Perspective (1996), and Migration Theory: Talking Across Disciplines (2000). She is also the author of numerous book chapters and articles. She currently is Principal Investigator on a project funded through the Cultural Anthropology Program of the National Science Foundation titled "Immigrants, Rights and Incorporation in a Suburban Metropolis." Professor Brettell has served as a member of NIH Study Section-SNEM 3, and several selection panels for the Social Science Research Council and the NEH. She has served as President of the Society for the Anthropology of Europe and of the Social Science History Association.

Carolyn Sargent received her Bachelors degree from Michigan State University, her MA degree from the University of Manchester, and her Ph.D. from Michigan State University. She joined the faculty of the Department of Anthropology at Southern Methodist University in 1979. She has been serving as Director of Women's Studies since 1994. She is currently a research fellow at the University of Paris V. Sargent is the author of The Cultural Context of Therapeutic Choice: Obstetrical Decisions Among the Bariba of Benin (1982), and Maternity, Medicine and Power; Reproductive Decisions in Urban Benin (1989); and coeditor of Medical Anthropology: A Handbook of Theory and Method, Gender in Cross-Cultural Perspective (Prentice-Hall 1993, 1997, 2001, 2005), Gender and Health: An International Perspective (1996); Childbirth and Authoritative Knowledge (1997), and Small Wars: The Cultural Politics of Childhood. In addition to several book chapters, she has also authored numerous articles, many of them published in Medical Anthropological Quarterly and Social Science and Medicine. She is the recipient of many research grants and fellowships and is currently Principal Investigator of a project funded through the Cultural Anthropology Program of the National Science Foundation titled "Reproduction and Representations of Family among Malian Migrants in Paris." She is currently serving on a Senior Advisory Panel of the National Science Foundation and on the Executive Board for the Society for Medical Anthropology. In Dallas she serves as a Community Representative for both Parkland and Baylor Hospitals.

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Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface

The initial idea for this reader came from the experience of teaching undergraduate courses in gender and anthropology. In reviewing the textbooks available for an introductory course, we came to the conclusion that there was a need for a readable text that built on the classic contributions of the 1970s while also incorporating the more recent and diverse literature on gender roles and ideology around the world. Although a number of sophisticated theoretical works devoted to this subject existed, we felt there was a dearth of classroom material available in one volume and appropriate for less advanced students, whether undergraduates or beginning graduate students.

We have had five goals in mind as we selected materials for the third edition. First, as in previous editions, we want to introduce students to the most significant topics in the field of the anthropology of gender. These include the study of men and women in prehistory; the relationship between biology and culture; the cultural construction of masculinity, femininity, and sexuality; variations in the sexual division of labor and economic organization; women's involvement in ritual and religion; and the impact on gender issues of various forces of change such as colonialism, the rise of the state, and the global economy.

Second, we think it is important to maintain the broad cross-cultural coverage evident in earlier editions. This breadth encourages comparative analysis of the themes under discussion and allows us to address issues of gender in industrial society as well as in developing societies.

Third, we have expanded our efforts to complement researchon women's lives with articles that deal with masculinity and male gender roles. Although a truly balanced reader may not yet be possible, feminist theory is increasingly being applied to the study of men. We think this edition includes some of the most exciting new research in this domain.

Fourth, we have always been committed to combining theoretically and ethnographically based articles in each section of the book. We hope that we have compiled a volume that can stand alone or, if the instructor so desires, can be complemented by the use of full ethnographies.

Fifth, in every edition we have included introductions to each section that review as clearly as possible some of the significant issues debated in particular subject areas in the anthropology of gender. These introductions, updated for the current edition, are intended to orient students to the articles in the section and to provide a context in which readers can more fully understand each article. Each introduction concludes with a list of references that can be used by teachers and students to examine further the questions raised in that section.

We do not expect all instructors to assign the sections in the order that they appear in the text. This order makes sense to us, but our ultimate goal is to provide for maximum flexibility in teaching. We also have no intention of imposing a particular theoretical perspective, although our own predilections may be apparent to some readers. We include readings that reflect a variety of theoretical orientations to enable instructors to emphasize their own approach to the subject.

The text concludes with an updated list of recommended films organized by sections of this book. We have reviewed many of these films, and we hope that all of them will successfully complement the readings in the text.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Many people have contributed substantially to the preparation and development of this book. For the first edition, Andrew Webb provided invaluable clerical and organizational assistance. The undergraduate students in Professor Sargent's Sex Roles course during the fall semester of 1990 and the fall semester of 1995 offered valuable criticisms of selected articles. Their opinions continue to influence us enormously in the final selection process. John Phinney acted as an invaluable library of knowledge for obscure references; Sue Linder-Linsley offered indispensable computer advice and tirelessly scanned in text to save us time in the preparation of the second edition; and Sue Racine and Scott Langley contributed clerical assistance. Tim Benner and Louann Miller worked conscientiously to help us complete the third edition. We are also grateful to Southern Methodist University for various forms o£ support over the years.

We want to thank the reviewers of the original manuscript, and the professors around the world who have used previous editions and offered valuable suggestions for improvements to the third edition. We thank our project assistant Angela Stone who answered numerous queries during the summer and fall of 1999. Finally, we are grateful to Nancy Roberts and Sharon Chambliss of Prentice Hall for their confidence in our judgment and their constant support of this project. We have a wonderful partnership!

Caroline B. Brettell
Carolyn F. Sargent

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Table of Contents

Preface
I Biology, Gender, and Human Evolution 1
Perspectives on the Evolution of Sex Differences 5
The Role of Women in Human Evolution 14
Conflict and Violence Among the !Kung 19
The Case for Social Maternity: Adoption of Children by Urban Baule Women 25
Lifeboat Ethics: Mother Love and Child Death in Northeast Brazil 31
II Archaeology and Gender 38
Men and Women in Prehistory: An Archaeological Challenge 41
Diversity of the Upper Paleolithic "Venus" Figurines and Archeological Mythology 51
Maya Royal Women: A Lesson in Precolumbian History 59
III Domestic Worlds and Public Worlds 64
The Domestic Sphere of Women and the Public World of Men: The Strengths and Limitations of an Anthropological Dichotomy 67
"It's a Pleasure to Cook for Him": Food, Mealtimes and Gender in Some South Wales Households 77
Freed from the Elders but Locked into Labor: Korean Immigrant Women in Hawaii 87
Public and Private Politics: Women in the Middle Eastern World 94
IV The Cultural Construction of Gender and Personhood 107
Rituals of Manhood: Male Initiation in Papua New Guinea 111
Hausa Socialization 116
The Named and the Nameless: Gender and Person in Chinese Society 120
Menstruation and the Power of Yurok Women 133
V Culture and Sexuality 149
Women and Men in !Kung Society 154
The Manhood Puzzle 163
Neither Man nor Woman: The Hijras of India 175
Amazons of America: Female Gender Variance 179
Children of Gay Fathers 191
VI Equality and Inequality: The Sexual Division of Labor and Gender Stratification 201
Hunters and Gatherers: Woman the Hunter: The Agta 206
Horticulturalists: Woman's Day Among the Mundurucu 216
Agriculturalists: Haruko's Work 225
Pastoralists: The Position of Women in a Pastoral Society (The Fulani WoDaaBe, Nomads of the Niger) 235
VII Gender, Property, and the State 246
Gender and Class: An Archaeology of Knowledge Concerning the Origin of the State 250
The Virgin and the State 257
Women's Property Rights and Dowry in China and South Asia 268
The Legal and Social Transformation of Rural Women in Aegean Turkey 278
VIII Gender, Household, and Kinship 297
Domestic Networks: "Those You Count On" 301
Matrifocality, Power, and Gender Relations in Jamaica 310
Maria, A Portuguese Fisherwoman 318
The Female World of Cards and Holidays: Women, Families, and the Work of Kinship 322
IX Gender, Ritual, and Religion 332
"We Are Mayordomo": A Reinterpretation of Women's Roles in the Mexican Cargo System 337
Divine Connections: The Mansin and Her Clients 353
Mama Lola and the Ezilis: Themes of Mothering and Loving in Haitian Vodou 364
Blessed Mother Ann, Holy Mother Wisdom: Gender and Divinity in Shaker Life and Belief 373
X Gender, Politics, and Reproduction 381
The Politics of Reproduction in a Mexican Village 385
Procreation Stories: Reproduction, Nurturance, and Procreation in Life Narratives of Abortion Activists 396
The Movement Against Clitoridectomy and Infibulation in Sudan: Public Health Policy and the Women's Movement 411
Female Infanticide and Child Neglect in Rural North India 423
XI Colonialism and Development 436
New England Missionary Wives, Hawaiian Women and 'The Cult of True Womanhood' 441
"Aba Riots" or Igbo "Women's War"? Ideology, Stratification, and the Invisibility of Women 457
Debating the Impact of Development on Women 473
Doing Their Homework: The Dilemma of Planning Women's Garden Programs in Bangladesh 479
The "Comparative Advantages" of Women's Disadvantages: Women Workers in the Strawberry Export Agribusiness in Mexico 486
Film List 500
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Preface

The initial idea for this reader came from the experience of teaching undergraduate courses in gender and anthropology. In reviewing the textbooks available for an introductory course, we came to the conclusion that there was a need for a readable text that built on the classic contributions of the 1970s while also incorporating the more recent and diverse literature on gender roles and ideology around the world. Although a number of sophisticated theoretical works devoted to this subject existed, we felt there was a dearth of classroom material available in one volume and appropriate for less advanced students, whether undergraduates or beginning graduate students.

We have had five goals in mind as we selected materials for the third edition. First, as in previous editions, we want to introduce students to the most significant topics in the field of the anthropology of gender. These include the study of men and women in prehistory; the relationship between biology and culture; the cultural construction of masculinity, femininity, and sexuality; variations in the sexual division of labor and economic organization; women's involvement in ritual and religion; and the impact on gender issues of various forces of change such as colonialism, the rise of the state, and the global economy.

Second, we think it is important to maintain the broad cross-cultural coverage evident in earlier editions. This breadth encourages comparative analysis of the themes under discussion and allows us to address issues of gender in industrial society as well as in developing societies.

Third, we have expanded our efforts to complement research on women's lives with articles that dealwith masculinity and male gender roles. Although a truly balanced reader may not yet be possible, feminist theory is increasingly being applied to the study of men. We think this edition includes some of the most exciting new research in this domain.

Fourth, we have always been committed to combining theoretically and ethnographically based articles in each section of the book. We hope that we have compiled a volume that can stand alone or, if the instructor so desires, can be complemented by the use of full ethnographies.

Fifth, in every edition we have included introductions to each section that review as clearly as possible some of the significant issues debated in particular subject areas in the anthropology of gender. These introductions, updated for the current edition, are intended to orient students to the articles in the section and to provide a context in which readers can more fully understand each article. Each introduction concludes with a list of references that can be used by teachers and students to examine further the questions raised in that section.

We do not expect all instructors to assign the sections in the order that they appear in the text. This order makes sense to us, but our ultimate goal is to provide for maximum flexibility in teaching. We also have no intention of imposing a particular theoretical perspective, although our own predilections may be apparent to some readers. We include readings that reflect a variety of theoretical orientations to enable instructors to emphasize their own approach to the subject.

The text concludes with an updated list of recommended films organized by sections of this book. We have reviewed many of these films, and we hope that all of them will successfully complement the readings in the text.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Many people have contributed substantially to the preparation and development of this book. For the first edition, Andrew Webb provided invaluable clerical and organizational assistance. The undergraduate students in Professor Sargent's Sex Roles course during the fall semester of 1990 and the fall semester of 1995 offered valuable criticisms of selected articles. Their opinions continue to influence us enormously in the final selection process. John Phinney acted as an invaluable library of knowledge for obscure references; Sue Linder-Linsley offered indispensable computer advice and tirelessly scanned in text to save us time in the preparation of the second edition; and Sue Racine and Scott Langley contributed clerical assistance. Tim Benner and Louann Miller worked conscientiously to help us complete the third edition. We are also grateful to Southern Methodist University for various forms o£ support over the years.

We want to thank the reviewers of the original manuscript, and the professors around the world who have used previous editions and offered valuable suggestions for improvements to the third edition. We thank our project assistant Angela Stone who answered numerous queries during the summer and fall of 1999. Finally, we are grateful to Nancy Roberts and Sharon Chambliss of Prentice Hall for their confidence in our judgment and their constant support of this project. We have a wonderful partnership!

Caroline B. Brettell
Carolyn F. Sargent

Read More Show Less

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