General Chemistry: Atoms First

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This is the first mainstream general chemistry book to be written with an atoms-first approach, offering the same lucid character and conceptual emphasis that readers have come to expect from these authors. The atoms-first organization progresses from the simplest building blocks to successively more complex concepts, enabling the authors to tell a cohesive story about chemistry that follows an intuitive logic. This unified thread of ideas helps readers build a better foundation and ultimately gain a deeper understanding of chemical concepts. Readers can more easily understand the micro- to-macro connections between unobservable atoms and the observable behavior of matter in daily life, and are brought immediately into real chemistry — instead of being forced to first spend time with arithmetic.

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Meet the Author

Educated at Harvard and Columbia, John McMurry has taught approximately 17,000 students in general and organic chemistry over a 30-year period. A Professor of Chemistry at Cornell University since 1980, Dr. McMurry previously spent 13 years on the faculty at the University of California at Santa Cruz. He has received numerous awards, including the Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship (1969–71), the National Institute of Health Career Development Award (1975–80), the Alexander von Humboldt Senior Scientist Award (1986–87), and the Max Planck Research Award (1991).

Professor of Chemistry Robert C. Fay has been teaching general and inorganic chemistry at Cornell University since 1962. Known for his clear, well-organized lectures, Dr. Fay was the 1980 recipient of the Clark Distinguished Teaching Award. He has also taught as a visiting professor at Harvard University and the University of Bologna, Italy. He has been an NSF Science Faculty Fellow at the University of East Anglia and the University of Sussex, England, and a NATO/Heineman Senior Fellow at Oxford University.

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Table of Contents


Chapter 1 – Chemistry: Matter and Measurement Chapter 2 – The Structure and Stability of Atoms Chapter 3 - Periodicity and the Electronic Structure of Atoms Chapter 4 – Ionic Bonds and Some Main-Group Chemistry Chapter 5 – Covalent Bonds and Molecular Structure Chapter 6 – Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions Chapter 7—Reactions in Aqueous Solution Chapter 8—Thermochemistry: Chemical Energy Chapter 9 – Gases: Their Properties and Behavior Chapter 10 – Liquids, Solids, and Phase Changes Chapter 11 – Solutions and Their Properties Chapter 12 – Chemical Kinetics Chapter 13 – Chemical Equilibrium Chapter 14 – Aqueous Equilibria: Acids and Bases Chapter 15 – Applications of Aqueous Equilibria Chapter 16 – Thermodynamics: Entropy, Free Energy, and Equilibrium Chapter 17 –Electrochemistry Chapter 18 – Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Water Chapter 19 – The Main- Group Elements Chapter 20 – Transition Elements and Coordination Chemistry Chapter 21 - Metals and Solid - State Materials Chapter 22 - Organic Chemistry


Chapter 1- Chemistry: Matter and Measurement
1.1 Approaching Chemistry: Experimentation
1.2 Chemistry and the Elements
1.3 Elements and the Periodic Table
1.4 Some Chemical Properties of the Elements
1.5 Experimentation and Measurement
1.6 Mass and Its Measurement
1.7 Length and Its Measurement
1.8 Temperature and Its Measurement
1.9 Derived Units: Volume and Its Measurement
1.10 Derived Units: Density and Its Measurement
1.11 Derived Units: Energy and Its Measurement
1.12 Accuracy, Precision, and Significant Figures in Measurement
1.13 Rounding Numbers
1.14 Calculations: Converting from One Unit to Another Interlude - Chemicals, Toxicity, and Risk

Chapter 2 - The Structure and Stability of Atoms

2.1 Conservation of Mass and the Law of Definite Proportions
2.2 The Law of Multiple Proportions and Dalton's Atomic Theory
2.3 Atomic Structure: Electrons
2.4 Atomic Structure: Protons and Neutrons
2.5 Atomic Numbers
2.6 Atomic Masses and the Mole
2.7 Nuclear Chemistry: The Change of One Element into Another
2.8 Radioactivity
2.9 Nuclear Stability Interlude -The Origin of Chemical Elements

Chapter 3 - Periodicity and the Electronic Structure of Atoms
3.1 Light and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
3.2 Electromagnetic Energy and Atomic Line Spectra
3.3 Particlelike Properties of Electromagnetic Energy
3.4 Wavelike Properties of Matter
3.5 Quantum Mechanics and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
3.6 Wave Functions and Quantum Numbers
3.7 The Shapes of Orbitals
3.8 Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Line Spectra
3.9 Electron Spin and the Pauli Exclusion Principle
3.10 Orbital Energy Levels in Multielectron Atoms
3.11 Electron Configurations of Multielectron Atoms
3.12 Some Anomalous Electron Configurations
3.13 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table
3.14 Electron Configurations and Periodic Properties: Atomic Radii Interlude -Compact Fluorescent Lights: Saving Energy Through Atomic Line Spectra

Chapter 4 - Ionic Bonds and Some Main-Group Chemistry
4.1 Molecules, Ions, and Chemical Bonds
4.2 Electron Configurations of Ions
4.3 Ionic Radii
4.4 Ionization Energy
4.5 Higher Ionization Energies
4.6 Electron Affinity
4.7 The Octet Rule
4.8 Ionic Bonds and the Formation of Ionic Solids
4.9 Lattice Energies in Ionic Solids
4.10 Naming Ionic Compounds
4.11 Some Chemistry of the Group 1A Elements: Alkali Metals
4.12 Some Chemistry of the Group 2A Elements: Alkaline Earth Metals
4.13 Some Chemistry of the Group 7A Elements: Halogens
4.14 Some Chemistry of the Group 8A Elements: Noble Gases Interlude – Salt

Chapter 5 - Covalent Bonds and Molecular Structure
5.1 Molecules and the Covalent Bond
5.2 Strengths of Covalent Bonds
5.3 A Comparison of Ionic and Covalent Compounds
5.4 Polar Covalent Bonds: Electronegativity
5.5 Naming Molecular Compounds
5.6 Electron-Dot Structures
5.7 Electron-Dot Structures of Polyatomic Molecules
5.8 Electron-Dot Structures and Resonance
5.9 Formal Charges
5.10 Molecular Shapes: The VSEPR Model
5.11 Valence Bond Theory
5.12 Hybridization and sp3 Hybrid Orbitals
5.13 Other Kinds of Hybrid Orbitals
5.14 Molecular Orbital Theory: The Hydrogen Molecule
5.15 Molecular Orbital Theory: Other Diatomic Molecules
5.16 Combining Valence Bond Theory and Molecular Orbital Theory Interlude – Molecular Shape, Handedness, and Drugs

Chapter 6 - Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions
6.1 Balancing Chemical Equations
6.2 Chemical Symbols on Different Levels
6.3 Chemical Arithmetic: Stoichiometry
6.4 Yields of Chemical Reactions
6.5 Reactions with Limiting Amounts of Reactants
6.6 Concentrations of Reactants in Solution: Molarity
6.7 Diluting Concentrated Solutions
6.8 Solution Stoichiometry
6.9 Titration
6.10 Percent Composition and Empirical Formulas
6.11 Determining Empirical Formulas: Elemental Analysis
6.12 Determining Molecular Masses: Mass Spectrometry Interlude – Did Ben Franklin Have Avogadro’s Number?

Chapter 7- Reactions in Aqueous Solution
7.1 Some Ways that Chemical Reactions Occur
7.2 Electrolytes in Aqueous Solution
7.3 Aqueous Reactions and Net Ionic Equations
7.4 Precipitation Reactions and Solubility Guidelines
7.5 Acids, Bases, and Neutralization Reactions
7.6 Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Reactions
7.7 Identifying Redox Reactions
7.8 The Activity Series of the Elements
7.9 Balancing Redox Reactions: The Half-Reaction Method
7.10 Redox Stoichiometry
7.11 Some Applications of Redox Reactions Interlude -Green Chemistry

Chapter 8-Thermochemistry: Chemical Energy
8.1 Energy and Its Conservation
8.2 Internal Energy and State Functions
8.3 Expansion Work
8.4 Energy and Enthalpy
8.5 The Thermodynamic Standard State
8.6 Enthalpies of Physical and Chemical Change
8.7 Calorimetry and Heat Capacity
8.8 Hess's Law
8.9 Standard Heats of Formation
8.10 Bond Dissociation Energies
8.11 Fossil Fuels, Fuel Efficiency, and Heats of Combustion
8.12 An Introduction to Entropy
8.13 An Introduction to Free Energy Interlude - Biofuels

Chapter 9 - Gases: Their Properties and Behavior
9.1 Gases and Gas Pressure
9.2 The Gas Laws
9.3 The Ideal Gas Law
9.4 Stoichiometric Relationships with Gases
9.5 Partial Pressure and Dalton's Law
9.6 The Kinetic–Molecular Theory of Gases
9.7 Graham's Law: Diffusion and Effusion of Gases
9.8 The Behavior of Real Gases
9.9 The Earth's Atmosphere Interlude-Inhaled Anesthetics

Chapter 10 - Liquids, Solids, and Phase Changes
10.1 Polar Covalent Bonds and Dipole Moments
10.2 Intermolecular Forces
10.3 Some Properties of Liquids
10.4 Phase Changes
10.5 Evaporation, Vapor Pressure, and Boiling Point
10.6 Kinds of Solids
10.7 Probing the Structure of Solids: X-Ray Crystallography
10.8 Unit Cells and the Packing of Spheres in Crystalline Solids
10.9 Structures of Some Ionic Solids
10.10 Structures of Some Covalent Network Solids
10.11 Phase Diagrams Interlude-Ionic Liquids

Chapter 11 - Solutions and Their Properties
11.1 Solutions
11.2 Energy Changes and the Solution Process
11.3 Units of Concentration
11.4 Some Factors Affecting Solubility
11.5 Physical Behavior of Solutions: Colligative Properties
11.6 Vapor-Pressure Lowering of Solutions: Raoult's Law
11.7 Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point Depression of Solutions
11.8 Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure
11.9 Some Uses of Colligative Properties
11.10 Fractional Distillation of Liquid Mixtures Interlude-Hemodialysis

Chapter 12 - Chemical Kinetics
12.1 Reaction Rates
12.2 Rate Laws and Reaction Order
12.3 Experimental Determination of a Rate Law
12.4 Integrated Rate Law for a First Rate Reaction
12.5 Half-Life of a First -Order Reaction
12.6 Radioactive Decay Rates
12.7 Second-Order Reactions
12.8 Zeroth-Order Reactions
12.9 Reaction Mechanisms
12.10 Rate Laws for Elementary Reactions
12.11 Rate Laws for Overall Reactions
12.12 Reaction Rates and Temperature: The Arrhenius Equation
12.13 Using the Arrhenius Equation
12.14 Catalysis
12.15 Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysts Interlude -Enzyme Catalysis

Chapter 13-Chemical Equilibrium
13.1 The Equilibrium State
13.2 The Equilibrium Constant Kc
13.3 The Equilibrium Constant Kp
13.4 Heterogeneous Equilibria
13.5 Using the Equilibrium Constant
13.6 Factors that Alter the Composition of an Equilibrium Mixture: Le Chatelier’s Principle
13.7 Altering an Equilibrium Mixture: Changes in Concentration
13.8 Altering an Equilibrium Mixture: Changes in Pressure and Volume
13.9 Altering an Equilibrium Mixture: Changes in Temperature
13.10 The Effect of a Catalyst on Equilibrium
13.11 The Link between Chemical Equilibrium and Chemical Kinetics Interlude-Breathing and Oxygen Transport

Chapter 14 - Aqueous Equilibria: Acids and Bases
14.1 Acid – Base Concepts: The Bronsted – Lowry Theory
14.2 Acid Strength and Base Strength
14.3 Hydrated Protons and Hydronium Ions
14.4 Dissociation of Water
14.5 The pH Scale
14.6 Measuring pH
14.7 The pH in Solutions of Strong Acids and Strong Bases
14.8 Equilibria in Solutions of Weak Acids
14.9 Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations in Solutions of Weak Acids
14.10 Percent Dissociation in Solutions of Weak Acids
14.11 Polyprotic Acids
14.12 Equilibria in Solutions of Weak Bases
14.13 Relation between Ka and Kb
14.14 Acid – Base Properties of Salts
14.15 Factors That Affect Acid Strength
14.16 Lewis Acids and Bases Interlude -Acid Rain

Chapter 15 - Applications of Aqueous Equilibria
15.1 Neutralization Reactions
15.2 The Common - Ion Effect
15.3 Buffer Solutions
15.4 The Henderson - Hasselbalch Equation
15.5 pH Titration Curves
15.6 Strong Acid -Strong Base Titrations
15.7 Weak Acid - Strong Base Titrations
15.8 Weak Base -Strong Acid Titrations
15.9 Polyprotic Acid - Strong Base Titrations
15.10 Solubility Equilibria
15.11 Measuring Ksp and Calculating Solubility from Ksp
15.12 Factors That Affect Solubility
15.13 Precipitation of Ionic Compounds
15.14 Separation of ions by Selective Precipitation
15.15 Qualitative Analsis Interlude – Analyzing Proteins by Electrophorous

Chapter 16 - Thermodynamics: Entropy, Free Energy, and Equilibrium
16.1 Spontaneous Processes
16.2 Enthalpy, Entropy, and Spontaneous Processes: A Brief Review
16.3 Entropy and Probability
16.4 Entropy and Temperature
16.5 Standard Molar Entropies and Standard Entropies of Reaction
16.6 Entropy and the Second law of Thermodynamics
16.7 Free Energy
16.8 Standard Free - Energy Changes for Reactions
16.9 Standard Free Energies of Formation
16.10 Free - Energy Changes and Composition of the Reaction Mixture
16.11 Free Energy and Chemical Equilibrium Interlude-Some Random Thoughts about Entropy

Chapter 17- Electrochemistry
17.1 Galvanic Cells
17.2 Shorthand Notation for Galvanic Cells
17.3 Cell Potentials and Free-Energy Changes for Cell Reactions
17.4 Standard Reduction Potentials
17.5 Using Standard Reduction Potentials
17.6 Cell Potentials and Composition of the Reaction Mixture: The Nernst Equation
17.7 Electrochemical Determination of pH
17.8 Standard Cell Potentials and Equilibrium Constants
17.9 Batteries
17.10 Fuel Cells
17.11 Corrosion
17.12 Electrolysis and Electrolytic Cells
17.13 Commercial Applications of Electrolysis
17.14 Quantitative Aspects of Electrolysis Interlude- Electrochemical Art

Chapter 18 - Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Water
18.1 Hydrogen
18.2 Isotopes of Hydrogen
18.3 Preparation and Uses of Hydrogen
18.4 Reactivity of Hydrogen
18.5 Binary Hydrides
18.6 Oxygen
18.7 Preparation and Uses of Oxygen
18.8 Reactivity of Oxygen
18.9 Oxides
18.10 Peroxides and Superoxides
18.11 Hydrogen Peroxide
18.12 Ozone
18.13 Water
18.14 Reactivity of Water
18.15 Hydrates Interlude-A “Hydrogen” Economy”

Chapter 19 - The Main- Group Elements
19.1 A Review of General Properties and Periodic Trends
19.2 Distinctive Properties of the Second-Row Elements
19.3 The Group 3A Elements
19.4 Boron
19.5 Aluminum
19.6 The Group 4A Elements
19.7 Carbon
19.8 Silicon
19.9 Germanium, Tin, and Lead
19.10 The Group 5A Elements
19.11 Nitrogen
19.12 Phosphorus
19.13 The Group 6A Elements
19.14 Sulfur
19.15 The Halogens: Oxoacids and Oxoacid Salts Interlude – Photocopiers

Chapter 20 - Transition Elements and Coordination Chemistry
20.1 Electron Configurations
20.2 Properties of Transition Elements
20.3 Oxidation States of Transition Elements
20.4 Chemistry of Selected Transition Elements
20.5 Coordination Compounds
20.6 Ligands
20.7 Naming Coordination Compounds
20.8 Isomers
20.9 Enantiomers and Molecular Handedness
20.10 Color of Transition Metal Complexes
20.11 Bonding in Complexes: Valance Bond Theory
20.12 Crystal Field Theory Interlude-Titanium: A High -Tech Metal

Chapter 21 - Metals and Solid - State Materials
21.1 Sources of the Metallic Elements
21.2 Metallurgy
21.3 Iron and Steel
21.4 Bonding in Metals
21.5 Semiconductors
21.6 Semiconductor Applications
21.7 Superconductors
21.8 Ceramics
21.9 Composites Interlude - Nanotechnology

Chapter 22 - Organic Chemistry
22.1 The Nature of Organic Molecules
22.2 Alkanes and Their Isomers
22.3 Drawing Organic Structures
22.4 The Shapes of Organic Molecules
22.5 Naming Alkanes
22.6 Cycloalkanes
22.7 Reactions of Alkanes
22.8 Families of Organic Molecules: Functional Groups
22.9 Alkenes and Alkynes
22.10 Reactions of Alkenes and Alkynes
22.11 Aromatic Compounds and Their Reactions
22.12 Alcohols, Ethers, and Amines
22.13 Aldehydes and Ketones
22.14 Carboxylic Acids, Esters, and Amides
22.15 Synthetic Polymers Interlude – Natural or Synthetic?

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