Genomes and What to Make of Them

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Overview

In 2003 the Human Genome Project announced that it had achieved a stunning scientific breakthrough: the full map of the human genome, and with it our first complete picture of the basic building block of human life. Since then, boasts about the benefits—and warnings of the dangers—of genomics have remained front-page news.
For the nonscientist, the claims and counterclaims are dizzying—what does it really mean to understand the genome? Barry Barnes and John Dupré offer an answer to that question and many more in Genomes and What to Make of Them, a clear and lively account of the genomic revolution and its promise. The book opens with a brief history of the science of genetics and genomics, from Mendel to Watson and Crick and all the way up to Craig Venter; from there the authors delve into the use of genomics in determining evolutionary paths. Barnes and Dupré then consider both the power and risks of genetics, from the economic potential of plant genomes to overblown claims that certain human genes can be directly tied to such traits as intelligence or homosexuality. Ultimately, the authors argue, we are now living with a new knowledge as powerful in its way as nuclear physics­, and the stark choices that face us—between biological warfare and gene therapy, a new eugenics or a new agricultural revolution—will demand the full engagement of both scientists and citizens. 
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Editorial Reviews

Robert Cook-Deegan
"Barnes and Dupré, drawing on both science and the philosophy of biology, push beyond the hype that accompanied the dawn of genomics. There has been too much attention devoted to what genomics will and will not do, and soon. But beneath the surface and beyond the hype, our concepts of how biological things work really have changed fundamentally, and it matters. This book helps explain how and why it matters. What do insights about genomics tell us about human variations that map to ancestry, and how those, in turn, map to social constructions of ‘race’ and ethnicity? Is there anything more threatening to human social coherence than human variations, or anything more important to understand? And what will genomic technologies tell us about behavior?  The answer is clearly more than nothing and less than we tend to think. The idea of simple genes encoding proteins that do biological work is being replaced by more complex systems theories of interaction and cybernetics. Welcome to the future of genomics. It will be a long and glorious ride. This book is a good place to start that exploration."
Peter Robbins
“What is novel about Genomes and What to Make of Them is the impressive scope of the project, which covers key issues around the politics of genomics in an accessible way, taking care to outline in clear language some very complex scientific arguments in a way that allows the authors to deconstruct various arguments about the risks and opportunities of genomics. I know of no other book that captures the social implications of genomics in quite such a comprehensive and accessible yet insightful manner."
Metapsychology - Davide Vecchi
"An engaging, dense and informative account of the many conceptual, theoretical and ethical issues surrounding the powerful science of genomics. . . . Philosophers and historians of science, sociologists of knowledge and bioethicists will all benefit from reading it. I will add to the list biologists too. . . . This is an impressive book. The writing style is engaging, while the approach is quite refreshing, as the authors are not afraid to take many biological, political and ethical stands."
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780226172958
  • Publisher: University of Chicago Press
  • Publication date: 11/30/2008
  • Pages: 288
  • Product dimensions: 6.20 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Barry Barnes is the former codirector of the ESRC Centre for Genomics in Society at the University of Exeter, at which he was formerly professor of sociology. He is the author of several books on the sociology of the sciences and was awarded the J. D. Bernal Prize for his career contribution to the field. John Dupré is director of the ESRC Centre for Genomics in Society, professor of philosophy of science at the University of Exeter, and the author of several books, including Darwin’s Legacy: What Evolution Means Today. They both reside in Exeter, UK.
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Table of Contents

Introduction
 
1          By Way of Background
            Inherited Traits
            Inherited Molecules
            Practices and Techniques
 
2          Genes, Genomes, and Molecular Genetics
            Genes and DNA
            DNA
            Genetic Knowledges and Their Distribution
 
3          Genomes
            What Are Genomes?
            The Strange Case of the Epigenome
            New Similarities and New Differences
            Reducing Complexity
 
4          Genomics and Evolution
            Classification
            Evolution
            Metagenomics
                        .
5          Genomics and Problems of Explanation
            Astrological Genetics and Explanatory Genetics
            Heritability           
            Astrological Genomics
            Beyond Astrology
 
6          Genomics as Power
            Accumulating Powers
            Genomics and Social Powers
            Resisting Genomic Powers
            Arguments and Institutions
 
7          Natural Order and Human Dignity
            The Order of Things
            Dignity
            Human Genomes and the Order of Things
            Human Genomes and the Dignity of Human Life
            Arguments and Institutions Again
                       
8          Conclusions
            Genomics as Power Again
            Accounting for Exceptionalism
            Life without Essences: Reduction as Emancipation
                       
 
Bibliography Index
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