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Genes in Conflict: The Biology of Selfish Genetic Elements

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Overview

In evolution, most genes survive and spread within populations because they increase the ability of their hosts (or their close relatives) to survive and reproduce. But some genes spread in spite of being harmful to the host organism—by distorting their own transmission to the next generation, or by changing how the host behaves toward relatives. As a consequence, different genes in a single organism can have diametrically opposed interests and adaptations.
Covering all species from yeast to humans, Genes in Conflict is the first book to tell the story of selfish genetic elements, those continually appearing stretches of DNA that act narrowly to advance their own replication at the expense of the larger organism. As Austin Burt and Robert Trivers show, these selfish genes are a universal feature of life with pervasive effects, including numerous counter-adaptations. Their spread has created a whole world of socio-genetic interactions within individuals, usually completely hidden from sight.
Genes in Conflict introduces the subject of selfish genetic elements in all its aspects, from molecular and genetic to behavioral and evolutionary. Burt and Trivers give us access for the first time to a crucial area of research—now developing at an explosive rate—that is cohering as a unitary whole, with its own logic and interconnected questions, a subject certain to be of enduring importance to our understanding of genetics and evolution.
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Editorial Reviews

Nature

Just over ten years ago, Trivers joined forces with geneticist Austin Burt for a detailed study of selfish genetic elements, and Genes in Conflict is the result of their fruitful collaboration. The book is the first of its kind and admirably fills an empty niche.
— James F. Crow

Science

Genes in Conflict, by evolutionary geneticist Austin Burt and biologist Robert Trivers, is the first book to review the vast empirical literature on selfish genetic elements. It reveals how widespread these elements are in nature, what evolutionary effects they have had on fundamental aspects of the genetic system itself (such as its size, organization, and degree of recombination), and how they influence reproduction, development, and behavior. While enthusiastically addressing the ever-accelerating advance of genetic conflict studies, the authors also take care to identify many open questions. Their fascinating and comprehensive book provides a gold mine for anyone entering the field.
— Peter Hammerstein and Edward H. Hagen

Metapsychology

Genes in Conflict is an important contribution to biology and to the humanities: for biology, because it collects and represents a comprehensive source of information on the developing understanding of selfish Code; for the humanities, because it forces a reconceptualization of what all of 'life' is, and then perhaps, what it might become.
— Nicholas Ruiz III

Current Biology

Genes in Conflict is the first book to review all aspects of this topic in depth… At just over 600 pages, it is a weighty and impressive work, and will undoubtedly serve as the major source of reference for years to come… Few, if any, biologists have expert knowledge on all of these fields, and many of the facts that they describe were unknown to me. I have certainly learnt a lot about systems of which I was ignorant or only dimly aware. For the topics where I do know something, the level of accuracy is very high… Genes in Conflict is an outstanding contribution to the literature on evolution, and can be read profitably by all kinds of biologists.
— Brian Charlesworth

Choice

Burt and Trivers offer a comprehensive, extensively referenced description of selfish genetic elements in eukaryotes. The book begins with a summary of these elements, followed in subsequent chapters by in-depth descriptions of specific classes of selfish DNA… In addition to providing a detailed description of various forms of selfish DNA, the book discusses a number of interesting topics relating to these genetic elements… Faculty would find many of these topics a useful springboard for discussions in genetics and other classes.
— P. Guilfoile

American Scientist

Thought provoking… In their 602-page opus, Burt and Trivers provide a plethora of exciting case studies. Although there is no lack of data to discuss, the authors emphasize repeatedly how little we really know about this area of evolution and biodiversity. I found the tone of this book to be very engaging. It is full of details that have been woven together into a very readable, well-organized package. Of importance for the nonspecialist reader, Burt and Trivers succeed in conveying complex concepts in population genetics without using mathematical equations… What a gift to graduate students and all researchers who are just entering this field of evolutionary biology! I found at least a dozen good projects for Ph.D. theses suggested within the pages of this book, and I am sure that there are many more.
— Fred Gould

American Journal of Human Biology

Some genes take advantage of the environment created by the cooperation of most of the others to advance their own rate of transmission. With their book Genes in Conflict, Burt and Trivers bring to the forefront this intragenomic treachery, revealing that genetic incompatibilities are diverse in form, widespread in nature…perhaps most provoking is that these conflicts have significantly influenced the evolution of genomes, populations, and species. To this end they have synthesized a huge body of literature with the goal of understanding all aspects of genetic conflict in eukaryotic genomes without ignoring any fact of biology where studies have been done. Much of this literature had lacked previous review… In each chapter Burt and Trivers are careful to demarcate the numerous questions awaiting answer, ending the book with a summary of future directions, as well as a provocative list of host features that they propose have arisen as the result of genetic conflict… This book is an incredible resource for any scientist interested in evolutionary genetics. Burt and Trivers have tackled a huge breadth of topics without sacrificing depth. They are able to compare sometimes seemingly disparate phenomena suggesting numerous connections that are either worthy of further exploration or at least provide the fodder for further debate. This book serves as the perfect primer for those interested in exploring the dark side of the genome and understanding some of the perhaps-underappreciated forces that may have acted to shape it.
— Ellen J. Pritham

Nature Genetics

In a meticulously assembled, thought-provoking and sometimes deliciously speculative textbook, Burt and Trivers' Genes in Conflict documents the selfish genetic elements that populate eukaryotic biology. Reading this book from a narrow viewpoint, one could see it as a recurrent tale of genetic conflict, but even from that perspective, the staggering variety of selfish strategies it discusses alone makes it worth reading. A broader view of this compilation is as a recurrent tale of genetic opportunity, revealing the innovative and insidious nature of genes as they vie with each other in complex sociogenetic negotiations for evolutionary survival… The overwhelming value of the book is the opportunity it highlights, as there are unanswered questions even in the best-studied instances of selfish genes. It both serves as a guidebook and a 'call to arms' for the next generation of inquisitive students, hopefully whetting their appetites and leaving them asking for more.
— Harmit S. Malik

Quarterly Review of Biology

I highly recommend this volume for all practitioners of evolutionary genetics. It seems particularly suited for graduate seminars and reading groups. Some passages require heavy lifting, even for specialists, but the effort is well worth it. Burt and Trivers have written a masterpiece.
— Norman A. Johnson

Steven Pinker
Robert Trivers is an under-appreciated genius, and one of history's greatest thinkers in the analysis of behavior and emotion.
Bill Rice
Most of us have met at least one person who stands out as the epitome of logical thinking, someone you can trust to see the flaws in any erroneous conclusion and resolve the needle of signal in a haystack of seemly discordant data. Austin Burt is that person for me, and his new book on genetic conflict reflects this intellectual prowess.
David Haig
Genes in Conflict is a well-written and beautifully organized synthesis that forges a link between evolutionary and molecular biology. It should be read by evolutionary biologists wishing to learn more about the menagerie of selfish genetic elements and by molecular biologists wishing to gain some evolutionary insights into their particular systems.
Nature - James F. Crow
Just over ten years ago, Trivers joined forces with geneticist Austin Burt for a detailed study of selfish genetic elements, and Genes in Conflict is the result of their fruitful collaboration. The book is the first of its kind and admirably fills an empty niche.
Science - Peter Hammerstein And Edward H. Hagen
Genes in Conflict, by evolutionary geneticist Austin Burt and biologist Robert Trivers, is the first book to review the vast empirical literature on selfish genetic elements. It reveals how widespread these elements are in nature, what evolutionary effects they have had on fundamental aspects of the genetic system itself (such as its size, organization, and degree of recombination), and how they influence reproduction, development, and behavior. While enthusiastically addressing the ever-accelerating advance of genetic conflict studies, the authors also take care to identify many open questions. Their fascinating and comprehensive book provides a gold mine for anyone entering the field.
Metapsychology - Nicholas Ruiz III
Genes in Conflict is an important contribution to biology and to the humanities: for biology, because it collects and represents a comprehensive source of information on the developing understanding of selfish Code; for the humanities, because it forces a reconceptualization of what all of 'life' is, and then perhaps, what it might become.
Current Biology - Brian Charlesworth
Genes in Conflict is the first book to review all aspects of this topic in depth… At just over 600 pages, it is a weighty and impressive work, and will undoubtedly serve as the major source of reference for years to come… Few, if any, biologists have expert knowledge on all of these fields, and many of the facts that they describe were unknown to me. I have certainly learnt a lot about systems of which I was ignorant or only dimly aware. For the topics where I do know something, the level of accuracy is very high… Genes in Conflict is an outstanding contribution to the literature on evolution, and can be read profitably by all kinds of biologists.
Choice - P. Guilfoile
Burt and Trivers offer a comprehensive, extensively referenced description of selfish genetic elements in eukaryotes. The book begins with a summary of these elements, followed in subsequent chapters by in-depth descriptions of specific classes of selfish DNA… In addition to providing a detailed description of various forms of selfish DNA, the book discusses a number of interesting topics relating to these genetic elements… Faculty would find many of these topics a useful springboard for discussions in genetics and other classes.
American Scientist - Fred Gould
Thought provoking… In their 602-page opus, Burt and Trivers provide a plethora of exciting case studies. Although there is no lack of data to discuss, the authors emphasize repeatedly how little we really know about this area of evolution and biodiversity. I found the tone of this book to be very engaging. It is full of details that have been woven together into a very readable, well-organized package. Of importance for the nonspecialist reader, Burt and Trivers succeed in conveying complex concepts in population genetics without using mathematical equations… What a gift to graduate students and all researchers who are just entering this field of evolutionary biology! I found at least a dozen good projects for Ph.D. theses suggested within the pages of this book, and I am sure that there are many more.
American Journal of Human Biology - Ellen J. Pritham
Some genes take advantage of the environment created by the cooperation of most of the others to advance their own rate of transmission. With their book Genes in Conflict, Burt and Trivers bring to the forefront this intragenomic treachery, revealing that genetic incompatibilities are diverse in form, widespread in nature…perhaps most provoking is that these conflicts have significantly influenced the evolution of genomes, populations, and species. To this end they have synthesized a huge body of literature with the goal of understanding all aspects of genetic conflict in eukaryotic genomes without ignoring any fact of biology where studies have been done. Much of this literature had lacked previous review… In each chapter Burt and Trivers are careful to demarcate the numerous questions awaiting answer, ending the book with a summary of future directions, as well as a provocative list of host features that they propose have arisen as the result of genetic conflict… This book is an incredible resource for any scientist interested in evolutionary genetics. Burt and Trivers have tackled a huge breadth of topics without sacrificing depth. They are able to compare sometimes seemingly disparate phenomena suggesting numerous connections that are either worthy of further exploration or at least provide the fodder for further debate. This book serves as the perfect primer for those interested in exploring the dark side of the genome and understanding some of the perhaps-underappreciated forces that may have acted to shape it.
Nature Genetics - Harmit S. Malik
In a meticulously assembled, thought-provoking and sometimes deliciously speculative textbook, Burt and Trivers' Genes in Conflict documents the selfish genetic elements that populate eukaryotic biology. Reading this book from a narrow viewpoint, one could see it as a recurrent tale of genetic conflict, but even from that perspective, the staggering variety of selfish strategies it discusses alone makes it worth reading. A broader view of this compilation is as a recurrent tale of genetic opportunity, revealing the innovative and insidious nature of genes as they vie with each other in complex sociogenetic negotiations for evolutionary survival… The overwhelming value of the book is the opportunity it highlights, as there are unanswered questions even in the best-studied instances of selfish genes. It both serves as a guidebook and a 'call to arms' for the next generation of inquisitive students, hopefully whetting their appetites and leaving them asking for more.
Quarterly Review of Biology - Norman A. Johnson
I highly recommend this volume for all practitioners of evolutionary genetics. It seems particularly suited for graduate seminars and reading groups. Some passages require heavy lifting, even for specialists, but the effort is well worth it. Burt and Trivers have written a masterpiece.
Science
Genes in Conflict, by evolutionary geneticist Austin Burt and biologist Robert Trivers, is the first book to review the vast empirical literature on selfish genetic elements. It reveals how widespread these elements are in nature, what evolutionary effects they have had on fundamental aspects of the genetic system itself (such as its size, organization, and degree of recombination), and how they influence reproduction, development, and behavior. While enthusiastically addressing the ever-accelerating advance of genetic conflict studies, the authors also take care to identify many open questions. Their fascinating and comprehensive book provides a gold mine for anyone entering the field.
— Peter Hammerstein and Edward H. Hagen
Choice
Burt and Trivers offer a comprehensive, extensively referenced description of selfish genetic elements in eukaryotes. The book begins with a summary of these elements, followed in subsequent chapters by in-depth descriptions of specific classes of selfish DNA...In addition to providing a detailed description of various forms of selfish DNA, the book discusses a number of interesting topics relating to these genetic elements...Faculty would find many of these topics a useful springboard for discussions in genetics and other classes.
— P. Guilfoile
Nature
Just over ten years ago, Trivers joined forces with geneticist Austin Burt for a detailed study of selfish genetic elements, and Genes in Conflict is the result of their fruitful collaboration. The book is the first of its kind and admirably fills an empty niche.
— James F. Crow
American Scientist
Thought provoking...In their 602-page opus, Burt and Trivers provide a plethora of exciting case studies. Although there is no lack of data to discuss, the authors emphasize repeatedly how little we really know about this area of evolution and biodiversity. I found the tone of this book to be very engaging. It is full of details that have been woven together into a very readable, well-organized package. Of importance for the nonspecialist reader, Burt and Trivers succeed in conveying complex concepts in population genetics without using mathematical equations...What a gift to graduate students and all researchers who are just entering this field of evolutionary biology! I found at least a dozen good projects for Ph.D. theses suggested within the pages of this book, and I am sure that there are many more.
— Fred Gould
Nature Genetics
In a meticulously assembled, thought-provoking and sometimes deliciously speculative textbook, Burt and Trivers' Genes in Conflict documents the selfish genetic elements that populate eukaryotic biology. Reading this book from a narrow viewpoint, one could see it as a recurrent tale of genetic conflict, but even from that perspective, the staggering variety of selfish strategies it discusses alone makes it worth reading. A broader view of this compilation is as a recurrent tale of genetic opportunity, revealing the innovative and insidious nature of genes as they vie with each other in complex sociogenetic negotiations for evolutionary survival...The overwhelming value of the book is the opportunity it highlights, as there are unanswered questions even in the best-studied instances of selfish genes. It both serves as a guidebook and a "call to arms" for the next generation of inquisitive students, hopefully whetting their appetites and leaving them asking for more.
— Harmit S. Malik
Quarterly Review of Biology
I highly recommend this volume for all practitioners of evolutionary genetics. It seems particularly suited for graduate seminars and reading groups. Some passages require heavy lifting, even for specialists, but the effort is well worth it. Burt and Trivers have written a masterpiece.
— Norman A. Johnson
Metapsychology
Genes in Conflict is an important contribution to biology and to the humanities: for biology, because it collects and represents a comprehensive source of information on the developing understanding of selfish Code; for the humanities, because it forces a reconceptualization of what all of "life" is, and then perhaps, what it might become.
— Nicholas Ruiz III
American Journal of Human Biology
Some genes take advantage of the environment created by the cooperation of most of the others to advance their own rate of transmission. With their book Genes in Conflict, Burt and Trivers bring to the forefront this intragenomic treachery revealing that genetic incompatibilities are diverse in form, widespread in nature, and perhaps most provoking is that these conflicts have significantly influenced the evolution of genomes, populations, and species. To this end they have synthesized a huge body of literature with the goal of understanding all aspects of genetic conflict in eukaryotic genomes without ignoring any fact of biology where studies have been done. Much of this literature had lacked previous review...In each chapter Burt and Trivers are careful to demarcate the numerous questions awaiting answer, ending the book with a summary of future directions, as well as a provocative list of host features that they propose have arisen as the result of genetic conflict...This book is an incredible resource for any scientist interested in evolutionary genetics. Burt and Trivers have tackled a huge breadth of topics without sacrificing depth. They are able to compare sometimes seemingly disparate phenomena suggesting numerous connections that are either worthy of further exploration or at least provide the fodder for further debate. This book serves as the perfect primer for those interested in exploring the dark side of the genome and understanding some of the perhaps-underappreciated forces that may have acted to shape it.
— Ellen J. Pritham
Current Biology
Genes in Conflict is the first book to review all aspects of this topic in depth...At just over 600 pages, it is a weighty and impressive work, and will undoubtedly serve as the major source of reference for years to come...Few, if any, biologists have expert knowledge on all of these fields, and many of the facts that they describe were unknown to me. I have certainly learnt a lot about systems of which I was ignorant or only dimly aware. For the topics where I do know something, the level of accuracy is very high...Genes in Conflict is an outstanding contribution to the literature on evolution, and can be read profitably by all kinds of biologists.

— Brian Charlesworth

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780674027220
  • Publisher: Harvard University Press
  • Publication date: 3/28/2008
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 632
  • Sales rank: 1,239,879
  • Product dimensions: 6.30 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 1.30 (d)

Meet the Author

Austin Burt is Professor of Evolutionary Genetics, Imperial College London.

Robert Trivers is Professor of Anthropology and Biological Sciences, Rutgers University. Professor Trivers has been named 2007 winner of the Crafoord Prize in Biosciences.

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Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • 1. Selfish Genetic Elements
    • Genetic Cooperation and Conflict
    • Three Ways to Achieve “Drive”
    • Within-Individual Kinship Conflicts
    • Rates of Spread
    • Effects on the Host Population
    • The Study of Selfish Genetic Elements
    • Design of This Book


  • 2. Autosomal Killers
    • The t Haplotype
      • Discovery
      • Structure of the t Haplotype
      • History and Distribution
      • Genetics of Drive
      • Importance of Mating System and Gamete Competition
      • Fate of Resistant Alleles
      • Selection for Inversions
      • Recessive Lethals in t Complexes
      • Enhancers and Suppressors
      • t and the Major Histocompatability Complex
      • Heterozygous (+/t) Fitness Effects: Sex Antagonistic?
      • Accounting for t Frequencies in Nature


    • Other Gamete Killers
      • Segregation Distorter in Drosophila
      • Spore Killers in Fungi
      • Incidence of Gamete Killers


    • Maternal-Effect Killers
      • Medea in Flour Beetles
      • HSR, scat+, and OmDDK in Mice
      • The Evolution of Maternal-Effect Killers
      • Gestational Drive?


    • Gametophyte Factors in Plants


  • 3. Selfish Sex Chromosomes
    • Sex Chromosome Drive in the Diptera
      • Killer X Chromosomes
      • Killer Y Chromosomes
      • Taxonomic Distribution of Killer Sex Chromosomes
      • Evolutionary Cycles of Sex Determination


    • Feminizing X (and Y) Chromosomes in Rodents
      • The Varying Lemming
      • The Wood Lemming
      • Other Murids


    • Other Conflicts: Sex Ratios and Mate Choice


  • 4. Genomic Imprinting
    • Imprinting and Parental Investment in Mammals
      • Igf2 and Igf2r: Oppositely Imprinted, Oppositely Acting Growth Factors in Mice
      • Growth Effects of Imprinted Genes in Mice and Humans


    • Evolution of the Imprinting Apparatus
      • The Mechanisms of Imprinting Involve Methylation and Are Complex
      • Conflict between Different Components of the Imprinting Machinery
      • History of Conflict Reflected in the Imprinting Apparatus
      • Evolutionary Turnover of the Imprinting Apparatus
      • Intralocus Interactions, Polar Overdominance, and Paramutation
      • Transmission Ratio Distortion at Imprinted Loci
      • Biparental Imprinting and Other Possibilities


    • Other Traits: Social Interactions after the Period of Parental Investment
      • Maternal Behavior in Mice
      • Inbreeding and Dispersal
      • Kin Recognition
      • Functional Interpretation of Tissue Effects in Chimeric Mice
      • Deceit and Selves-Deception


    • Imprinting and the Sex Chromosomes
    • Genomic Imprinting in Other Taxa
      • Flowering Plants
      • Other Taxa Predicted To Have Imprinting




  • 5. Selfish Mitochondrial DNA
    • Mitochondrial Genomics: A Primer
    • Mitochondrial Selection within the Individual
      • “Petite” Mutations in Yeast
      • Within-Individual Selection and the Evolution of Uniparental Inheritance
      • Within-Individual Selection under Uniparental Inheritance
      • DUI: Mother-to-Daughter and Father-to-Son mtDNA Inheritance in Mussels


    • Cytoplasmic Male Sterility
      • Uniparental Inheritance Implies Unisexual Selection
      • Disproportionate Role of mtDNA in Plant Male Sterility
      • Mechanisms of Mitochondrial Action and Nuclear Reaction
      • CMS and Restorers in Natural Populations
      • CMS, Masculinization, and the Evolution of Separate Sexes
      • Pollen Limitation, Frequency Dependence, and Local Extinction
      • Resource Reallocation versus Inbreeding Avoidance
      • Importance of Mutational Variation
      • CMS and Paternal Transmission


    • Other Traces of Mito-Nuclear Conflict
      • Mitochondria and Apoptosis
      • Mitochondria and Germ Cell Determination
      • Mitochondria and RNA Editing




  • 6. Gene Conversion and Homing
    • Biased Gene Conversion
      • Molecular Mechanisms
      • Effective Selection Coefficients due to BGC in Fungi
      • BGC and Genome Evolution
      • BGC and Evolution of the Meiotic Machinery


    • Homing and Retrohoming
      • How HEGs Home
      • HEGs Usually Associated with Self-Splicing Introns or Inteins
      • HEGs and Host Mating System
      • Evolutionary Cycle of Horizontal Transmission, Degeneration, and Loss
      • HEG Domestication and Mating-Type Switching in Yeast
      • Group II Introns


    • Artificial HEGs as Tools for Population Genetic Engineering
      • The Basic Construct
      • Increasing the Load
      • Preventing Natural Resistance and Horizontal Transmission
      • Population Genetic Engineering
      • Other Uses




  • 7. Transposable Elements
    • Molecular Structure and Mechanisms
      • DNA Transposons
      • LINEs and SINEs
      • LTR Retroelements


    • Population Biology and Natural Selection
      • Transposition Rates Low but Greater than Excision Rates
      • Natural Selection on the Host Slows the Spread of Transposable Elements
      • Rapid Spread of P Elements in D. melanogaster
      • Net Reproductive Rate a Function of Transposition Rate and Effect on Host Fitness
      • Reducing Harm to the Host
      • Transposition Rate and Copy Number “Regulation”
      • Selection for Self-Recognition
      • Defective and Repressor Elements
      • Extinction of Active Elements in Host Species
      • Horizontal Transmission and Long-Term Persistence
      • Transposable Elements in Inbred and Outcrossed Populations
      • Beneficial Inserts
      • Rates of Fixation


    • Transposable Elements and Host Evolution
      • Transposable Elements and Chromosomal Rearrangements
      • Transposable Elements and Genome Size
      • Co-Option of Transposable Element Functions and Host Defenses
      • Transposable Elements as Parasites, Not Host Adaptations or Mutualists


    • Origins
      • Ancient, Chimeric, and Polyphyletic Origins




  • 8. Female Drive
    • Selfish Centromeres and Female Meiosis
      • Abnormal Chromosome 10 of Maize
      • Other Knobs in Maize
      • Deleterious Effects of Knobs in Maize
      • Knobs, Supernumerary Segments, and Neocentromeres in Other Species
      • Meiosis-Specific Centromeres and Holocentric Chromosomes
      • Selfish Centromeres and Meiosis I
      • The Importance of Centromere Number: Robertsonian Translocations in Mammals
      • Sperm-Dependent Female Drive?


    • Female Drive and Karyotype Evolution
    • Polar Bodies Rejoining the Germline


  • 9. B Chromosomes
    • Drive
      • Types of Drive
      • Genetics of A and B Factors Affecting B Drive
      • Transmission Rates in Well-Studied Species
      • Absence of Drive
      • Degree of Outcrossing and Drive


    • Effects on the Phenotype
      • Effects on Genome Size, Cell Size, and Cell Cycle
      • Effects on the External Phenotype
      • Disappearance from Somatic Tissue
      • B Number and the Odd-Even Effect
      • Negative Effects of Bs More Pronounced under Harsher Conditions
      • Is the Sex of Drive Associated with the Sex of Phenotypic Effect?
      • B Effects on Recombination Among the As
      • Pairing of A Chromosomes in Hybrids


    • Neutral and Beneficial Bs
      • Beneficial B Chromosomes
      • B Chromosomes in Eyprepocnemis plorans: A Case of Continuous Neutralization?


    • Structure and Content
      • Size
      • Polymorphism
      • Heterochromatin
      • Genes
      • Tandem Repeats


    • The Origin of Bs
    • A Factors Associated with B Presence
      • Genome Size
      • Chromosome Number
      • Ploidy
      • Shape of A Chromosomes


    • Bs and the Sex Ratio
      • Paternal Sex Ratio (PSR) in Nasonia
      • X–B Associations in Orthoptera
      • Has the Drosophila Y Evolved from a B?
      • Other Effects of Bs on the Sex Ratio
      • Male Sterility in Plantago




  • 10. Genomic Exclusion
    • Paternal Genome Loss in Males, or Parahaplodiploidy
      • PGL in Mites
      • PGL in Scale Insects
      • PGL in the Coffee Borer Beetle
      • PGL in Springtails?
      • Evolution of PGL
      • PGL and Haplodiploidy


    • Sciarid Chromosome System
      • Notable Features of the Sciarid System
      • An Evolutionary Hypothesis
      • Mechanisms
      • PGL in Gall Midges


    • Hybridogenesis, or Hemiclonal Reproduction
      • The Topminnow Poeciliopsis
      • The Water Frog Rana esculenta
      • The Stick Insect Bacillus rossius-grandii
      • Evolution of Hybridogenesis


    • Androgenesis, or Maternal Genome Loss
      • The Conifer Cupressus dupreziana
      • The Clam Corbicula
      • The Stick Insect Bacillus rossius-grandii




  • 11. Selfish Cell Lineages
    • Mosaics
      • Somatic Cell Lineage Selection: Cancer and the Adaptive Immune System
      • Cell Lineage Selection in the Germline
      • Evolution of the Germline
      • Selfish Genes and Germline-Limited DNA


    • Chimeras
      • Taxonomic Survey of Chimerism
      • Somatic Chimerism and Polar Bodies




  • 12. Summary and Future Directions
    • Logic of Selfish Genetic Elements
    • Molecular Genetics
    • Selfish Genes and Sex
    • Fate of a Selfish Gene within a Species
    • Movement between Species
    • Distribution among Species
    • Role in Host Evolution
    • The Hidden World of Selfish Genetic Elements


  • References
  • Glossary
  • Index

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