Genetics: A Conceptual Approach / Edition 4

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More About This Textbook

Overview

Designed for introductory genetics courses and based on decades of teaching experience, Genetics: A Conceptual Approach focuses on the important concepts and mechanics of genetics without losing students in a sea of detail.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781429232524
  • Publisher: Freeman, W. H. & Company
  • Publication date: 12/10/2010
  • Edition description: Fourth Edition
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 400
  • Sales rank: 329,668
  • Product dimensions: 9.10 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Table of Contents

1. Introduction to Genetics
1.1 Genetics Is Important to Individuals, to Society, and to the Study of Biology
1.2 Humans Have Been Using Genetics for Thousands of Years
1.3 A Few Fundamental Concepts Are Important for the Start of Our Journey into Genetics
• New Chapter Opening Story: Albinism in the Hopis
• Expanded section on model genetic organisms, using the golden mutation in zebrafish as an example


2. Chromosomes and Cellular Reproduction
2.1 Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Differ in a Number of Genetic Characteristics
2.2 Cell Reproduction Requires the Copying of the Genetic Material, Separation of the Copies, and Cell Division
2.3 Sexual Reproduction Produces Genetic Variation Through the Process of Meiosis
• Revised discussion of the cell cycle
• Updated coverage of the separation of sister chromatids and homologous chromosomes, including a discussion of shogoshin


3. Basic Principles of Heredity
3.1 Gregor Mendel Discovered the Basic Principles of Heredity
3.2 Monohybrid Crosses Reveal the Principle of Segregation and the Concept of Dominance
3.3 Dihybrid Crosses Reveal the Principle of Independent Assortment
3.4 Observed Ratios of Progeny May Deviate from Expected Ratios by Chance
• New Chapter Opening Story: The Genetics of Red Hair
• Five new Data Analysis Problems featuring real data from scientific papers


4. Sex Determination and Sex-Linked Characteristics
4.1 Sex Is Determined by a Number of Different Mechanisms
4.2 Sex-Linked Characteristics Are Determined by Genes on the Sex Chromosomes
Model Genetic Organism: The Fruit Fly Drosophila melanogaster
• Revised discussion of nondisjunction and the Chromosome Theory of Inheritance
• New in-text Worked Problem
• Updated discussion of X-inactivation
• Two new Data Analysis problems featuring real data from scientific papers


5. Extensions and Modifications of Basic Principles
5.1 Dominance Is Interaction Between Genes at the Same Locus
5.2 Penetrance and Expressivity Describe How Genes Are Expressed As Phenotype
5.3 Lethal Alleles May Alter Phenotypic Ratios
5.4 Multiple Alleles at a Locus Create a Greater Variety of Genotypes and Phenotypes Than Do Two Alleles
5.5 Gene Interaction Occurs When Genes at Multiple Loci Determine a Single Phenotype
5.6 Sex Influences the Inheritance and Expression of Genes in a Variety of Ways
5.7 Anticipation Is the Stronger or Earlier Expression of Traits in Succeeding Generations
5.8 The Expression of a Genotype May Be Influenced by Environmental Effects
• New Chapter Opening Story: Cuénot’s Odd Yellow Mice
• New extended example to introduce the concept of epistatsis
• New example to demonstrate recessive epistasis: Bombay phenotype
• New in-text Worked Problem
• Five new Data Analysis Problems featuring real data from scientific papers


6. Pedigree Analysis, Applications, and Genetic Testing
6.1 The Study of Genetics in Humans Is Constrained by Special Features of Human Biology and Culture
6.2 Geneticists Often Use Pedigrees to Study the Inheritance of Characteristics in Humans
6.3 Analysis of Pedigrees Requires Recognizing Patterns Associated with Different Modes of Inheritance
6.3 The Study of Twins Can Be Used to Assess the Importance of Genes and Environment on Variation in a Trait
6.4 Adoption Studies Are Another Technique for Examining the Effects of Genes and Environment on Variation in Traits
6.5 Genetic Counseling Provides Information to Those Concerned about Genetic Diseases and Traits
6.6 Genetic Testing Provides Information about the Potential for Inheriting or Developing a Genetic Condition
6.7 Comparison of Human and Chimpanzee Genomes Is Helping to Reveal Genes That Make Humans Unique
• New Chapter Opening Story: Hutchinson-Gilford Syndrome and the Secret of Aging
• New section on genes that make us human
• Six new Data Analysis Problems featuring real data from scientific papers


7. Linkage, Recombination, and Eukaryotic Gene Mapping
7.1 Linked Genes Do Not Assort Independently
7.2 Linked Genes Segregate Together and Crossing Over Produces Recombination Between Them
7.3 A Three-Point Testcross Can Be Used to Map Three Linked Genes
7.4 Physical Mapping Methods Are Used to Determine the Physical Positions of Genes on Particular Chromosomes
7.5 Recombination Rates Exhibit Extensive Variation
• New test for independent assortment using a contingency chi-square test
• New discussion of the effects of multiple crossovers
• Revised discussion of physical mapping
• New section on variation in recombination rates
• Six new Data Analysis Problems featuring real data from scientific papers


8. Bacterial and Viral Genetic Systems
8.1 Genetic Analysis of Bacteria Requires Special Approaches and Methods
Model Genetic Organism: The Bacterium Escherichia coli
8.2 Viruses Are Simple Replicating Systems Amenable to Genetic Analysis
• Rearranged and revised discussion of gene mapping in bacteria
• Expanded discussion of the evolution of HIV and mechanism of infection
• Six new Data Analysis Problems featuring real data from scientific papers


9. Chromosome Variation
9.1 Chromosome Mutations Include Rearrangements, Aneuploids, and Polyploids
9.2 Chromosome Rearrangements Alter Chromosome Structure
9.3 Aneuploidy Is an Increase or Decrease in the Number of Individual Chromosomes
9.4 Polyploidy Is the Presence of More Than Two Sets of Chromosomes
9.5 Chromosome Variation Plays an Important Role in Evolution
• New Chapter Opening Story: Trisomy 21 and the Down-Syndrome Critical Region
• New in-text Worked Problem
• New discussion on the role of chromosome variation in evolution
• Six new Data Analysis Problems featuring real data from scientific papers


10. DNA: The Chemical Nature of the Gene
10.1 Genetic Material Possesses Several Key Characteristics
10.2 All Genetic Information Is Encoded in the Structure of DNA or RNA
10.3 DNA Consists of Two Complementary and Antiparallel Nucleotide Strands That Form a Double Helix
• Updated discussion of studying Neanderthal DNA in chapter opening story
• Reduced coverage of alternate forms and special structures of DNA
• Three new Data Analysis Problems featuring real data from scientific papers


11. Chromosome Structure and Transposable Elements
11.1 Large Amounts of DNA Are Packed into a Cell
11.2 A Bacterial Chromosome Consists of a Single Circular DNA Molecule
11.3 Eukaryotic Chromosomes Are DNA Complexed to Histone Proteins
11.4 Eukaryotic DNA Contains Several Classes of Sequence Variation
11.5 Transposable Elements Are DNA Sequences Capable of Moving
11.6 Different Types of Transposable Elements Have Characteristic Structures
11.7 Several Hypotheses Have Been Proposed to Explain the Evolutionary Significance of Transposable Elements
• New example using grape skin color to illustrate the effect of transposons
• Expanded coverage of transposons as tools for finding genes of interest
• Three new Data Analysis Problems featuring real data from scientific papers


12. DNA Replication and Recombination
12.1 Genetic Information Must Be Accurately Copied Every Time a Cell Divides
12.2 All DNA Replication Takes Place in a Semiconservative Manner
12.3 The Replication of DNA Requires a Large Number of Enzymes and Proteins
12.4 Recombination Takes Place Through the Breakage, Alignment, and Repair of DNA Strands
• Expanded discussion of licensing factors
• Updated coverage of assembly of histones
• New discussion of replication and the cell cycle
• Expanded coverage of the role of telomerase in certain diseases, including cancer
• New discussion of gene conversion
• Three new Data Analysis Problems featuring real data from scientific papers


13. Transcription
13.1 RNA, Consisting of a Single Strand of Ribonucleotides, Participates in a Variety of Cellular Functions
13.2 Transcription Is the Synthesis of an RNA Molecule from a DNA Template
13.3 The Process of Bacterial Transcription Consists of Initiation, Elongation, and Termination
13.4 The Process of Eukaryotic Transcription Is Similar to Bacterial Transcription but Has Some Important Differences
13.5 Transcription in Archaea Is More Similar to Transcription in Eukaryotes Than to Transcription in Eubacteria
• Updated coverage of RNA polymerase’s ability to proofread, and pauses in transcription
• Completely revised and reorganized discussion of the steps of transcription
• Three new Data Analysis Problems featuring real data from scientific papers


14. RNA Molecules and RNA Processing
14.1 Many Genes Have Complex Structures
14.2 Messenger RNAs, Which Encode the Amino Acid Sequences of Proteins, Are Modified after Transcription in Eukaryotes
14.3 Transfer RNAs, Which Attach to Amino Acids, Are Modified after Transcription in Bacteria and Eukaryotic Cells
14.4 Ribosomal RNA, a Component of the Ribosome, Also Is Processed after Transcription
14.5 Small RNA Molecules Are Present Extensively in Eukaryotes and Participate in a Variety of Functions
Model Genetic Organism: The Nematode Worm Caenorhabditis elegans
• New Chapter Opening Story: Sex Through Splicing
• Revised discussion of the process of splicing
• New discussion of small RNA molecules, including the discovery and laboratory uses of RNAi, general descriptions of the properties and origins of siRNA and miRNA
• Five new Data Analysis Problems featuring real data from scientific papers


15. The Genetic Code and Translation
15.1 Many Genes Encode Proteins
15.2 The Genetic Code Determines How the Nucleotide Sequence Specifies the Amino Acid Sequence of a Protein
15.3 Amino Acids Are Assembled into a Protein Through the Mechanism of Translation
15.4 Additional Properties of RNA and Ribosomes Affect Protein Synthesis
• Revised and streamlined discussion of the process of translation
• Reorganized discussion of the structure of the ribosome
• Two new Data Analysis Problems featuring real data from scientific papers


16. Control of Gene Expression in Prokaryotes
16.1 The Regulation of Gene Expression Is Critical for All Organisms
16.2 Many Aspects of Gene Regulation Are Similar in Bacteria and Eukaryotes
16.3 Operons Control Transcription in Bacterial Cells
16.4 Some Operons Regulate Transcription Through Attenuation, the Premature Termination of Transcription
16.5 Antisense RNA Molecules May Affect the Translation of mRNA
16.6 Riboswitches Function As Regulatory Elements in mRNAs
• New Chapter Opening Story: Stress, Sex and Gene Regulation in Bacteria
• Complete reorganization of the chapter to emphasize prokaryotic gene regulation and common regulatory strategies among all organisms (prokaryotes and eukaryotes)
• New in-text Worked Problem
• Two new Data Analysis Problems featuring real data from scientific papers


17. Control of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes
17.1 Eukaryotic Cells and Bacteria Have Many Features of Gene Regulation in Common, but They Differ in Several Important Ways
17.2 Changes in Chromatin Structure Affect the Expression of Genes
17.3 The Initiation of Transcription Is Regulated by Transcription Factors and Transcriptional Activator Proteins
17.4 Some Genes Are Regulated by RNA Processing and Degradation
17.5 RNA Interference Is an Important Mechanism of Gene Regulation
17.6 Some Genes Are Regulated by Processes That Affect Translation or by Modifications of Proteins
Model Genetic Organism: Arabidopsis thaliana
• New Chapter Opening Story: How a Parasite Changes its Spots
• Complete reorganization of the chapter to emphasize eukaryotic gene regulation and differences between regulatory strategies of prokaryotes and eukaryotes
• Expanded coverage of histone modification, including the histone code
• New discussion of chromatin remodeling
• Expanded coverage of transcriptional activator proteins
• New discussion of the role of P bodies in RNA degradation
• Expanded discussion of the role of RNAi in eukaryotic gene regulation, including alteration of chromatin structure and slicer independent mRNA decay
• Expanded discussion of post-translational regulation
• Two new Data Analysis Problems featuring real data from scientific papers


18. Gene Mutations and DNA Repair
18.1 Mutations Are Inherited Alterations in the DNA Sequence
18.2 Mutations Are Potentially Caused by a Number of Different Natural and Unnatural Factors
18.3 Mutations Are the Focus of Intense Study by Geneticists
18.4 A Number of Pathways Repair Changes in DNA
• New Chapter Opening Story: A Fly Without a Heart
• New in-text Worked Problem
• Updated discussion of laboratory studies of mutation rates using gene sequencing
• Two new Data Analysis Problems featuring real data from scientific papers


19. Molecular Genetic Analysis and Biotechnology
19.1 Techniques of Molecular Genetics Have Revolutionized Biology
19.2 Molecular Techniques Are Used to Isolate, Recombine, and Amplify Genes
19.3 Molecular Techniques Can Be Used to Find Genes of Interest
19.4 DNA Sequences Can Be Determined and Analyzed
19.5 Molecular Techniques Are Increasingly Used to Analyze Gene Function
Model Genetic Organism: The Mouse Mus musculus
19.6 Biotechnology Harnesses the Power of Molecular Genetics
• Extensive revision to emphasize techniques in exploring gene function rather than gene cloning
• New extended case studies illustrate techniques discussed in each section, showing how each is used in a real-life setting
• New discussion of real time PCR
• Discussion of DNA sequencing moved from genomics chapter
• New discussion of positional cloning and chromosome jumping
• Expanded discussion of using molecular genetic analysis to study gene function
• New discussion on silencing genes with RNAi
• Two new Data Analysis Problems featuring real data from scientific papers


20. Genomics and Proteomics
20.1 Structural Genomics Determines the DNA Sequences of Entire Genomes
20.2 Functional Genomics Determines the Function of Genes Using Genomic-Based Approaches
20.3 Comparative Genomics Studies How Genomes Evolve
20.4 Proteomics Analyzes the Complete Set of Proteins Found in a Cell
• New Chapter Opening Story: Decoding the Wiggle Dance: The Genome of Honeybees
• Whole genome sequencing now explained in the context of the Human Genome Project and Celera sequencing project
• New discussion of copy number variations
• Expanded coverage of bioinformatics, including a list of commonly used gene and protein databases
• Comparative genomics section reorganized by feature rather than by organism to emphasize similarities and differences between genomes of different organisms, including discussions of multigene families, gene deserts, protein diversity and colinearity of genes
• New section on proteomics
• New Data Analysis Problem featuring real data from scientific papers


21. Organelle DNA
21.1 Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Occur in the Cytoplasm of Eukaryotic Cells
21.2 Mitochondrial DNA Varies Widely in Size and Organization
Model Genetic Organism: The Yeast Saccharomyces covisiae
21.3 Chloroplast DNA Exhibits Many Characteristics of Eubacterial DNA
21.4 Over Evolutionary Time, Genetic Information has Moved Between Nuclear, Mitochondrial and Chloroplast Genomes
21.5 Damage to Mitochondrial DNA is Associated with Aging
• New in-text Worked Problem
• Updated coverage of the gene content of mitochondrial DNA
• New discussion of how studies of mtDNA reveal human origins and migration
• Four new Data Analysis Problems featuring real data from scientific papers


22. Developmental Genetics and Immunogenetics
22.1 Development Occurs Through Cell Determination
22.2 Pattern Formation in Drosophila Serves as a Model for the Genetic Control of Development
22.3 Genes Control the Development of Flowers in Plants
22.4 Programmed Cell Death is an Integral Part of Development
22.5 The Study of Development Reveals Patterns and Processes of Development
22.6 The Development of Immunity Occurs through Genetic Rearrangement
• New Chapter Opening Story: How a Cave Fish Lost its Eyes
• New discussion of Hox genes in different organisms
• Expanded coverage of evo-devo, including discussion of the eyeless mutation across several organisms, Toll-like receptors, and calmodulin expression in Darwin’s finches
• Three new Data Analysis Problems featuring real data from scientific papers


23. Cancer Genetics
23.1 Cancer is a Group of Diseases Characterized by Cell Proliferation
23.2 Mutations in a Number of Different Types of Genes Contribute to Cancer
23.3 Changes in Chromosome Number and Structure are Often Associated with Cancer
23.4 Viruses are Associated with Some Cancers
23.5 Changes in DNA Methylation are Often Associated with Cancer
23.6 Colorectal Cancer Arises Through Sequential Mutation of a Number of Genes
• New Chapter Opening Story: Palladin and the Spread of Cancer
• Expanded discussion of control of the cell cycle, including the mechanisms of the signaling pathway
• New discussion on the role of miRNAs in cancer
• New discussion of chromosome mutations as a cause and a result of cancer
• New discussion of the role of viruses in some kinds of cancer
• New Data Analysis Problem featuring real data from scientific papers


24. Quantitative Genetics
24.1 Quantitative Characteristics Vary Continuously and are Often Influenced by Alleles at Multiple Loci
24.2 Statistical Methods are Required for Analyzing Quantitative Characteristics
24.3 Heritability is used to Estimate the Proportion of Variation in a Trait that is Genetic
24.4 Genetically Variable Traits Change in Response to Selection
• Revised section on components of different types of variance
• New Data Analysis Problem featuring real data from scientific papers


25. Population Genetics
25.1 Genotypic and Allelic Frequencies Are Used to Describe Gene Pool of a Population
25.2 The Hardy-Weinberg Law Describes the Effect of Reproduction on Genotypic and Allelic Frequencies
25.3 Nonrandom Mating Affects the Genotypic Frequencies of a Population
25.4 Several Evolutionary Forces Potentially Cause Changes in Allelic Frequencies
• New Chapter Opening Story: Genetic Rescue of Bighorn Sheep
• Expanded discussion of the Hardy-Weinberg law to show its derivation from Punnett Squares
• New Data Analysis Problems featuring real data from scientific papers


26. Evolutionary Genetics
26.1 Organisms Evolve Through Genetic Change Occuring Within Populations
26.2 Many Natural Populations Contain High Levels of Genetic Variation
26.3 New Species Arise Through the Evolution of Reproductive Isolation
26.4 The Evolutionary History of a Group of Organisms Can Be Reconstructed by Studying Changes in Homologous Characteristics
26.5 Patterns of Evolution Are Revealed by Changes at the Molecular Level
• New Chapter Opening Story: Taster Genes in Spitting Apes
• Revised and expanded coverage of phylogenetic trees
• New Data Analysis Problems featuring real data from scientific papers

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    Ridiculous

    It won't even let me read this on my tablet. This is ridiculous! What a rip off!

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    Mac users beware

    Seeing how all of the rest of next semesters book are available and ready on my iPad I thought this would be too. I can only read it on my laptop (macbook) and the nook study program will open then quit responding. Rebooting doesn't help, reinstalling doesn't help. Whoever designed the program for mac apparently doesn't use one often. Try again B&N.

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