Genetics: A Beginner's Guide

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This is a new introduction for readers who wish to know more about the science that is changing our world.
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Genetics: A Beginner's Guide

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Overview


This is a new introduction for readers who wish to know more about the science that is changing our world.
Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781851683048
  • Publisher: Oneworld Publications
  • Publication date: 1/15/2003
  • Series: Beginners Guide (Oneworld) Series
  • Pages: 256
  • Sales rank: 951,837
  • Product dimensions: 5.30 (w) x 7.91 (h) x 0.93 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface
1 Genetics: past, present and future 1
The search for order and meaning 3
The modern image of science 5
The prospects of modern genetics 10
2 From myth to modern science 13
Primitive interest in heredity 15
Mythology and the domestication of plants and animals 16
Heredity in human society 20
How are children made? 23
3 What is inherited? 29
Cellular structure 30
Molecular structure 34
Growth and biosynthesis 41
Enzymes 43
Synthesizing polymers 46
Cells as self-renewing, self-reproducing factories 48
4 The breakthrough: mendel's laws 49
Mendel's discoveries 50
Pedigrees 53
Another example: tasters and non-tasters 58
Blood types 60
Multiple alleles and dominance 63
Test crosses 64
Probability 64
Two or more genes 66
Mendel's first law and disputed paternity 68
Answers to blood types questions 70
5 Chromosomes, reproduction, and sex 71
Cells and reproduction 71
Mitosis and the cell cycle 73
Karyotypes 75
Meiosis 76
Meiosis explains Mendel 82
The location of genes 83
Sex chromosomes 83
Nondisjunction of chromosomes 85
XYY males: a genetic dilemma 88
6 The function of genes 93
Genes and metabolic disease 93
Genes and enzymes 94
Proteins and information 97
Modification of hereditary disease 101
7 The hereditary material, DNA 108
Bacteria 109
The first clue 111
Bacteriophages 114
The Hershey-Chase experiment 116
DNA structure 118
Genetic implications 122
Testing DNA structure 124
8 The genetic dissection of gene structure 127
Gene arrangement 127
Crossing over within genes 132
Phage genetics 134
Fine structure of genes 134
Complementation and the definition of a gene 135
What is a gene? 137
Restriction enzymes and palindromes 139
Restriction mapping 142
9 Deciphering the code of life 146
How are proteins made? 148
RNA molecules: the tools for protein synthesis 150
RNA transcription 152
The translation process 154
The complexity of eucaryotic genes 156
Cracking the code 159
Colinearity of genes and proteins 160
Stop codons 162
Universality of the code 163
10 Heredity in the bacterial world 164
Mutant bacteria 164
Sex in E. coli 165
Plasmids 168
Resistance factors and antibiotic resistance 168
Lysogeny 173
Gene transfer by virus 174
Transduction in humans 175
11 Gene regulation and development 179
Bacterial gene regulation 180
Regulating eucaryotic genes 184
Embryonic development in general 185
Regulation by time in a chick's wing 188
Determination by position in a fly's body 189
Forming a fly's eye 191
12 DNA manipulation: the return of epimetheus? 194
Recombinant DNA and restriction enzymes 195
Studies of individual cloned fragments 197
Transgenic organisms 200
Human gene therapy 203
Genomics, the study of complete genomes 205
13 The geneticist as Dr. Frankenstein 209
The regulation of recombinant-DNA research 209
Genetically modified organisms 213
Technology in context 215
The arguments against producing GMOs 217
Cloning as an ethical target 224
The responsibility of scientists 226
14 The fountain of change: mutation 229
Mutation rates 230
Mutation in humans 231
Radiation 232
What are mutations like? 235
DNA repair systems 238
General effects of radiation 239
Chromosome aberrations 242
Looking at human chromosomes 244
Aneuploidy 245
Duplications and deficiencies 246
Inversions 248
Translocations 249
15 Evolutionary genetics 251
Evidence for evolution 253
Evolution as a process 255
Population genetics 257
Human evolution 260
The migration and diversification of Homo sapiens 261
Eugenics 264
Glossary 268
Notes 288
Further reading 292
Index 294
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