This ENHANCED EDITION has been specially updated to include instant access to ENHANCED WEBASSIGN, the most widely-used and reliable homework system. Also, as an added bonus, the Start Smart Guide has been bound into this text to help you learn the basics of WebAssign quickly. Known for its carefully developed, thoroughly integrated, step-by-step approach to problem solving, General Chemistry helps you master quantitative skills and build a lasting conceptual understanding of key chemical concepts. The Ninth Edition retains this hallmark approach and builds upon the conceptual focus through key new features and revisions.
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Meet the Author
Darrell Ebbing has taught general chemistry for more than thirty years and is now retired from Wayne State University. He received his Ph.D. in physical chemistry from Indiana University.
Steven D. Gammon is a professor of chemistry at Western Washington University and a leader in the development of multimedia-based software for chemical education. He has contributed greatly to the increased emphasis on conceptual understanding in the text.
Part I: BASICS OF CHEMISTRY. 1. Chemistry and Measurement. An Introduction to Chemistry. Modern Chemistry: A Brief Glimpse. Experiment and Explanation. A Chemist Looks at The Birth of the Post-it Note. Law of Conservation of Mass. Matter: Physical State and Chemical Constitution. Physical Measurements. Measurement and Significant Figures. Instrumental Methods Separation of Mixtures by Chromatography. SI Units. Derived Units. Units and Dimensional Analysis (Factor-Label Method). 2. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions. Atomic Theory and Atomic Structure. Atomic Theory of Matter. The Structure of the Atom. Nuclear Structure; Isotopes. Atomic Masses. Periodic Table of the Elements. Chemical Substances: Formulas and Names. Chemical Formulas; Molecular and Ionic Substances. A Chemist Looks at Thirty Seconds on the Island of Stability. Organic Compounds. Naming Simple Compounds. Chemical Reactions: Equations. Writing Chemical Equations. Balancing Chemical Equations. 3. Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations. Mass and Moles of Substance. Molecular Mass and Formula Mass. The Mole Concept. Determining Chemical Formulas. Mass Percentages from the Formula. Elemental Analysis: Percentages of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen. Determining Formulas. Instrumental Methods Mass Spectrometry and Molecular Formula. Stoichiometry: Quantitative Relations in Chemical Reactions. Molar Interpretation of a Chemical Equation. Amounts of Substances in a Chemical Reaction. Limiting Reactant; Theoretical and Percentage Yields. 4. Chemical Reactions. Ions in Aqueous Solution. Ionic Theory of Solutions and Solubility Rules. Molecular and Ionic Equations. Types of Chemical Reactions. Precipitation Reactions. Acid-Base Reactions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Balancing Simple Oxidation-Reduction Equations. Working with Solutions. Molar Concentration. Diluting Solutions. Quantitative Analysis. Gravimetric Analysis. Volumetric Analysis. 5. The Gaseous State. Gas Laws. Gas Pressure and Its Measurement. Empirical Gas Laws. The Ideal Gas Law. A Chemist Looks at Nitrogen Monoxide Gas and Biological Signaling. Stoichiometry Problems Involving Gas Volumes. Gas Mixtures; Law of Partial Pressures. Kinetic-Molecular Theory. Kinetic Theory of an Ideal Gas. Molecular Speeds; Diffusion and Effusion. Real Gases. A Chemist Looks at Carbon Dioxide Gas and the Greenhouse Effect. 6. Thermochemistry. Understanding Heats of Reaction. Energy and Its Units. Heat of Reaction. Enthalpy and Enthalpy Change. Thermochemical Equations. A Chemist Looks at Lucifers and Other Matches. Applying Stoichiometry to Heats of Reaction. Measuring Heats of Reaction Using Heats of Reaction. Hess's Law. Standard Enthalpies of Formation. Fuels--Foods, Commercial Fuels, and Rocket Fuels. PART II: ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE. 7. Quantum Theory of the Atom. Light Waves, Photons, and the Bohr Theory. The Wave Nature of Light. Quantum Effects and Photons. A Chemist Looks at Zapping Hamburger with Gamma Rays. The Bohr Theory of the Hydrogen Atom. A Chemist Looks at Lasers and Compact Disc Players. Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Numbers. Quantum Mechanics. Instrumental Methods Scanning Tunneling Microscopy. Quantum Numbers and Atomic Orbitals. 8. Electron Configurations and Periodicity. Electronic Structure of Atoms. Electron Spin and the Pauli Exclusion Principle. Instrumental Methods Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Building-Up Principle and the Periodic Table. Instrumental Methods X Rays, Atomic Numbers, and Orbital Structure (Photoelectron. Spectroscopy). Writing Electron Configurations Using the Periodic Table. Orbital Diagrams of Atoms; Hund's Rule. A Chemist Looks at Levitating Frogs and People. Periodicity of the Elements. Mendeleev's Predictions from the Periodic Table. Some Periodic Properties. Periodicity in the Main-Group Elements. 9. Ionic and Covalent Bonding. Ionic Bonds. Describing Ionic Bonds. A Chemist Looks at Ionic Liquids and Green Chemistry. Electron Configurations of Ions. Ionic Radii. Covalent Bonds. Describing Covalent Bonds. A Chemist Looks at Chemical Bonds in Nitroglycerin. Polar Covalent Bonds; Electronegativity. Writing Lewis Electron-Dot Formulas. Delocalized Bonding: Resonance. Exceptions to the Octet Rule. Formal Charge and Lewis Formulas. Bond Length and Bond Order. Bond Energy. Instrumental Methods Infrared Spectroscopy and Vibrations of Chemical Bonds. 10. Molecular Geometry and Chemical Bonding Theory. Molecular Geometry and Directional Bonding. The Valence-Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Model. Dipole Moment and Molecular Geometry. A Chemist Looks at Left-Handed and Right-Handed Molecules. Valence Bond Theory. Description of Multiple Bonding. Molecular Orbital Theory. Principles of Molecular Orbital Theory. Electron Configurations of Diatomic Molecules of the Second-Period Elements. Molecular Orbitals and Delocalized Bonding. A Chemist Looks at Human Vision. A Chemist Looks at Stratospheric Ozone (An Absorber of Ultraviolet Rays). PART III: STATES OF MATTER AND SOLUTIONS. 11. States of Matter; Liquids and Solids Comparison of Gases, Liquids, and Solids. Changes of State. Phase Transitions. Phase Diagrams. A Chemist Looks at Removing Caffeine from Coffee. Liquid State. Properties of Liquids: Surface Tension and Viscosity. Intermolecular Forces; Explaining Liquid Properties. A Chemist Looks at Gecko Toes, Sticky But Not Tacky. Solid State. Classification of Solids by Type of Attraction of Units. Crystalline Solids; Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells. Structures of Some Crystalline Solids. A Chemist Looks at Liquid-Crystal Displays. Calculations Involving Unit-Cell Dimensions. Determining Crystal Structure by X-Ray Diffraction. Instrumental Methods Automated X-Ray Diffractometry. A Chemist Looks at Water (A Special Substance for Planet Earth) 12. Solutions. Solution Formation. Types of Solutions. Solubility and the Solution Process. A Chemist Looks at Hemoglobin Solubility and Sickle-Cell Anemia. Effects of Temperature and Pressure on Solubility. Colligative Properties. Ways of Expressing Concentration. Vapor Pressure of a Solution. Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point Depression. Osmosis. Colligative Properties of Ionic Solutions. Colloid Formation. Colloids. A Chemist Looks at The World's Smallest Test Tubes. PART IV: CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND EQUILIBRIUM. 13. Rates of Reaction. Reaction Rates. Definition of Reaction Rate. Experimental Determination of Rate. Dependence of Rate on Concentration. Change of Concentration with Time. Temperature and Rate; Collision and Transition-State Theories. Arrhenius Equation. Reaction Mechanisms. Elementary Reactions. The Rate Law and the Mechanism. Catalysis. A Chemist Looks at Seeing Molecules React. 14. Chemical Equilibrium. Describing Chemical Equilibrium. Chemical Equilibrium--A Dynamic Equilibrium. The Equilibrium Constant. Heterogeneous Equilibria; Solvents in Homogeneous Equilibria. A Chemist Looks at Slime Molds and Leopards' Spots. Using the Equilibrium Constant. Qualitatively Interpreting the Equilibrium Constant. Predicting the Direction of Reaction. Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations. Changing the Reaction Conditions; Le Châtelier's Principle. Removing Products or Adding Reactants. Changing the Pressure and Temperature. Effect of a Catalyst. 15. Acids and Bases. Acid-Base Concepts. Arrhenius Concept of Acids and Bases. Bronsted-Lowry Concept of Acids and Bases. Lewis Concept of Acids and Bases. A Chemist Looks at Taking Your Medicine. Acid and Base Strengths. Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases. Molecular Structure and Acid Strength. Self-Ionization of Water and pH. Self-Ionization of Water. Solutions of a Strong Acid or Base. The pH of a Solution. A Chemist Looks at Unclogging the Sink and Other Chores. 16. Acid-Base Equilibria. Solutions of a Weak Acid or Base. Acid-Ionization Equilibria. Polyprotic Acids. A Chemist Looks at Acid Rain. Base-Ionization Equilibria. Acid-Base Properties of Salt Solutions. Solutions of a Weak Acid or Base with Another Solute. Common-Ion Effect. Buffers. Acid-Base Titration Curves. 17. Solubility and Complex-Ion Equilibria. Solubility Equilibria. The Solubility Product Constant. Solubility and the Common-Ion Effect. Precipitation Calculations. Effect of pH on Solubility. A Chemist Looks at Limestone Caves. Complex-Ion Equilibria. Complex-Ion Formation. Complex Ions and Solubility. An Application of Solubility Equilibria. Qualitative Analysis of Metal Ions. 18. Thermodynamics and Equilibrium. First Law of Thermodynamics; Enthalpy. Spontaneous Processes and Entropy. Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Standard Entropies and the Third Law of Thermodynamics. Free-Energy Concept. Free Energy and Spontaneity. Interpretation of Free Energy. A Chemist Looks at Coupling of Reactions. Free Energy and Equilibrium Constants. 18.6 Relating ?G to the Equilibrium Constant. Change of Free Energy with Temperature. 19. Electrochemistry. Half-Reactions. Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Reactions in Acidic and Basic Solutions. Voltaic Cells. Construction of Voltaic Cells. Notation for Voltaic Cells. Cell Potential. Standard Cell Potentials and Standard Electrode Potentials. Equilibrium Constants from Cell Potentials. Dependence of Cell Potential on Concentration. Some Commercial Voltaic Cells. Electrolytic Cells. Electrolysis of Molten Salts. Aqueous Electrolysis. Stoichiometry of Electrolysis. PART V: NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY AND CHEMISTRY OF THE ELEMENTS. 20. Nuclear Chemistry. Radioactivity and Nuclear Bombardment Reactions. Radioactivity. A Chemist Looks at Magic Numbers. Nuclear Bombardment Reactions. Radiations and Matter: Detection and Biological Effects. Rate of Radioactive Decay. Applications of Radioactive Isotopes. Energy of Nuclear Reactions. A Chemist Looks at Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Mass-Energy Calculations. Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion. 21. Chemistry of the Main-Group Elements. General Observations About the Main-Group Elements. Chemistry of the Main-Group Metals. Metals: Characteristics and Production. Bonding in Metals. A Chemist Looks at Superconductivity. Group IVA: The Alkali Metals. Group IIA: The Alkaline Earth Metals. Group IIIA and Group IVA Metals. Chemistry of the Nonmetals. Hydrogen. Group IVA: The Carbon Family. Group VA: Nitrogen and the Phosphorous Family. A Chemist Looks at Buckminsterfullerene--A Third Form of Carbon. Group VIA: Oxygen and the Sulfur Family. Group VIIA: The Halogens. Group VIIIA: The Noble Gases. 22. The Transition Elements and Coordination Compounds. Properties of the Transition Elements. Periodic Trends in the Transition Elements. The Chemistry of Two Transition Elements. Complex Ions and Coordination Compounds. Formation and Structure of Complexes. Naming Coordination Compounds. A Chemist Looks at Salad Dressing and Chelate Stability. Structure and Isomerism in Coordination Compounds. Valence Bond Theory of Complexes. Crystal Field Theory. A Chemist Looks at The Cooperative Release of Oxygen from Oxyhemoglobin. 23. Organic Chemistry. The Bonding of Carbon. Hydrocarbons. Alkanes and Cycloalkanes. Alkenes and Alkynes. Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Naming Hydrocarbons. Derivatives of Hydrocarbons. Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen. Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen. 24. Polymer Materials: Synthetic and Biological. Synthetic Polymers. Synthesis of Organic Polymers. Chemist Looks at The Discovery of Nylon. Electrically Conducting Polymers. Biological Polymers. Proteins. Nucleic Acids. A Chemist Looks at Tobacco Mosaic Virus and Atomic Force Microscopy. APPENDIXES. A. Mathematical Skills. B. Vapor Pressure of Water at Various Temperatures. C. Thermodynamic Quantities for Substances and Ions at 25 C. D. Electron Configurations of Atoms in the Ground State. E. Acid-Ionization Constants at 25 C. F. Base-Ionization Constants at 25 C. G. Solubility Product Constants at 25 C. H. Formation Constants of Complex Ions at 25 C. I. Standard Electrode (Reduction) Potentials in Aqueous Solution at 25 C. Answers to Exercises. Answers to Concept Checks. Answers to Self-Assessment Questions. Answers to Selected Odd-Numbered Problems. Glossary. Credits. Index.