General, Organic, and Biochemistry: An Applied Approachby James Armstrong
Pub. Date: 01/01/2011
Publisher: Cengage Learning
Focusing on key topics important in allied health and nursing careers, this engaging book is ideal for readers who have had no prior exposure to chemistry. Emphasizing problem-solving techniques, the book takes the most direct path to biomolecules and metabolic processes, provides a wealth of worked examples to help readers understand key chemical concepts,… See more details below
Focusing on key topics important in allied health and nursing careers, this engaging book is ideal for readers who have had no prior exposure to chemistry. Emphasizing problem-solving techniques, the book takes the most direct path to biomolecules and metabolic processes, provides a wealth of worked examples to help readers understand key chemical concepts, includes novel and relevant "Health Notes" in the margins, and weaves biological and medical applications throughout.
Table of Contents
1. MEASUREMENTS IN SCIENCE AND MEDICINE. Measuring Size: Distance, Mass, and Volume. Metric Units and Their Relationships. Rounding and Precision In Measurements. Unit Conversions and Conversion Factors. Rounding and Significant Figures. Temperature. Density, Dosage, and Other Compound Units. 2. ATOMS, ELEMENTS, AND COMPOUNDS. Classifying Matter: Mixtures, Compounds, and Elements. The Chemical Elements: An Introduction to the Periodic Table. Atoms. Subatomic Particles and Atomic Structure. Isotopes And Atomic Weight. Chemical Formulas. Electron Shells. Chemical Behavior, Valence Electrons, and the Periodic Law. The Organization of the Periodic Table. 3. CHEMICAL BONDS. Covalent Bonds and the Octet Rule. Double And Triple Bonds. Drawing Lewis Structures for Complex Molecules. Electronegativity and Polar Bonds. Naming Covalent Compounds. Ions and Ionic Compounds. Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds. Naming Ionic Compounds. Polyatomic Ions. Recognizing Ionic and Molecular Compounds. 4. ENERGY AND THE PHYSICAL BEHAVIOR OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES. Heat and Energy. The Three States of Matter. The Properties of Gases. Changes of State. Attractive Forces and the Physical Properties of Matter. 5. SOLUTIONS AND CONCENTRATION. Solutions and the Dissolving Process. Electrolytes and Dissociation. Solubility. The Relationship Between Solubility and Molecular Structure. Concentration. Moles and Formula Weights. Molarity. Osmosis, Dialysis, And Tonicity. Equivalents. Dilution. 6. CHEMICAL REACTIONS. Physical Changes and Chemical Reactions. Chemical Equations. Mass Relationships in a Chemical Reaction. Heats of Reaction. Combustion and Precipitation Reactions. Reaction Rate and Activation Energy. Chemical Equilibrium. 7. ACIDS AND BASES. The Self-Ionization of Water. The Ph Scale. The Properties of Acids. The Properties of Bases. Acid-Base Reactions. Amphiprotic Molecules and Ions. Buffers.The Role of Buffers in Human Physiology. 8. HYDROCARBONSAN INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC MOLECULES. The Special Properties of Carbon. Linear Alkanes: The Foundation of Organic Chemistry. Branched Alkanes, Cycloalkanes, and Isomers. Naming Branched Alkanes: The IUPAC System. Functional Groups. Alkenes and Alkynes. Geometric Isomers. Benzene and Aromatic Compounds. The Properties of Hydrocarbons. 9. HYDRATION, DEHYDRATION AND ALCOHOLS. The Hydration Reaction. Controlling the ProductAn Introduction to Enzymes. Naming Alcohols. The Physical Properties of Alcohols. The Dehydration Reaction. Phenols and Thiols. 10. CARBONYL COMPOUNDS AND REDOX REACTIONS. Hydrogenation and Dehydrogenation. Oxidation and Reductions. Reactions and the Carbonyl Group. The Naming and Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones. Other Oxidation and Reduction Reactions. Carboxylic Acids. Biological Oxidations and ReductionsThe Redox Coenzymes. Introduction to Metabolic Pathways. 11. ORGANIC ACIDS AND BASES. Reactions of Organic Acids. Decarboxylation Reactions. Amines. The Acid-Base Reactions of Amines. Amines in Biology and Medicine. The Relationship Between Structure and Ph. 12. BUILDING LARGE MOLECULESCONDENSATION AND HYDROLYSIS REACTIONS. Introduction to Condensation ReactionsEthers. Esterification, Amidation, and Phosphorylation. Condensation Polymers. Hydrolysis. The Effect of Ph on the Products of Hydrolysis. The Equilibrium Between Condensation and Hydrolysis. 13. PROTEINS. Amino acids. Peptide bonds and the secondary structure of a protein. Side chain interactions and tertiary structure. Protein denaturation. Enzyme structure and function. Cofactors. Antibodies and the immune response. Sources of amino acids. 14: CARBOHYDRATES AND LIPIDS. Monosaccharides. Isomeric Forms Of MonosaccharidesAnomers and Enantiomers. Disaccharides and the Glycosidic Linkage. Common Disaccharides and Polysaccharides. Fatty Acids and Triglycerides. The Chemical Reactions of Triglycerides. Glycerophospholipids and Cell Membranes. Steroids and Lipoproteins. Sources of Carbohydrates and Fats. 15. METABOLISMTHE CHEMICAL WEB OF LIFE. Catabolism, Anabolism, and the ATP Cycle. An Overview of Catabolism. ATP Production and the Mitochondria. Glycolysis. The Citric Acid Cycle. Beta OxidationObtaining Energy from Fatty Acids. Catabolism of Amino Acids. Anabolic Pathways and the Control of Metabolism. 16. NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY. Symbols for Nuclei And Subatomic Particles. Writing Nuclear Equations. Energy and Nuclear Reactions. Physiological Effects of Ionizing Radiation. Measuring Radiation. Nuclear Decay and Half-Life. Medical Applications of Nuclear Radiation. Nuclear Fission and Fusion. 17. NUCLEIC ACIDS, PROTEIN SYNTHESIS, AND HEREDITY. Nucleotides. The Structure of Nucleic Acids. DNA Replication. Transcription and RNA Processing. Translation and The Genetic Code. The Mechanism of Protein Synthesis. Regulation of Protein Synthesis. Mutations and Genetic Disorders. APPENDIX A: ESSENTIAL MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY. Decimal Notation. Place Value, Fractions, and Division. Order of Operations. Exponents. Scientific Notation. Calculator Use. APPENDIX B: THE QUANTITATIVE BEHAVIOR OF GASES. (Kelvin temperature, combined gas law, Avogadro's law, ideal gas law).
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