Geographies of Mars: Seeing and Knowing the Red Planet

Overview

One of the first maps of Mars, published by an Italian astronomer in 1877, with its pattern of canals, fueled belief in intelligent life forms on the distant red planet—a hope that continued into the 1960s. Although the Martian canals have long since been dismissed as a famous error in the history of science, K. Maria D. Lane argues that there was nothing accidental about these early interpretations. Indeed, she argues, the construction of Mars as an incomprehensibly complex and engineered world both reflected ...

See more details below
Other sellers (Hardcover)
  • All (14) from $23.50   
  • New (8) from $27.89   
  • Used (6) from $23.50   
Geographies of Mars: Seeing and Knowing the Red Planet

Available on NOOK devices and apps  
  • NOOK Devices
  • Samsung Galaxy Tab 4 NOOK
  • NOOK HD/HD+ Tablet
  • NOOK
  • NOOK Color
  • NOOK Tablet
  • Tablet/Phone
  • NOOK for Windows 8 Tablet
  • NOOK for iOS
  • NOOK for Android
  • NOOK Kids for iPad
  • PC/Mac
  • NOOK for Windows 8
  • NOOK for PC
  • NOOK for Mac
  • NOOK for Web

Want a NOOK? Explore Now

NOOK Book (eBook)
$22.99
BN.com price
(Save 42%)$40.00 List Price

Overview

One of the first maps of Mars, published by an Italian astronomer in 1877, with its pattern of canals, fueled belief in intelligent life forms on the distant red planet—a hope that continued into the 1960s. Although the Martian canals have long since been dismissed as a famous error in the history of science, K. Maria D. Lane argues that there was nothing accidental about these early interpretations. Indeed, she argues, the construction of Mars as an incomprehensibly complex and engineered world both reflected and challenged dominant geopolitical themes during a time of major cultural, intellectual, political, and economic transition in the Western world.

Geographies of Mars telescopes in on a critical period in the development of the geographical imagination, when European imperialism was at its zenith and American expansionism had begun in earnest. Astronomers working in the new observatories of the American Southwest or in the remote heights of the South American Andes were inspired, Lane finds, by their own physical surroundings and used representations of the Earth’s arid landscapes to establish credibility for their observations of Mars. With this simple shift to the geographer’s point of view, Lane deftly explains some of the most perplexing stances on Mars taken by familiar protagonists such as Percival Lowell, Alfred Russel Wallace, and Lester Frank Ward. 

A highly original exploration of geography’s spatial dimensions at the beginning of the twentieth century, Geographies of Mars offers a new view of the mapping of far-off worlds.

Read More Show Less

Editorial Reviews

American Scientist
An exceptionally well-written and cleverly crafted exposition of what both speculative and mainstream science had to say about the nature of Mars and the beings that might inhabit it. . . . . The book is a must-read for any historian or scientist who cares about what, how and why, and to what extent, cultural forces shape both scientific knowledge and public reaction to it.

— David DeVorkin

Times Literary Supplement
Illuminating. . . . [Geographies of Mars] paint[s] a vivid picture of Mars observation and the ways it has influenced and been influenced by contemporary culture.

— Andrew H. Knoll

American Scientist - David DeVorkin
“An exceptionally well-written and cleverly crafted exposition of what both speculative and mainstream science had to say about the nature of Mars and the beings that might inhabit it. . . . . The book is a must-read for any historian or scientist who cares about what, how and why, and to what extent, cultural forces shape both scientific knowledge and public reaction to it.”
Karen M. Morin
Geographies of Mars is an imaginatively conceived, expertly researched, and bountifully illustrated study of popular and scientific understandings of Mars within the context of the Age of Exploration in the nineteenth century and turn of the twentieth. Like Symmes with his theory of the Hollow Earth, many held out the hope that Mars provided a hospitable environment for both social and physical engineering. Maria Lane takes readers on a dazzlingly comprehensive tour of cultures of Mars science, whose ideas were shaped by cartographic practices of the day, American and European geopolitics, and competition for scientific credibility. The new historical geography could not be in better hands; this is that rare academic book you’ll be inspired to read cover to cover.”
Charles W. J. Withers
Geographies of Mars is a terrific book of science fact, not science fiction. In engaging and lucid prose, Maria Lane reveals how the geography of the red planet was mapped, represented, and argued over. This is a story of mountain observatories, of fieldwork conducted at a distance, and of how Mars’s geographers sought social and scientific legitimacy. It is an insightful study in, and an important contribution to, the relationships between the science of geography and the geography of science.”
Bernard Lightman
“Lane’s skillful exploration of how astronomy and geography intersected in the debates over the existence of life on Mars at the end of the nineteenth century, and beyond, makes for compelling reading. Readers will enjoy her persuasive discussions of the role of changing cartographical conventions, the construction of high-altitude sites, and the adoption of the heroic explorer narrative in providing legitimacy for pluralism. Also of note are her fresh interpretations of controversies over Martian landscapes and life forms in the context of environmental and imperial concerns. This book will appeal to historians of science, historians of geography, Victorianists, and historians of nineteenth-century American history.”
Times Literary Supplement - Andrew H. Knoll
“Illuminating. . . . [Geographies of Mars] paint[s] a vivid picture of Mars observation and the ways it has influenced and been influenced by contemporary culture.”
David N. Livingstone
“Maria Lane’s arresting volume Geographies of Mars dramatically extends the reach of geography’s domain, both empirically—by sweeping the red planet into the orbit of geographical analysis—and conceptually—by disclosing the profound connections betweenthe ways terrestrial and Martian landscapes have been understood. In showing the imperial reach of early twentieth-century geographical sensibility beyond the earth itself and into the heavens, Lane has at once enlarged geography’s horizons and exposed just how intimate relations really are between the ‘near’ and the ‘far.’  In all, a wonderfully innovative piece of intellectual cartography.”
Isis - Marc Rothenberg

“Lane has done her homework, immersing herself in the primary and secondary literature; and yes, she has definitely made a major contribution to the discussion. . . . I urge historians of astronomy and of Victorian science to read Geographies of Mars and to consider its conclusions carefully.”
American Scientist - David H. DeVorkin

“An exceptionally well-written and cleverly crafted exposition of what both speculative and mainstream science had to say in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries about the nature of Mars and the beings that might inhabit it. . . . The book is a must-read for any historian or scientist who cares about what, how, and why, and to what extent, cultural forces shape both scientific knowledge and public reaction to it.”
Barnes and Noble Review - Adam Kirsch

“We no longer dream about Martians, but the lesson of Geographies of Mars is still timely: science may be the search for truth, but the way we think and talk about science is a product of our hopes, fears, and dreams.”
The Barnes & Noble Review

"For all practical purposes Mars is our nearest neighbor in space. Of all the orbs about us, therefore, he holds out most promise of response to that question which man instinctively asks as he gazes up at the stars: What goes on upon all those distant globes?" So wrote Percival Lowell in his 1895 bestseller Mars, the book that launched his career as the world's most famous and controversial astronomer. More than a century later, mankind's fascination with Mars is still going strong. Not long ago, when a couple of scientists half-seriously suggested that NASA send a one-way manned mission to Mars, the Internet was flooded with would-be volunteers. For many, even death is not too high a price to pay to gratify our curiosity about the red planet.

In Geographies of Mars: Seeing and Knowing the Red Planet, K. Maria D. Lane explores the origins of our Martian obsession in the late nineteenth century. Back then, the idea that man-made probes would one day be able to test Martian soil for ice crystals would have been considered outlandish science fiction. Yet as Lane shows, through her study of popular treatments of Mars in books, magazines, and newspapers, the absence of real knowledge about the planet did not stop people from talking about it. On the contrary, the less data astronomers had about Mars, the more eagerly they and their journalistic interpreters filled the void with assumptions, speculations, and fantasies. And these fantasies, Lane argues, have much to tell us about the way turn-of-the-century Americans and Europeans thought about space, knowledge, and power.

Percival Lowell is at the center of Geographies of Mars, because he was the most recklessly imaginative of the Martian speculators. In 1878, the Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli published a map of Mars which purported to show numerous small landmasses divided by channels. As Lane explains, Schiaparelli was working from hand-made drawings of the obscure, fleeting images he could see through his telescope, in an age before astronomers could take photographs of the stars. Within decades, better observers would prove that these channels were optical illusions. But starting in the 1880s, there was a kind of arms race among astronomers as they tried to identify more and more canals.

On these slender foundations great structures of speculation were built -- especially by Lowell, who devoted himself to convincing the world that there was life on Mars. Were the "channels" actually canals? Did they represent the work of a Martian race, stronger and smarter than human beings? Was the red planet home to a civilization older than Earth's, in which the exhaustion of natural resources spurred ingenious technological advances? "Assuming that the Martian is...merely a machine with brains," one excitable journalist wrote, "his canal excavating possibilities, on a planet where bodies weigh only one-third as much as on the earth, become truly awesome."

In telling this story, Lane shows how the popular imagination made myths out of astronomers themselves -- fetishizing their mountaintop laboratories, their exotic expeditions, their masculine toughness. We no longer dream about Martians, but the lesson of Geographies of Mars is still timely: science may be the search for truth, but the way we think and talk about science is a product of our hopes, fears, and dreams.

--Adam Kirsch

Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780226470788
  • Publisher: University of Chicago Press
  • Publication date: 12/30/2010
  • Pages: 272
  • Sales rank: 1,443,474
  • Product dimensions: 6.20 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

K. Maria D. Lane is assistant professor of geography at the University of New Mexico.

Read More Show Less

Table of Contents

List of Illustrations

Acknowledgments

1. Understanding Mars: Sensation, Science, and Geography

2. Representing Scientific Data: Cartographic Inscription and Visual Authority

3. Representing Scientific Sites: Vision and Fieldwork at the Mountain Observatories

4. Representing Scientists: Heroism, Adventure, and the Geographical Outlook

5. Placing the Red Planet: Meanings in the Martian Landscape

6. Toward a Cultural Geography of Mars: Imaginative Geography and the Superior Martian

Notes

Bibliography

Index

Read More Show Less

First Chapter

Geographies of Mars

Seeing and Knowing the Red Planet
By K. MARIA D. LANE

The University of Chicago Press

Copyright © 2011 The University of Chicago
All right reserved.

ISBN: 978-0-226-47078-8


Chapter One

Understanding Mars: Sensation, Science, and Geography

If future observations should confirm the views as to the artificial nature of these features of the surface of the planet which most nearly resembles our Earth, it must be considered to be the most sensational astronomical discovery of the nineteenth century, and that which opens up the most exciting possibilities as to communication with beings who are sufficiently advanced to execute such widespread and gigantic irrigation works. —British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace (1898)

In an 1886 issue of the popular British magazine Chamber's, an anonymous article appeared under the title "Life on Mars." Declaring that Mars alone among the other planets of the solar system was likely to host life forms comparable to Earth's, the author suggested that Martian beings were probably fairly similar to humans. Despite the possibility of physical divergences conditioned by environmental factors, such as lungs capable of breathing extremely rarified air, the article asserted that there was no reason to think that the "Martialites" were anything other than thinking, sensing beings. In fact, the author reasoned, the considerably older age of the so-called red planet meant that "the Martialites are probably much further advanced in the arts and sciences" than humans. Recent reports from an "Italian astronomer who says he has lately detected lights on the planet moving about in such a way as seems to indicate a deliberate intention to open communication with the Earth" were cited as support for this possibility. Although much of the article was spent reviewing recent astronomical research and noting the many analogies that had been found between the geography of Mars and Earth, the author returned again and again to the question of Martian inhabitants and what they must be like. Reasoning that their form would be determined by the lesser gravity of Mars, the author offered the following comparison with humans:

If, therefore, we assume that the men are of such a size that their weight and activity are the same as ours, they would be about fourteen feet high on the average. This would make their strength very great; for not only would it be actually superior to ours, but, as every weight is so much smaller, it would be apparently proportionally increased. We should, therefore, expect to find that the Martialites have executed large engineering works; perhaps also their telescopes are much superior to ours, and we have been objects of interest for their observers.

Through this short assessment, Chamber's readers were treated to a preview of what would become the dominant interpretation of Mars over the following three decades. Although this particular unnamed author was likely drawing from a French astronomer's speculative interpretations of an Italian astronomer's recently reported Mars observations, these exact conjectures took root most deeply in the scientific and popular literatures of Britain and America over the next decade. The focus on Earth-Mars analogies, the speculation about Martian physical form, the certainty of Martian advancement in engineering, and the enthusiasm for Earth-Mars communication all figured prominently in the works of Anglophone astronomers, popular astronomy writers, literary commentators, and journalists alike. In what became a veritable sensation over Mars at the turn of the twentieth century, the physical and cultural geography of the red planet became household topics.

The beginnings of the fervor over Martian geography can be traced back to the 1878 publication of an Italian map that identified numerous linear features on the planet's surface. (See fig. .8 and the associated discussion in the next chapter.) no previous observer had detected anywhere near the level of detail that emerged on that particular map, and it would actually be another decade before other astronomers confirmed the straight, intersecting features it recorded in the landscape of Mars. Something about the exactness and linearity of the landscape that appeared on that map, however, captivated astronomers' attention while also provoking popular imaginations of Martian inhabitants. Initially labeled "canali" in the early Italian map, the faint lines came to be known as "canals" in the English-speaking world, soon anchoring a broader narrative that held the red planet to be both inhabited and irrigated by an advanced civilization. As this narrative became entrenched well beyond the confines of astronomy's disciplinary boundaries, it expanded to include the elements highlighted above in the 1886 Chamber's article. The Martians' apparent intelligence, size, and strength came to be seen as the means by which a vast network of irrigation canals had been engineered and built. The Martians' apparent organization and sophistication likewise spurred serious consideration of their ability and desire to communicate with humans.

Our modern view of the old "canal craze" holds that the original lines seen on Mars were probably an optical effect, in which astronomers' eyes resolved indistinctly seen landforms and color variations into simple shapes. Today's satellites in Martian orbit and Rovers on the Martian surface have found no evidence of canals, vegetation, or advanced inhabitants. There is a tendency, therefore, to look back on the century-old maps with a kind of amusement, and to dismiss the conjectures about a super-race of canal-digging engineers as overly imaginative or even intentionally deceptive. Some of the astronomers involved have been painted as publicity-driven egomaniacs or theologically blinkered ideologues who positioned themselves in the debate according to personal agendas, regardless of the "evidence" they encountered in their observations and investigations of Mars.

The most recent re-examinations of the historical record, however, have told a different story. As the topics of Martian geography were taken up by scientists, writers, commentators, lecturers, and artists a century ago, they were generally treated with seriousness and sometimes even deep philosophical attention. As expressed in the epigraph that opened this chapter, for instance, one of the foremost naturalists and British public intellectuals of the time considered Mars-related science so "exciting" that it warranted inclusion in a book written to describe the nineteenth century's most important intellectual and technological developments. Although astronomers engaged in numerous debates as to what exactly they were seeing on Mars, how well they were seeing it, and how their unusual observations should be interpreted, the mere possibility of Martian inhabitants was so striking that it ignited significant reaction across other disciplines and audiences. Sometimes in agreement and sometimes at odds, these different individuals, institutions, and audiences contributed views that coalesced into a functionally dominant (if not universal) understanding of Martian geography as arid, inhabited, and irrigated during the two decades spanning the turn of the twentieth century. Although belief in Martian canals and in the possibility of intelligent life on Mars continued well into the twentieth century, there was a limited time in which Mars science engendered what can properly be labeled a sensation. By focusing on the nature of this limited popular phenomenon, this book aims to consider the larger process of scientific knowledge production that both informed and was constituted by the popular response to Mars reports.

Analogy and the Seeds of Sensation

The seeds of popular interest in Mars were actually laid very early in the scientific study of the red planet. Well before Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli reported seeing "canali" on the Martian surface in 1877, and well before American astronomer Percival Lowell interpreted the "canals" as evidence of intelligent life on the red planet in 1894, Mars was known to astronomers as essentially Earth-like. As intellectual historians have noted, the planet Mars was central to the Copernican revision of celestial mechanics that was confirmed by Kepler in 1607. In the consequent theological and philosophical consideration of other planets as potential "worlds" complete with intelligent inhabitants, Mars itself became one of the prime suspects. In the ensuing debates over Mars' habitability and the probability of Martian beings' existence, commentators frequently turned attention to the red planet's perceived likeness to Earth, the only known inhabited planet. Although the early search for Earth-Mars analogies was driven by these philosophical considerations of Martian habitability, the potential for terrestrial analogy continued to drive scientific investigation of Mars for centuries (including into the present).

Throughout the period of the turn-of-the-century Mars sensation that provides the focus of this book, many findings or claims about Mars were considered interesting primarily insofar as they contributed to or detracted from the long-assumed terrestrial analogy. The color of the dark patches on Mars was investigated in order to determine whether the planet had oceans or vegetation like Earth. The atmospheric thickness of Mars was investigated to determine whether there was sufficient air to support life such as existed on Earth. The seasonal variations in surface colors and patterns were investigated to assess whether Mars experienced cycles of vegetative growth and senescence similar to those on Earth. All of these investigations were ultimately based on the original question of whether Mars was habitable or inhabited. As American astronomer Edward Holden put it, "There is certainly no more important question in planetary astronomy than to determine whether our neighboring planets are or are not inhabited.... To solve this question it is necessary to construct the most accurate map of the planet's surface and to observe with the greatest care all the phenomena as well as possible by means of terrestrial analogies, if this be possible." In essence, analogy became a fundamental way of thinking about Mars rather than merely a way of describing it. By the late nineteenth century, Mars was typically referred to as Earth's "nearest neighbor" or the planet in the solar system with "the greatest analogy" to Earth, despite the fact that Venus was commonly known to be closer to Earth in both size and orbital distance.

To a large extent, this phrasing reflected a focus on visible landscapes, the category in which Mars was clearly thought to be more analogous and interesting than the cloud-enshrouded Venus:

Though little more than half the Earth's size Mars has a significance in the public eye which places it first in importance among the planets. It is our nearest neighbor on the outer side of the Earth's path round the Sun, and viewed through a telescope of good magnifying power shows surface markings suggestive, with the aid of imagination, of continents, mountains, and valleys; of oceans, capes, and bays, and all the varying phenomena which the mind readily associates with a world like our own.

Descriptions and interpretations alike relied on such visual analogy, casting Mars as a landscape that could be observed in the same way travelers and geographers examined Earth's visible landscapes. The strength of the general Earth-Mars analogy was thus bolstered by representations of Martian landscape and culture as explicitly similar to exact locations and peoples on Earth. Sir Norman Lockyer, an eminent English astronomer, described sketches of Mars thus in an astronomy textbook: "In the upper [drawing] a sea is seen on the left, stretching down northwards; while, joined on to it, as the Mediterranean is joined on to the Atlantic, is a long narrow sea, which widens at its termination.... The coast-line on the right strangely reminds one of the Scandinavian peninsula, and the included Baltic Sea." Lowell likewise compared the size and probable operation of the Martian canals to the well-known waterway at Suez and contrasted their geometric appearance with the winding Mississippi River. He also frequently used terrestrial metaphors for literary effect, as when he remarked that a feature appeared to be "a beautiful cobalt blue, like some Martian grotto of Capri." Many other Mars observers equaled him in this regard, with various Martian features compared at one time or another to Switzerland, Ireland, Amsterdam, London's Hyde Park, Ohio, Puerto Rico, Scandinavia, the Mediterranean Sea, the Strait of Malacca, Lake Tanganyka, the South African veldt, and so on. Such comparisons generally served to "tighten the knot of analogy between Mars and the Earth" and reinforce the idea that Mars was "a small version of the Earth."

Even when claiming that Mars was rather different from Earth, astronomers typically reinforced their arguments with analogies to specific places. For instance, Schiaparelli wrote in 189 that the general topography of Mars "does not present any analogy with the Earth" but then continued that the canals could be "produced by the evolution of the planet, just as on the Earth we have the English Channel and the Channel of Mozambique." Similarly, Holden argued in a critique of Lowell that terrestrial analogies failed to explain the changes on Mars, but then in the same paragraph suggested a terrestrial analogy to explain the faintly colored regions of Mars: "Are they vast shoals like the Grand Banks of newfoundland?" The repeated invocation of specific terrestrial landscapes thus paradoxically served mainly to reinforce the widespread conviction that Mars could be explained almost entirely by analogy with Earth.

These comparisons served in general to support the emergence and duration of the sensational inhabited-Mars theory. Upon reading that "the smallest object that would be discernible on Mars must be as large as London [and that] it would not be possible to see a point so small as would either Liverpool or Manchester be if they were on that planet," readers had to make only the smallest conceptual leap to imagine actual Martian cities. Similarly, reports that the annual melting of Mars' polar ice caps "is of as much importance as the annual inundation of the Nile is to the Fellaheen of Egypt" helped cast Mars as a specific, legible, populated landscape. Lowell, in particular, used the Mars-Earth analogy eloquently in support of his arguments, inspiring readers' interest in the possibility that Mars could be an inhabited world:

For all practical purposes Mars is our nearest neighbor in space. Of all the orbs about us, therefore, he holds out most promise of response to that question which man instinctively makes as he gazes up at the stars: What goes on upon all those distant globes? Are they worlds, or are they mere masses of matter? Are physical forces alone at work there, or has evolution begotten something more complex, something not unakin to what we know on Earth as life? It is in this that lies the peculiar interest of Mars.

Markley has argued that the Earth-Mars analogy operated paradoxically, working at the scale of the planetary whole yet breaking down at the scale of specific landforms like the canals. Even acknowledgments that the Mars-Earth analogy was imperfect, however, do not seem to have dimmed the overall enthusiasm for terrestrial comparisons or for Martian habitability. Referring to the work of several astronomers who disputed the inhabited-Mars theory and its analogical basis, for example, the Welsh astronomy writer Arthur Mee admitted, "on the whole, their testimony does not make in favour of terrestrial analogies, which seem to diminish, the closer and more critical the examination of the planet." At the same time, however, Mee wrote as if convinced that the analogy was correct: "the general aspect of the planet reminds one strangely of the probable appearance of our Earth could we view it at the distance of Mars. On the rare occasions when I have been fortunate enough to secure good views of the planet, the impression of sea and land and polar snow was overwhelming."

Crowe has asserted that logical fallacies—such as the mistaking of analogy for proof—were instrumental to most of the claims made by early proponents of the inhabited-Mars hypothesis. But visual analogy was much more important than merely providing a plausible substitute for logical proof. It produced scientific understandings and provoked popular sensations that gave Mars a specific cultural significance that would not have developed otherwise. Although viewers like Mee could concede that Mars' geometric surface features defied analogical explanation, they still maintained that the general appearance and seasonal variations of Mars indicated a living world that could host intelligent life. It was this paradox that encapsulated the intrigue Mars presented to popular audiences. If Mars was fundamentally similar to Earth, yet also radically different, the challenge of making sense of its landscape became both daunting and imperative.

(Continues...)



Excerpted from Geographies of Mars by K. MARIA D. LANE Copyright © 2011 by The University of Chicago. Excerpted by permission of The University of Chicago Press. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

Read More Show Less

Customer Reviews

Be the first to write a review
( 0 )
Rating Distribution

5 Star

(0)

4 Star

(0)

3 Star

(0)

2 Star

(0)

1 Star

(0)

Your Rating:

Your Name: Create a Pen Name or

Barnes & Noble.com Review Rules

Our reader reviews allow you to share your comments on titles you liked, or didn't, with others. By submitting an online review, you are representing to Barnes & Noble.com that all information contained in your review is original and accurate in all respects, and that the submission of such content by you and the posting of such content by Barnes & Noble.com does not and will not violate the rights of any third party. Please follow the rules below to help ensure that your review can be posted.

Reviews by Our Customers Under the Age of 13

We highly value and respect everyone's opinion concerning the titles we offer. However, we cannot allow persons under the age of 13 to have accounts at BN.com or to post customer reviews. Please see our Terms of Use for more details.

What to exclude from your review:

Please do not write about reviews, commentary, or information posted on the product page. If you see any errors in the information on the product page, please send us an email.

Reviews should not contain any of the following:

  • - HTML tags, profanity, obscenities, vulgarities, or comments that defame anyone
  • - Time-sensitive information such as tour dates, signings, lectures, etc.
  • - Single-word reviews. Other people will read your review to discover why you liked or didn't like the title. Be descriptive.
  • - Comments focusing on the author or that may ruin the ending for others
  • - Phone numbers, addresses, URLs
  • - Pricing and availability information or alternative ordering information
  • - Advertisements or commercial solicitation

Reminder:

  • - By submitting a review, you grant to Barnes & Noble.com and its sublicensees the royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable right and license to use the review in accordance with the Barnes & Noble.com Terms of Use.
  • - Barnes & Noble.com reserves the right not to post any review -- particularly those that do not follow the terms and conditions of these Rules. Barnes & Noble.com also reserves the right to remove any review at any time without notice.
  • - See Terms of Use for other conditions and disclaimers.
Search for Products You'd Like to Recommend

Recommend other products that relate to your review. Just search for them below and share!

Create a Pen Name

Your Pen Name is your unique identity on BN.com. It will appear on the reviews you write and other website activities. Your Pen Name cannot be edited, changed or deleted once submitted.

 
Your Pen Name can be any combination of alphanumeric characters (plus - and _), and must be at least two characters long.

Continue Anonymously

    If you find inappropriate content, please report it to Barnes & Noble
    Why is this product inappropriate?
    Comments (optional)