Table of Contents 1. Modeling the Environment with GIS: A Historical Perspective from Geography.
Introduction. GIS and Environmental Modeling: Historical Legacy. The Evolution of GIS. The GIS/EM Conferences: Numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4. The Tight, Loose and Multiple Coupling Debates. Signposts to the Future. Acknowledgements. References. About the Chapter Author — Nigel Waters.
2. Modeling Frameworks, Paradigms and Approaches.
Introduction. The Nature of Environmental Modeling. Complex Environmental Systems. Environmental Phenomena and Complex Systems. Environmental Modeling and Geocomputation: Modeling “With” the Computer. Conclusion. References. About the Chapter Author — Helen Coucelis.
3. Spatial Decision Support Systems and Environmental Modeling: An Application Approach.
Summary. Introduction. A Flexible, Multiuse Spatial Decision Support System. Applications of SDSS Using Environmental Models. Discussion. Conclusions and Lessons Learned. References. About the Chapter Authors — John Corbett, Jeffrey White and Stewart Collins.
4. GIS Data Sources and Measurement Technologies for Modeling.
Summary. Environmental Modeling, Data and GIS, and. Data Types, Sources, and Issues. Remotely Sensed Data and Data Capture. Global Positioning Systems. Data Access and Distribution. Conclusions. References. Websites for Environmental and GIS Data. About the Chapter Author — Amiy Varma. Acknowledgements.
5. Development, Calibration andValidation of Physical Models.
Introduction. From the Real World to Abstract Models. Modeling Goals. Model Structure. Physico-Mathematical Equations, Discrete Equations and Computer Codes. Calibration of the Model. Model Validation. The Evolving Process of Model Development. Conclusions. References.
6. Dynamic Systems Modeling and Four Dimensional Geographic Information systems.
Introduction. Space-Time Modeling in GIS Context. Models and Modeling. Time Dimension and the GIS. Modeling Space-Time Systems. Case Study I: Potential for Groundwater Pollution. Case Study II: Changes in Soil Water Distribution. Conclusions and Lessons Learned. Information Resources. References. About the Chapter Authors — Andrew Rogowski and Jennifer Goynel.
7. Modeling Human-Environmental Systems.
Summary. Introduction. Key Features of Human-Environment Models. Examples of Human-Environment Models. Modeling Complexity and Human-Environment Dynamics. Lessons Learned and Future Directions. Conclusion. References. Acknowledgements. About the Chapter Authors — Morgan Grove, Charlie Schweik, Tom Evans and Glen Green.
8. Modeling Physical Systems.
Summary. Introduction. Physical Processes in Environmental Modeling. Models and GIS. Case Studies. Conclusions and Lessons Learned. Acknowledgements. References. Information Resources. About the Chapter Authors — Helena Mitasova and Lubos Mitas.
9. Integrative Environmental Modeling.
Summary. Introduction. Interaction Between Models. Uncertainty Analysis and Model Integration. Approaches to Model Integration. User Interface Issues. Conclusion and Lessons Learned. References. About the Chapter Author — Steven Frysinger.
10. Case Studies in GIS.
Summary. A Typology of Environmental Modeling. Case Studies. Conclusion and Lessons Learned. References. Information Resources. About the Chapter Authors — Brendan Mackey and Shawn Laffan.
11.Visualizing Environmental Data.
Summary. Visualizing Environmental Data. Gridding and Dimensionality. Interpolation Methods. Visualization Techniques. Publishing Visualizations. Visualization Applications. Conclusions and lessons Learned. References. Information Resources. About the Chapter Author — Reed Copsey.
12. GIS/EM Where Next?
Summary. Introduction. Work Groups. The Banff Statement. Epilogue. References. About the Chapter Author — Keith Clark, Bradley Parks and Michael Crane. About the Chapter Authors.