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The Geographical Structure of Epidemics

Overview

"The ways in which the great plagues of the past and present have spread around the world remain only partly understood. Peter Haggett's research over the last thirty years has focused on mapping and modelling the paths by which epidemics spread through human communities. The Geographical Structure of Epidemics, presents an-accessible, and illustrated account of how environmental and geographical concepts can be used to enhance our knowledge of the origins and progress of epidemics, and sometimes to slow or halt their spread."--BOOK JACKET. ...
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Overview

"The ways in which the great plagues of the past and present have spread around the world remain only partly understood. Peter Haggett's research over the last thirty years has focused on mapping and modelling the paths by which epidemics spread through human communities. The Geographical Structure of Epidemics, presents an-accessible, and illustrated account of how environmental and geographical concepts can be used to enhance our knowledge of the origins and progress of epidemics, and sometimes to slow or halt their spread."--BOOK JACKET.
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Product Details

Meet the Author

Peter Haggett is Chairman of the Wellcome Trust's History of Medicine Panel. He has held posts as visiting professor in a dozen North American and Australasian universities, and as visiting scientist at the World Health Organization and the US Centers of Disease Control.

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Table of Contents

List of Figures
List of Tables
1 Epidemics as Diffusion Waves 1
Geography and spatial diffusion 1
The work of Torsten Hagerstrand 4
Hagerstrand's Monte Carlo diffusion model 6
Applications to epidemiological data 9
The nature of epidemics 10
The burden of communicable disease 12
Measles as a tracer epidemic disease 16
Epidemic disease modelling: an historical note 21
Simple mass-action models 21
Kendall and spatial waves 26
Epidemics as spatial diffusion processes 29
2 Epidemics on Small Islands 31
Islands as natural epidemic laboratories 31
Iceland as a laboratory 33
Iceland's record of epidemic waves 37
Generalizations and wave sequences 43
Iceland as a graph 46
Iceland: predicting epidemic measles waves 47
Measles in Fiji and the south-west Pacific 52
The Fijian outbreak of 1875 53
The demographic impact of the epidemic 59
Indian migration of Fiji 61
3 Global Origins and Dispersals 67
The geographical question of disease origins 69
The limits of historical evidence 74
Carl Sauer and geographical speculation 77
Extension of Sauer's methods to disease origins 80
Global change and its disease implosions 82
Growth and relocation of the human population 85
Changing global land use 87
Global warming 91
The collapse of geographical space 93
Disease implosions of global change 95
4 Containing Epidemic Spread 99
Spatial control strategies 99
Local elimination and the natural breaks in infection 103
The impact of vaccination on epidemic cycles 104
Defensive isolation against epidemics 110
Offensive containment 111
Ring control strategies 115
Global eradication: the smallpox campaigns 119
Global campaigns for other epidemic diseases 121
Poliomyelitis elimination campaigns 126
Conclusions 129
Notes 131
Index 145
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