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General, Organic & Biological Chemistry / Edition 2

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Overview

This text is different--by design. By relating fundamental concepts of general, organic, and biological chemistry to the everyday world, Jan Smith effectively engages students with bulleted lists, extensive illustrations, and step-by-step problem solving. Smith writes with an approach that delivers need-to-know information in a succinct style for today’s students. Armed with an excellent illustration program full of macro-to-micro art, as well as many applications to biological, medical, consumer, and environmental topics, this book is a powerhouse of learning for students.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780073402789
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
  • Publication date: 1/13/2012
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 944
  • Sales rank: 163,948
  • Product dimensions: 9.30 (w) x 11.00 (h) x 1.40 (d)

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Matter and Measurement

1.1 Chemistry—The Science of Everyday Experience

1.2 States of Matter

1.3 Classification of Matter

1.4 Measurement

1.5 Significant Figures

1.6 Scientific Notation

1.7 Problem Solving Using the Factor–Label Method

1.8 Focus on Health and Medicine: Problem Solving Using Clinical Conversion Factors

1.9 Temperature

1.10 Density and Specific Gravity

Chapter 2: Atoms and the Periodic Table

2.1 Elements

2.2 Structure of the Atom

2.3 Isotopes

2.4 The Periodic Table

2.5 Electronic Structure

2.6 Electronic Configurations

2.7 Valence Electrons

2.8 Periodic Trends

Chapter 3: Ionic Compounds

3.1 Introduction to Bonding

3.2 Ions

3.3 Ionic Compounds

3.4 Naming Ionic Compounds

3.5 Physical Properties of Ionic Compounds

3.6 Polyatomic Ions

Chapter 4: Covalent Compounds

4.1 Introduction to Covalent Bonding

4.2 Lewis Structures

4.3 Exceptions to the Octet Rule

4.4 Resonance

4.5 Naming Covalent Compounds

4.6 Molecular Shape

4.7 Electronegativity and Bond Polarity

4.8 Polarity of Molecules

4.9 Focus on Health and Medicine: Covalent Drugs and Medical Products

Chapter 5: Chemical Reactions

5.1 Introduction to Chemical Reactions

5.2 Balancing Chemical Equations

5.3 The Mole and Avogadro’s Number

5.4 Mass to Mole Conversions

5.5 Mole Calculations in Chemical Equations

5.6 Mass Calculations in Chemical Equations

5.7 Percent Yield

5.8 Limiting Reactants

5.9 Oxidation and Reduction

5.10 Focus on Health and Medicine: Pacemakers

Chapter 6: Energy Changes, Reaction Rates, and Equilibrium

6.1 Energy

6.2 Energy Changes in Reactions

6.3 Energy Diagrams

6.4 Reaction Rates

6.5 Equilibrium

6.6 Le Châtelier’s Principle

6.7 Focus on the Human Body: Body Temperature

Chapter 7: Gases, Liquids, and Solids

7.1 The Three States of Matter

7.2 Gases and Pressure

7.3 Gas Laws That Relate Pressure, Volume, and Temperature

7.4 Avogadro’s Law—How Volume and Moles Are Related

7.5 The Ideal Gas Law

7.6 Dalton’s Law and Partial Pressures

7.7 Intermolecular Forces, Boiling Point, and Melting Point

7.8 The Liquid State

7.9 The Solid State

7.10 Energy and Phase Changes

7.11 Heating and Cooling Curves

Chapter 8: Solutions

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Solubility—General Features

8.3 Solubility—Effects of Temperature and Pressure

8.4 Concentration Units—Percent Concentration

8.5 Concentration Units—Molarity

8.6 Dilution

8.7 Colligative Properties

8.8 Osmosis and Dialysis

Chapter 9: Acids and Bases

9.1 Introduction to Acids and Bases

9.2 The Reaction of a Brønsted–Lowry Acid with a Brønsted–Lowry Base

9.3 Acid and Base Strength

9.4 Equilibrium and Acid Dissociation Constants

9.5 Dissociation of Water

9.6 The pH Scale

9.7 Common Acid–Base Reactions

9.8 The Acidity and Basicity of Salt Solutions

9.9 Titration

9.10 Buffers

9.11 Focus on the Human Body: Buffers in the Blood

Chapter 10: Nuclear Chemistry

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Nuclear Reactions

10.3 Half-Life

10.4 Detecting and Measuring Radiation

10.5 Focus on Health and Medicine: Medical Uses of Radioisotopes

10.6 Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion

10.7 Focus on Health and Medicine: Medical Imaging Without Radioactivity

Chapter 11: Introduction to Organic Molecules and Functional Groups

11.1 Introduction to Organic Chemistry

11.2 Characteristic Features of Organic Compounds

11.3 Shapes of Organic Molecules

11.4 Drawing Organic Molecules

11.5 Functional Groups

11.6 Properties of Organic Compounds

11.7 Focus on Health and Medicine: Vitamins

Chapter 12: Alkanes

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Simple Alkanes

12.3 An Introduction to Nomenclature

12.4 Alkane Nomenclature

12.5 Cycloalkanes

12.6 Focus on the Environment—Fossil Fuels

12.7 Physical Properties

12.8 Focus on the Environment: Combustion

Chapter 13: Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

13.1 Alkenes and Alkynes

13.2 Nomenclature of Alkenes and Alkynes

13.3 Cis–Trans Isomers

13.4 Interesting Alkenes in Food and Medicine

13.5 Focus on Health and Medicine: Oral Contraceptives

13.6 Reactions of Alkenes

13.7 Focus on Health and Medicine: Margarine or Butter?

13.8 Polymers—The Fabric of Modern Society

13.9 Aromatic Compounds

13.10 Nomenclature of Benzene Derivatives

13.11 Focus on Health and Medicine: Aromatic Drugs, Sunscreens, and Carcinogens

13.12 Focus on Health and Medicine: Phenols and Antioxidants

13.13 Reactions of Aromatic Compounds

Chapter 14: Organic Compounds that Contain Oxygen, Halogen, or Sulfur

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Structure and Properties of Alcohols

14.3 Nomenclature of Alcohols

14.4 Interesting Alcohols

14.5 Reactions of Alcohols

14.6 Focus on Health and Medicine: Ethanol, the Most Widely Abused Drug

14.7 Structure and Properties of Ethers

14.8 Focus on Health and Medicine: Ethers as Anesthetics

14.9 Alkyl Halides

14.10 Organic Compounds That Contain Sulfur

Chapter 15: The Three-Dimensional Shape of Molecules

15.1 Isomers—A Review

15.2 Looking Glass Chemistry—Molecules and Their Mirror Images

15.3 Chirality Centers

15.4 Chirality Centers in Cyclic Compounds

15.5 Focus on Health and Medicine: Chiral Drugs

15.6 Fischer Projections

15.7 Optical Activity

15.8 Compounds With Two or More Chirality Centers

15.9 Focus on the Human Body: The Sense of Smell

Chapter 16: Aldehydes and Ketones

16.1 Structure and Bonding

16.2 Nomenclature

16.3 Physical Properties

16.4 Focus on Health and Medicine: Interesting Aldehydes and Ketones

16.5 Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones

16.6 Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones

16.7 Focus on the Human Body: The Chemistry of Vision

16.8 Acetal Formation

Chapter 17: Carboxylic Acids, Esters, and Amides

17.1 Structure and Bonding

17.2 Nomenclature

17.3 Physical Properties

17.4 Interesting Carboxylic Acids in Consumer Products and Medicines

17.5 Interesting Esters and Amides

17.6 The Acidity of Carboxylic Acids

17.7 Focus on Health and Medicine: Aspirin

17.8 The Conversion of Carboxylic Acids to Esters and Amides

17.9 Hydrolysis of Esters and Amides

17.10 Synthetic Polymers in Modern Society—Polyamides and Polyesters

17.11 Focus on Health and Medicine: Penicillin

Chapter 18: Amines and Neurotransmitters

18.1 Structure and Bonding

18.2 Nomenclature

18.3 Physical Properties

18.4 Focus on Health and Medicine: Caffeine and Nicotine

18.5 Alkaloids—Amines from Plant Sources

18.6 Amines as Bases

18.7 Focus on Health and Medicine: Ammonium Salts as Useful Drugs

18.8 Neurotransmitters

18.9 Focus on the Human Body: Epinephrine and Related Compounds

18.10 Focus on Health and Medicine: Histamines and Antihistamines

Chapter 19: Lipids

19.1 Introduction to Lipids

19.2 Fatty Acids

19.3 Waxes

19.4 Triacylglycerols—Fats and Oils

19.5 Hydrolysis of Triacylglycerols

19.6 Phospholipids

19.7 Cell Membranes

19.8 Focus on Health and Medicine: Cholesterol, the Most Prominent Steroid

19.9 Steroid Hormones

19.10 Focus on Health and Medicine: Fat-Soluble Vitamins

19.11 Focus on Health and Medicine: Prostaglandins and Leukotrienes

Chapter 20: Carbohydrates

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Monosaccharides

20.3 The Cyclic Forms of Monosaccharides

20.4 Reduction and Oxidation of Monosaccharides

20.5 Disaccharides

20.6 Polysaccharides

20.7 Focus on the Human Body: Useful Carbohydrate Derivatives

20.8 Focus on the Human Body: Blood Types

Chapter 21: Amino Acids, Proteins, and Enzymes

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Amino Acids

21.3 Acid–Base Behavior of Amino Acids

21.4 Peptides

21.5 Focus on the Human Body: Biologically Active Peptides

21.6 Proteins

21.7 Focus on the Human Body: Common Proteins

21.8 Protein Hydrolysis and Denaturation

21.9 Enzymes

21.10 Focus on Health and Medicine: Using Enzymes to Diagnose and Treat Disease

Chapter 22: Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis

22.1 Nucleosides and Nucleotides

22.2 Nucleic Acids

22.3 The DNA Double Helix

22.4 Replication

22.5 RNA

22.6 Transcription

22.7 Genetic Code

22.8 Translation and Protein Synthesis

22.9 Mutations and Genetic Diseases

22.10 Recombinant DNA

22.11 Focus on Health and Medicine: Viruses

Chapter 23: Digestion and the Conversion of Food into Energy

23.1 Introduction

23.2 An Overview of Metabolism

23.3 ATP and Energy Production

23.4 Coenzymes in Metabolism

23.5 The Citric Acid Cycle

23.6 The Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation

23.7 Focus on Health and Medicine: Hydrogen Cyanide

Chapter 24: Carbohydrate, Lipid, and Protein Metabolism

24.1 Introduction

24.2 Understanding Biochemical Reactions

24.3 Glycolysis

24.4 The Fate of Pyruvate

24.5 The ATP Yield from Glucose

24.6 Gluconeogenesis

24.7 The Catabolism of Triacylglycerols

24.8 Ketone Bodies

24.9 Amino Acid Metabolism

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