A Generic Fault-Tolerant Architecture for Real-Time Dependable Systems / Edition 1

A Generic Fault-Tolerant Architecture for Real-Time Dependable Systems / Edition 1

by David Powell
     
 

ISBN-10: 0792372956

ISBN-13: 9780792372950

Pub. Date: 01/31/2001

Publisher: Springer US

The design of computer systems to be embedded in critical real-time applications is a complex task. Such systems must not only guarantee to meet hard real-time deadlines imposed by their physical environment, they must guarantee to do so dependably, despite both physical faults (in hardware) and design faults (in hardware or software). A fault-tolerance approach is

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Overview

The design of computer systems to be embedded in critical real-time applications is a complex task. Such systems must not only guarantee to meet hard real-time deadlines imposed by their physical environment, they must guarantee to do so dependably, despite both physical faults (in hardware) and design faults (in hardware or software). A fault-tolerance approach is mandatory for these guarantees to be commensurate with the safety and reliability requirements of many life- and mission-critical applications.
A Generic Fault-Tolerant Architecture for Real-Time Dependable Systems explains the motivations and the results of a collaborative project(*), whose objective was to significantly decrease the lifecycle costs of such fault-tolerant systems. The end-user companies participating in this project currently deploy fault-tolerant systems in critical railway, space and nuclear-propulsion applications. However, these are proprietary systems whose architectures have been tailored to meet domain-specific requirements. This has led to very costly, inflexible, and often hardware-intensive solutions that, by the time they are developed, validated and certified for use in the field, can already be out-of-date in terms of their underlying hardware and software technology.
The project thus designed a generic fault-tolerant architecture with two dimensions of redundancy and a third multi-level integrity dimension for accommodating software components of different levels of criticality. The architecture is largely based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components and follows a software-implemented approach so as to minimise the need for special hardware. Using an associated development and validation environment, system developers may configure and validate instances of the architecture that can be shown to meet the very diverse requirements of railway, space, nuclear-propulsion and other critical real-time applications. This book describes the rationale of the generic architecture, the design and validation of its communication, scheduling and fault-tolerance components, and the tools that make up its design and validation environment. The book concludes with a description of three prototype systems that have been developed following the proposed approach.
(*) Esprit project No. 20716: GUARDS: a Generic Upgradable Architecture for Real-time Dependable Systems.

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780792372950
Publisher:
Springer US
Publication date:
01/31/2001
Edition description:
2001
Pages:
242
Product dimensions:
6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.02(d)

Table of Contents

List of Figuresix
List of Tablesxiii
List of Contributorsxv
Forewordxvii
Chapter 1Introduction and Overview1
1.1Application Domains2
1.2Design Rationale4
1.3The Generic Architecture6
1.4Inter-Channel Communication Network9
1.5Inter-Channel Error Processing and Fault Treatment11
1.6Output Data Consolidation15
1.7Real-Time Scheduling16
1.8Architecture Development Environment17
1.9Validation18
1.10Domain-Specific Instances of the Architecture23
1.11Summary26
Chapter 2Inter-Channel Communication Network27
2.1Clock Synchronisation27
2.2Interactive Consistency39
2.3Message Authentication45
Chapter 3Scheduling51
3.1Background51
3.2Scheduling Execution58
3.3Scheduling Inter-Channel Communication66
3.4Operating System Requirements67
3.5Summary68
Chapter 4Error Processing and Fault Treatment71
4.1The [alpha]-Count Mechanism73
4.2Diagnosis77
4.3State Restoration80
Chapter 5Output Consolidation87
5.1Consolidation Mechanisms88
5.2Redundancy Management Board91
5.3Exclusion Logic94
5.4Conclusion97
Chapter 6Multilevel Integrity Mechanisms99
6.1An Integrity Management Model100
6.2Integrity Mechanisms101
6.3Implementation108
6.4Other Implementations114
6.5Related Work118
6.6Conclusion119
Chapter 7Architecture Development Environment121
7.1Development Approach122
7.2Functional Architecture Design124
7.3Infrastructure Architecture Design128
7.4Physical Architecture Design131
7.5Tool Support133
Chapter 8Formal Verification139
8.1Model-checking140
8.2Formal Specification of GUARDS Mechanisms142
8.3Introducing Faults in the Specification146
8.4Formal Verification147
8.5Fault Treatment Mechanism150
8.6Multi-level Integrity Mechanism154
8.7Discussion155
Chapter 9Dependability Evaluation157
9.1Focused Modelling157
9.2Abstract Modelling165
9.3Detailed Modelling177
9.4Discussion191
Chapter 10Demonstrators193
10.1Inter-Channel Network Manager193
10.2Space Demonstrator198
10.3Railway Demonstrator207
10.4Nuclear Propulsion Demonstrator214
Project Consortium229
Abbreviations231
References235

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