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This revised second edition highlights the ways in which health may be studied from geographical perspectives, setting out the debates and reviewing the evidence that links health outcomes with social and physical environments. Introduces the reader to relevant theoretical perspectives, methodologies, and research Provides new examples from a range of geographical settings Provides an extensive revision to the first edition, emphasizing contemporary concerns such as globalization, neighbourhood health, and obesity Pays greater attention to the US health care system, mental health, health of older adults, disease ecology and re-emerging diseases, health in developing world, and children's and women's health
List of Figures.
List of Tables.
Part I: Describing and Explaining Health in GeographicalSettings:.
1. Introducing Geographies of Health.
Health and Geography: Some Fundamental Concepts.
Concepts of health.
Geographies of Health: Five Case Studies.
Asthma in New York.
Area effects on smoking in disadvantaged communities inGlasgow.
The changing political economy of sex in South Africa.
The personal significance of home.
Embodied spaces of health and medical information on theInternet.
2. Explaining Geographies of Health.
Positivist Approaches to the Geography of Health.
Further examples of positivist approaches.
Social Interactionist Approaches to the Geography ofHealth.
Social interactionist explanation.
Further examples of social interactionist approaches.
Structuralist Approaches to the Geography of Health.
Further examples of structuralist or conflict-basedapproaches.
Structurationist Approaches to the Geography ofHealth.
Further examples of structurationist approaches.
Post-structuralist Approaches to the Geography ofHealth.
Further examples of post-structuralist approaches.
3. Method and Technique in the Geography of Health.
“Mapping” the Geography of Health: QuantitativeApproaches.
Exploratory spatial data analysis.
Modeling health data in a spatial setting.
Geographical information systems and health.
Interpreting the Geography of Health: QualitativeApproaches.
Other qualitative methods.
Qualitative data analysis.
Rigor in qualitative research.
Part II: Health and the Social Environment:.
4. Inequalities in Health Outcomes.
Patterns of Inequality.
Health inequalities: international comparisons.
One Europe or many?.
Health inequalities: regional and class divides.
Explaining Inequalities in Health Outcomes.
The programming hypothesis and the life course.
Behavioral (lifestyle) factors.
Social and community influences.
Working conditions and local environments.
Material deprivation and health.
5. Inequalities in the Provision and Utilization of HealthServices.
Principles of Health Service Delivery.
Levels of health care provision.
Geographies of rationing.
Efficiency and equity.
The need for health care.
Inequalities in the Provision of Health Services.
Health care provision in developing countries.
Health care provision in the developed world.
Utilization of Services.
Use of primary health care services.
Use of secondary and tertiary health care services.
Do Provision and Utilization Affect Outcome?.
6. People on the Move: Migration and Health.
Impact of Migration on Health.
Migration and stress.
The health of refugees.
The impact of migration on the spread of disease.
Migration and the incidence of disease and ill-health.
Impact of Health Status on Migration.
The selectivity of migration.
Migration for health care and social support.
The Relationship between Migration and the Delivery of HealthServices.
Part III: Health and Human Modification of theEnvironment:.
7. Air Quality and Health.
Types of Pollutants.
Point sources in the developing world.
Point sources in the developed world.
8. Water Quality and Health.
Chemical Contamination of Drinking Water.
Aluminium, fluoride and arsenic.
Other Forms of Contamination.
Hazardous waste sites.
9. Health Impacts of Global Environmental Change.
Stratospheric Ozone Depletion.
Ozone depletion and skin cancer.
Other health impacts of ozone depletion.
Global Climate Change.
Direct effects: thermal stress.
Impacts on infectious (especially insect-borne) disease.
Other health effects of climate change.
Health Effects of Other Global Environmental Change.
10. Conclusions: Emerging Themes in Geographies ofHealth.
The Macro-scale: Health and the “Global”.
Appendix: Web-based Resources for the Geographies of Health.