A Generic Fault-Tolerant Architecture for Real-Time Dependable Systems / Edition 1

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Overview

The design of computer systems to be embedded in critical real-time applications is a complex task. Such systems must not only guarantee to meet hard real-time deadlines imposed by their physical environment, they must guarantee to do so dependably, despite both physical faults (in hardware) and design faults (in hardware or software). A fault-tolerance approach is mandatory for these guarantees to be commensurate with the safety and reliability requirements of many life- and mission-critical applications.
A Generic Fault-Tolerant Architecture for Real-Time Dependable Systems explains the motivations and the results of a collaborative project(*), whose objective was to significantly decrease the lifecycle costs of such fault-tolerant systems. The end-user companies participating in this project currently deploy fault-tolerant systems in critical railway, space and nuclear-propulsion applications. However, these are proprietary systems whose architectures have been tailored to meet domain-specific requirements. This has led to very costly, inflexible, and often hardware-intensive solutions that, by the time they are developed, validated and certified for use in the field, can already be out-of-date in terms of their underlying hardware and software technology.
The project thus designed a generic fault-tolerant architecture with two dimensions of redundancy and a third multi-level integrity dimension for accommodating software components of different levels of criticality. The architecture is largely based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components and follows a software-implemented approach so as to minimise the need for special hardware. Using an associated development and validation environment, system developers may configure and validate instances of the architecture that can be shown to meet the very diverse requirements of railway, space, nuclear-propulsion and other critical real-time applications. This book describes the rationale of the generic architecture, the design and validation of its communication, scheduling and fault-tolerance components, and the tools that make up its design and validation environment. The book concludes with a description of three prototype systems that have been developed following the proposed approach.
(*) Esprit project No. 20716: GUARDS: a Generic Upgradable Architecture for Real-time Dependable Systems.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Powell (Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scintifique) explains the motivations and the results of a collaborative project whose objective was to significantly decrease the lifecycle costs of fault-tolerant systems. The project designed a generic fault-tolerant architecture with two dimensions of redundancy and a third multi-level integrity dimension for accommodating software components of different levels of criticality. This book describes the rationale of the generic architecture, the design and validation of its communication, scheduling and fault- tolerance components, and the tools that make up its design and validation environment. The book concludes with a description of three prototype systems that have been developed following the proposed approach. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780792372950
  • Publisher: Springer US
  • Publication date: 1/31/2001
  • Edition description: 2001
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 242
  • Product dimensions: 9.21 (w) x 6.14 (h) x 0.63 (d)

Table of Contents

List of Figures ix
List of Tables xiii
List of Contributors xv
Foreword xvii
Chapter 1 Introduction and Overview 1
1.1 Application Domains 2
1.2 Design Rationale 4
1.3 The Generic Architecture 6
1.4 Inter-Channel Communication Network 9
1.5 Inter-Channel Error Processing and Fault Treatment 11
1.6 Output Data Consolidation 15
1.7 Real-Time Scheduling 16
1.8 Architecture Development Environment 17
1.9 Validation 18
1.10 Domain-Specific Instances of the Architecture 23
1.11 Summary 26
Chapter 2 Inter-Channel Communication Network 27
2.1 Clock Synchronisation 27
2.2 Interactive Consistency 39
2.3 Message Authentication 45
Chapter 3 Scheduling 51
3.1 Background 51
3.2 Scheduling Execution 58
3.3 Scheduling Inter-Channel Communication 66
3.4 Operating System Requirements 67
3.5 Summary 68
Chapter 4 Error Processing and Fault Treatment 71
4.1 The [alpha]-Count Mechanism 73
4.2 Diagnosis 77
4.3 State Restoration 80
Chapter 5 Output Consolidation 87
5.1 Consolidation Mechanisms 88
5.2 Redundancy Management Board 91
5.3 Exclusion Logic 94
5.4 Conclusion 97
Chapter 6 Multilevel Integrity Mechanisms 99
6.1 An Integrity Management Model 100
6.2 Integrity Mechanisms 101
6.3 Implementation 108
6.4 Other Implementations 114
6.5 Related Work 118
6.6 Conclusion 119
Chapter 7 Architecture Development Environment 121
7.1 Development Approach 122
7.2 Functional Architecture Design 124
7.3 Infrastructure Architecture Design 128
7.4 Physical Architecture Design 131
7.5 Tool Support 133
Chapter 8 Formal Verification 139
8.1 Model-checking 140
8.2 Formal Specification of GUARDS Mechanisms 142
8.3 Introducing Faults in the Specification 146
8.4 Formal Verification 147
8.5 Fault Treatment Mechanism 150
8.6 Multi-level Integrity Mechanism 154
8.7 Discussion 155
Chapter 9 Dependability Evaluation 157
9.1 Focused Modelling 157
9.2 Abstract Modelling 165
9.3 Detailed Modelling 177
9.4 Discussion 191
Chapter 10 Demonstrators 193
10.1 Inter-Channel Network Manager 193
10.2 Space Demonstrator 198
10.3 Railway Demonstrator 207
10.4 Nuclear Propulsion Demonstrator 214
Project Consortium 229
Abbreviations 231
References 235
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