General Organic and Biological Chemistry: An Integrated Approach / Edition 4

General Organic and Biological Chemistry: An Integrated Approach / Edition 4

by Kenneth W. Raymond
     
 

This General, Organic and Biochemistry text has been written for students preparing for careers in health-related fields such as nursing, dental hygiene, nutrition, medical technology and occupational therapy. It is also suited for students majoring in other fields where it is important to have an understanding of the basics of chemistry. An integrated approach is

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Overview

This General, Organic and Biochemistry text has been written for students preparing for careers in health-related fields such as nursing, dental hygiene, nutrition, medical technology and occupational therapy. It is also suited for students majoring in other fields where it is important to have an understanding of the basics of chemistry. An integrated approach is employed in which related general chemistry, organic chemistry, and biochemistry topics are presented in adjacent chapters. This approach helps students see the strong connections that exist between these three branches of chemistry, and allows instructors to discuss these, interrelationships while the material is still fresh in students' minds.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781118172193
Publisher:
Wiley
Publication date:
01/10/2013
Edition description:
4th Edition Binder Ready Version
Pages:
672
Product dimensions:
8.40(w) x 10.80(h) x 0.90(d)

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 SCIENCE AND MEASUREMENTS 1

1.1 The Scientific Method 2

1.2 Matter and Energy 5

1.3 Units of Measurement 9

1.4 Scientific Notation, SI and Metric Prefixes 13

1.5 Measurements and Significant Figures 15

1.6 Conversion Factors and the Factor Label Method 22

1.7 Density, Specific Gravity, and Specific Heat 25

1.8 Measurements in General Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, and Biochemistry 29

CHAPTER 2 ATOMS AND

2.1 Atoms 44

2.2 Elements 46

2.3 Trace Elements 48

2.4 Atomic Number and Mass Number 51

2.5 Periodic Table 54

2.6 The Mole 59

2.7 The Arrangement of Electrons 62

2.8 Radioactive Isotopes 68

2.9 Radioisotopes in Medicine 71

CHAPTER 3 COMPOUNDS 88

3.1 Ions 90

3.2 The Octet Rule 93

3.3 Ionic Compounds 96

3.4 Covalent Bonds 101

3.5 Molecules 103

3.6 Formula Weight, Molecular Weight, and Molar Mass 105

CHAPTER 4 AN INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC COMPOUNDS 116

4.1 Structural Formulas 118

4.2 Polar Covalent Bonds, Shape, and Polarity 123

4.3 Noncovalent Interactions 130

4.4 Families of Organic Compounds 132

CHAPTER 5 REACTIONS 150

5.1 Chemical Equations 152

5.2 Reaction Types 156

5.3 Reactions Involving Water 158

5.4 Oxidation and Reduction 161

5.5 Mole and Mass Relationships in Reactions 167

5.6 Calculating the Yield of a Reaction 171

5.7 Free Energy and Reaction Rate 174

CHAPTER 6 GASES, SOLUTIONS, COLLOIDS, AND SUSPENSIONS 190

6.1 Gases and Pressure 192

6.2 The Gas Laws 197

6.3 Partial Pressure 202

6.4 Solutions 204

6.5 Precipitation Reactions 207

6.6 Solubility of Gases in Water 209

6.7 Organic and Biochemical Compounds 212

6.8 Concentration 216

6.9 Dilution 221

6.10 Colloids and Suspensions 222

6.11 Diffusion and Osmosis 225

CHAPTER 7 ACIDS, BASES, AND EQUILIBRIUM 238

7.1 Acids and Bases 240

7.2 Brønsted–Lowry Acids and Bases 241

7.3 Equilibrium 243

7.4 Le Châtelier’s Principle 246

7.5 Ionization of Water 250

7.6 The pH Scale 251

7.7 Acid and Base Strength 254

7.8 Neutralizing Acids and Bases 257

7.9 Effect of pH on Acid and Conjugate Base Concentrations 259

7.10 Buffers 261

7.11 Maintaining the pH of Blood Serum 263

CHAPTER 8 ORGANIC REACTIONS 1—HYDROCARBONS, CARBOXYLIC ACIDS, AMINES, AND RELATED COMPOUNDS 276

8.1 Alkanes 278

8.2 Constitutional Isomers 282

8.3 Conformations 284

8.4 Cycloalkanes 285

8.5 Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds 287

8.6 Reactions of Hydrocarbons 291

8.7 Carboxylic Acids 297

8.8 Phenols 299

8.9 Carboxylic Acids and Phenols as Weak Organic Acids 301

8.10 Preparing Esters 304

8.11 Amines 307

8.12 Amines as Weak Organic Bases 311

8.13 Amides 313

ORGANIC REACTIONS 2—ALCOHOLS, ETHERS,ALDEHYDES, AND KETONES 334

9.1 Alcohols, Ethers, and Related Compounds 336

9.2 Preparation 339

9.3 Reactions 341

9.4 Aldehydes and Ketones 344

9.5 Oxidation of Aldehydes 347

9.6 Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones 349

9.7 Reactions of Alcohols with Aldehydes and Ketones 352

CHAPTER 10 CARBOHYDRATES 370

10.1 Monosaccharides 372

10.2 Stereoisomers 374

10.3 Important Monosaccharides and Monosaccharide Derivatives 381

10.4 Reactions of Monosaccharides 384

10.5 Monosaccharides in Their Cyclic Form 386

10.6 Oligosaccharides 390

10.7 Polysaccharides 401

CHAPTER 11 LIPIDS AND MEMBRANES 420

11.1 Fatty Acids 422

11.2 Waxes 427

11.3 Triglycerides 429

11.4 Phospholipids and Glycolipids 437

11.5 Steroids 441

11.6 Eicosanoids 445

11.7 Membranes 447

CHAPTER 12 PEPTIDES, PROTEINS, AND ENZYMES 458

12.1 Amino Acids 460

12.2 The Peptide Bond 464

12.3 Peptides, Proteins, and pH 468

12.4 Protein Structure 469

12.5 Denaturation 477

12.6 Enzymes 478

12.7 Control of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions 482

CHAPTER 13 NUCLEIC ACIDS 498

13.1 Nucleic Acid Building Blocks 500

13.2 Nucleoside Di- and Triphosphates, Cyclic Nucleotides 505

13.3 Polynucleotides 506

13.4 DNA Structure 509

13.5 Denaturation 512

13.6 Nucleic Acids and Information Flow 514

13.7 DNA Replication 515

13.8 Transcription and RNA 517

13.9 Translation 520

13.10 Control of Gene Expression 522

13.11 Mutation 524

13.12 Recombinant DNA 525

13.13 DNA Fingerprinting 529

CHAPTER 14 METABOLISM 540

14.1 Metabolic Pathways, Energy, and Coupled Reactions 542

14.2 Overview of Metabolism 543

14.3 Digestion 548

14.4 Glycolysis 551

14.5 Gluconeogenesis 556

14.6 Glycogen Metabolism 558

14.7 Citric Acid Cycle 560

14.8 Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation 562

14.9 Lipid Metabolism 566

14.10 Amino Acid Metabolism 571

Appendix A Important Families of Organic Compounds 582

Appendix B Naming Ions, Ionic Compounds, Binary Molecules, and Organic

Compounds 584

Appendix C Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems 591

Appendix D Glossary 639

Index I-

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