The tenth edition of this market-leading text has been substantially revised to meet the rapidly changing instructional demands of GENERAL CHEMISTRY professors. Known for its carefully developed, thoroughly integrated, step-by-step approach to problem solving, GENERAL CHEMISTRY helps students master quantitative skills and build a lasting conceptual understanding of key chemical concepts. The tenth edition retains this hallmark approach and builds upon the conceptual focus through key new features and revisions.
Darrell Ebbing has taught general chemistry for more than thirty years and is now retired from Wayne State University. He received his Ph.D. in physical chemistry from Indiana University.
Steven D. Gammon is a professor of chemistry at Western Washington University and a leader in the development of multimedia-based software for chemical education. He has contributed greatly to the increased emphasis on conceptual understanding in the text.
I. Basics of Chemistry 1. Chemistry and Measurement An Introduction to Chemistry 1.1 Modern Chemistry: A Brief Glimpse 1.2 Experiment and Explanation A Chemist Looks at The Birth of the Post-it Note 1.3 Law of Conservation of Mass 1.4 Matter: Physical State and Chemical Constitution Physical Measurements 1.5 Measurement and Significant Figures Instrumental Methods Separation of Mixtures by Chromatography 1.6 SI Units 1.7 Derived Units 1.8 Units and Dimensional Analysis (Factor-Label Method) 2. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Atomic Theory and Atomic Structure 2.1 Atomic Theory of Matter 2.2 The Structure of the Atom 2.3 Nuclear Structure; Isotopes 2.4 Atomic Masses 2.5 Periodic Table of the Elements Chemical Substances: Formulas and Names 2.6 Chemical Formulas; Molecular and Ionic Substances A Chemist Looks at Thirty Seconds on the Island of Stability 2.7 Organic Compounds 2.8 Naming Simple Compounds Chemical Reactions: Equations 2.9 Writing Chemical Equations 2.10 Balancing Chemical Equations 3. Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations Mass and Moles of Substance 3.1 Molecular Mass and Formula Mass 3.2 The Mole Concept Determining Chemical Formulas 3.3 Mass Percentages from the Formula 3.4 Elemental Analysis: Percentages of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen 3.5 Determining Formulas Instrumental Methods Mass Spectrometry and Molecular Formula Stoichiometry: Quantitative Relations in Chemical Reactions 3.6 Molar Interpretation of a Chemical Equation 3.7 Amounts of Substances in a Chemical Reaction 3.8 Limiting Reactant; Theoretical and Percentage Yields 4. Chemical Reactions Ions in Aqueous Solution 4.1 Ionic Theory of Solutions and Solubility Rules 4.2 Molecular and Ionic Equations Types of Chemical Reactions 4.3 Precipitation Reactions 4.4 Acid-Base Reactions 4.5 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 4.6 Balancing Simple Oxidation-Reduction Equations Working with Solutions 4.7 Molar Concentration 4.8 Diluting Solutions Quantitative Analysis 4.9 Gravimetric Analysis 4.10 Volumetric Analysis 5. The Gaseous State Gas Laws 5.1 Gas Pressure and Its Measurement 5.2 Empirical Gas Laws 5.3 The Ideal Gas Law A Chemist Looks at Nitrogen Monoxide Gas and Biological Signaling 5.4 Stoichiometry Problems Involving Gas Volumes 5.5 Gas Mixtures; Law of Partial Pressures Kinetic-Molecular Theory 5.6 Kinetic Theory of an Ideal Gas 5.7 Molecular Speeds; Diffusion and Effusion 5.8 Real Gases A Chemist Looks at Carbon Dioxide Gas and the Greenhouse Effect 6. Thermochemistry Understanding Heats of Reaction 6.1 Energy and Its Units 6.2 Heat of Reaction 6.3 Enthalpy and Enthalpy Change 6.4 Thermochemical Equations A Chemist Looks at Lucifers and Other Matches 6.5 Applying Stoichiometry to Heats of Reaction 6.6 Measuring Heats of Reaction Using Heats of Reaction 6.7 Hess's Law 6.8 Standard Enthalpies of Formation 6.9 Fuels--Foods, Commercial Fuels, and Rocket Fuels II. Atomic and Molecular Structure 7. Quantum Theory of the Atom Light Waves, Photons, and the Bohr Theory 7.1 The Wave Nature of Light 7.2 Quantum Effects and Photons A Chemist Looks at Zapping Hamburger with Gamma Rays 7.3 The Bohr Theory of the Hydrogen Atom A Chemist Looks at Lasers and Compact Disc Players Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Numbers 7.4 Quantum Mechanics Instrumental Methods Scanning Tunneling Microscopy 7.5 Quantum Numbers and Atomic Orbitals 8. Electron Configurations and Periodicity Electronic Structure of Atoms 8.1 Electron Spin and the Pauli Exclusion Principle Instrumental Methods Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) 8.2 Building-Up Principle and the Periodic Table Instrumental Methods X Rays, Atomic Numbers, and Orbital Structure (Photoelectron Spectroscopy) 8.3 Writing Electron Configurations Using the Periodic Table 8.4 Orbital Diagrams of Atoms; Hund's Rule A Chemist Looks at Levitating Frogs and People Periodicity of the Elements 8.5 Mendeleev's Predictions from the Periodic Table 8.6 Some Periodic Properties 8.7 Periodicity in the Main-Group Elements 9. Ionic and Covalent Bonding Ionic Bonds 9.1 Describing Ionic Bonds A Chemist Looks at Ionic Liquids and Green Chemistry 9.2 Electron Configurations of Ions 9.3 Ionic Radii Covalent Bonds 9.4 Describing Covalent Bonds A Chemist Looks at Chemical Bonds in Nitroglycerin 9.5 Polar Covalent Bonds; Electronegativity 9.6 Writing Lewis Electron-Dot Formulas 9.7 Delocalized Bonding: Resonance 9.8 Exceptions to the Octet Rule 9.9 Formal Charge and Lewis Formulas 9.10 Bond Length and Bond Order 9.11 Bond Energy Instrumental Methods Infrared Spectroscopy and Vibrations of Chemical Bonds 10. Molecular Geometry and Chemical Bonding Theory Molecular Geometry and Directional Bonding 10.1 The Valence-Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Model 10.2 Dipole Moment and Molecular Geometry A Chemist Looks at Left-Handed and Right-Handed Molecules 10.3 Valence Bond Theory 10.4 Description of Multiple Bonding Molecular Orbital Theory 10.5 Principles of Molecular Orbital Theory 10.6 Electron Configurations of Diatomic Molecules of the Second-Period Elements 10.7 Molecular Orbitals and Delocalized Bonding A Chemist Looks at Human Vision A Chemist Looks at Stratospheric Ozone (An Absorber of Ultraviolet Rays) III. States of Matter and Solutions 11. States of Matter; Liquids and Solids 11.1 Comparison of Gases, Liquids, and Solids Changes of State 11.2 Phase Transitions 11.3 Phase Diagrams A Chemist Looks at Removing Caffeine from Coffee Liquid State 11.4 Properties of Liquids: Surface Tension and Viscosity 11.5 Intermolecular Forces; Explaining Liquid Properties A Chemist Looks at Gecko Toes, Sticky But Not Tacky Solid State 11.6 Classification of Solids by Type of Attraction of Units 11.7 Crystalline Solids; Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells 11.8 Structures of Some Crystalline Solids A Chemist Looks at Liquid-Crystal Displays 11.9 Calculations Involving Unit-Cell Dimensions 11.10 Determining Crystal Structure by X-Ray Diffraction Instrumental Methods Automated X-Ray Diffractometry A Chemist Looks at Water (A Special Substance for Planet Earth) 12. Solutions Solution Formation 12.1 Types of Solutions 12.2 Solubility and the Solution Process A Chemist Looks at Hemoglobin Solubility and Sickle-Cell Anemia 12.3 Effects of Temperature and Pressure on Solubility Colligative Properties 12.4 Ways of Expressing Concentration 12.5 Vapor Pressure of a Solution 12.6 Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point Depression 12.7 Osmosis 12.8 Colligative Properties of Ionic Solutions Colloid Formation 12.9 Colloids A Chemist Looks at The World's Smallest Test Tubes IV. Chemical Reactions and Equilibrium 13. Rates of Reaction Reaction Rates 13.1 Definition of Reaction Rate 13.2 Experimental Determination of Rate 13.3 Dependence of Rate on Concentration 13.4 Change of Concentration with Time 13.5 Temperature and Rate; Collision and Transition-State Theories 13.6 Arrhenius Equation Reaction Mechanisms 13.7 Elementary Reactions 13.8 The Rate Law and the Mechanism 13.9 Catalysis A Chemist Looks at Seeing Molecules React 14. Chemical Equilibrium Describing Chemical Equilibrium 14.1 Chemical Equilibrium--A Dynamic Equilibrium 14.2 The Equilibrium Constant 14.3 Heterogeneous Equilibria; Solvents in Homogeneous Equilibria A Chemist Looks at Slime Molds and Leopards' Spots Using the Equilibrium Constant 14.4 Qualitatively Interpreting the Equilibrium Constant 14.5 Predicting the Direction of Reaction 14.6 Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations Changing the Reaction Conditions; Le Châtelier's Principle 14.7 Removing Products or Adding Reactants 14.8 Changing the Pressure and Temperature 14.9 Effect of a Catalyst 15. Acids and Bases Acid-Base Concepts 15.1 Arrhenius Concept of Acids and Bases 15.2 Bronsted-Lowry Concept of Acids and Bases 15.3 Lewis Concept of Acids and Bases A Chemist Looks at Taking Your Medicine Acid and Base Strengths 15.4 Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases 15.5 Molecular Structure and Acid Strength Self-Ionization of Water and pH 15.6 Self-Ionization of Water 15.7 Solutions of a Strong Acid or Base 15.8 The pH of a Solution A Chemist Looks at Unclogging the Sink and Other Chores 16. Acid-Base Equilibria Solutions of a Weak Acid or Base 16.1 Acid-Ionization Equilibria 16.2 Polyprotic Acids A Chemist Looks at Acid Rain 16.3 Base-Ionization Equilibria 16.4 Acid-Base Properties of Salt Solutions Solutions of a Weak Acid or Base with Another Solute 16.5 Common-Ion Effect 16.6 Buffers 16.7 Acid-Base Titration Curves 17. Solubility and Complex-Ion Equilibria Solubility Equilibria 17.1 The Solubility Product Constant 17.2 Solubility and the Common-Ion Effect 17.3 Precipitation Calculations 17.4 Effect of pH on Solubility A Chemist Looks at Limestone Caves Complex-Ion Equilibria 17.5 Complex-Ion Formation 17.6 Complex Ions and Solubility An Application of Solubility Equilibria 17.7 Qualitative Analysis of Metal Ions 18. Thermodynamics and Equilibrium 18.1 First Law of Thermodynamics; Enthalpy Spontaneous Processes and Entropy 18.2 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics 18.3 Standard Entropies and the Third Law of Thermodynamics Free-Energy Concept 18.4 Free Energy and Spontaneity 18.5 Interpretation of Free Energy A Chemist Looks at Coupling of Reactions Free Energy and Equilibrium Constants 18.6 Relating ?G to the Equilibrium Constant 18.7 Change of Free Energy with Temperature 19. Electrochemistry Half-Reactions 19.1 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Reactions in Acidic and Basic Solutions Voltaic Cells 19.2 Construction of Voltaic Cells 19.3 Notation for Voltaic Cells 19.4 Cell Potential 19.5 Standard Cell Potentials and Standard Electrode Potentials 19.6 Equilibrium Constants from Cell Potentials 19.7 Dependence of Cell Potential on Concentration 19.8 Some Commercial Voltaic Cells Electrolytic Cells 19.9 Electrolysis of Molten Salts 19.10 Aqueous Electrolysis 19.11 Stoichiometry of Electrolysis V. Nuclear Chemistry and Chemistry of the Elements 20. Nuclear Chemistry Radioactivity and Nuclear Bombardment Reactions 20.1 Radioactivity A Chemist Looks at Magic Numbers 20.2 Nuclear Bombardment Reactions 20.3 Radiations and Matter: Detection and Biological Effects 20.4 Rate of Radioactive Decay 20.5 Applications of Radioactive Isotopes Energy of Nuclear Reactions A Chemist Looks at Positron Emission Tomography (PET) 20.6 Mass-Energy Calculations 20.7 Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion 21. Chemistry of the Main-Group Elements 21.1 General Observations About the Main-Group Elements Chemistry of the Main-Group Metals 21.2 Metals: Characteristics and Production 21.3 Bonding in Metals A Chemist Looks at Superconductivity 21.4 Group IVA: The Alkali Metals 21.5 Group IIA: The Alkaline Earth Metals 21.6 Group IIIA and Group IVA Metals Chemistry of the Nonmetals 21.7 Hydrogen 21.8 Group IVA: The Carbon Family 21.9 Group VA: Nitrogen and the Phosphorous Family A Chemist Looks at Buckminsterfullerene--A Third Form of Carbon 21.10 Group VIA: Oxygen and the Sulfur Family 21.11 Group VIIA: The Halogens 21.12 Group VIIIA: The Noble Gases 22. The Transition Elements and Coordination Compounds Properties of the Transition Elements 22.1 Periodic Trends in the Transition Elements 22.2 The Chemistry of Two Transition Elements Complex Ions and Coordination Compounds 22.3 Formation and Structure of Complexes 22.4 Naming Coordination Compounds A Chemist Looks at Salad Dressing and Chelate Stability 22.5 Structure and Isomerism in Coordination Compounds 22.6 Valence Bond Theory of Complexes 22.7 Crystal Field Theory A Chemist Looks at The Cooperative Release of Oxygen from Oxyhemoglobin 23. Organic Chemistry 23.1 The Bonding of Carbon Hydrocarbons 23.2 Alkanes and Cycloalkanes 23.3 Alkenes and Alkynes 23.4 Aromatic Hydrocarbons 23.5 Naming Hydrocarbons Derivatives of Hydrocarbons 23.6 Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen 23.7 Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen 24. Polymer Materials: Synthetic and Biological Synthetic Polymers 24.1 Synthesis of Organic Polymers Chemist Looks at The Discovery of Nylon 24.2 Electrically Conducting Polymers Biological Polymers 24.3 Proteins 24.4 Nucleic Acids A Chemist Looks at Tobacco Mosaic Virus and Atomic Force Microscopy Appendixes A. Mathematical Skills B. Vapor Pressure of Water at Various Temperatures C. Thermodynamic Quantities for Substances and Ions at 25 C D. Electron Configurations of Atoms in the Ground State E. Acid-Ionization Constants at 25 C F. Base-Ionization Constants at 25 C G. Solubility Product Constants at 25 C H. Formation Constants of Complex Ions at 25 C I. Standard Electrode (Reduction) Potentials in Aqueous Solution at 25 C Answers to Exercises Answers to Concept Checks Answers to Self-Assessment Questions Answers to Selected Odd-Numbered Problems Glossary Credits Index