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Geotechnical Aspects of Landfill Design and Construction / Edition 1

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Overview

Focuses on actual, state-of-the-art design/construction procedures as opposed to a discussion of solid waste management issues and to general descriptions and/or conceptual designs. Provides an integrated package of analytical tools, design equations, and step-by-step construction procedures for all elements of a landfill, giving the reader a better sense of the necessary site investigation, planning, analysis, and organization that go into a landfill design and construction project. The characteristics of landfill containment envelopes and their design/construction are treated in detail. Physico-chemical and engineering properties of solid waste that are relevant and important to landfill design and construction are tabulated and described. Includes explanation of how to evaluate and assess potential problems that affect landfill performance such as sideslope stability, settlement, containment effectiveness, and erosion control. Discusses vertical landfill expansion; how leachate moves across a liner or barrier under both advection and diffusion; compares the containment effectiveness of different liner systems to the combined advective-diffusive transport of dissolved leachate solutes. Includes a detailed explanation with numerical examples and calculations of how to design a gas collection and piping system in a landfill—including the collection and handling of condensate in the gas. Detailed installation and inspection guidelines are provided for both earthen and geosynthetic liner/cover systems—comparing the relative advantages and limitations of each. For professional training courses in Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering.

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Editorial Reviews

From The Critics
Identifies the main components of a municipal solid waste landfill, and presents methods for assessing landfill performance. The textbook reviews siting requirements, compares the properties of conventional compacted clay liners with those of composite liners, describes the design of leachate and gas collection systems, and applies detailed methods for analyzing settlement, stability, and leakage. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780130125064
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 9/3/2001
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 717
  • Product dimensions: 6.80 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 1.50 (d)

Meet the Author

Xuede Qian is currently a statewide Geotechnical Engineering Specialist with the Waste Management Division, Michigan Department of Environmental Quality. He received the B.S. and M.S. degrees in hydraulic and geotechnical engineering from Hohai University Nanjing, China, and the Ph.D. degree in geotechnical engineering from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. He is also an adjunct faculty member with the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, with responsibility for teaching a senior/graduate level course on landfill design and construction. He has been actively involved in landfill engineering research and has participated in many landfill design, construction, and remediation projects during the past decade. Dr. Qian has authored numerous technical papers in the geotechnical and geoenvironmental fields. His professional experiences include work for universities, regulatory agencies, and consulting firms.

Robert M. Koerner is currently an H. L. Bowman Professor of Civil Engineering with Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. He received the B.S. and M.S. degrees in civil engineering from Drexel University and the Ph.D. degree in geotechnical engineering from Duke University. He is an Honorary Member of the ASCE and a member of the National Academy of Engineering. Dr. Koerner is the co-author of the first book on geotextiles and has authored or coauthored more than 300 papers on geosynthetics in major engineering journals and for national and international conference proceedings. His latest effort is the fourth edition of the textbook entitled Designing with Geosynthetics. As Director of the Geosynthetic Research Institute, his activities involve all aspects of waste disposal, but focus particularly on the liner and cover containment systems.

Donald H. Gray is a Professor Emeritus of Civil and Environmental Engineering with the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. He received the B.S. and M.S. degrees and the Ph.D. degree in geological and civil engineering from the University of California at Berkeley. His areas of expertise include slope stability and erosion control, engineering properties of solid waste materials, the transport of leachate through landfill liners (under combined advection/diffusion), and containment strategies for landfilled wastes. He has authored numerous technical papers and lectured extensively at training workshops and short courses dealing with geotechnical aspects of waste disposal in the ground. He has served as the organizer and chairman of two ASCE specialty conferences on geotechnical engineering of land disposal. Dr. Gray is also the principal author of two well-regarded reference books on biotechnical and soil bioengineering slope stabilization.

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Read an Excerpt

Preface

The United States produces about 300 million tons of solid waste per year. Up to 75 percent of the solid waste continues to be landfilled—in spite of vigorous efforts aimed at waste reduction, recycling, and re-use. A modern, well-constructed landfill can be characterized as an engineered structure that consists primarily of a composite liner, leachate collection and removal system, gas collection and control system, and final cover. A landfill also behaves as a giant in-situ bioreactor whose contents undergo complex biochemical reactions. The production of landfill gas is a major byproduct of waste decomposition processes. The adoption of suitable design and construction methods is essential not only to reduce design and construction costs, but also to minimize long term operation, maintenance, and monitoring expenses.

Geotechnical Aspects of Landfill Design and Construction addresses landfill siting, design, and construction issues in a comprehensive manner. The characteristics of landfill containment envelopes and their design/construction are treated in detail. The attributes and advantages of composite liners relative to conventional compacted clay liners are examined carefully. The book discusses both the material properties and engineering design of geosynthetic components (e.g., geomembranes, geotextiles, geocomposites, and geosynthetic clay liners) that are used in modern landfill construction. Methods of estimating landfill leachate quantities and gas generation in addition to the design of leachate and gas collection systems are also described in detail. We include other important topics as well—such as vertical expansion and bioreactor concepts—that are ways of increasing capacity at existing landfills.

Several chapters in the book are devoted to the measurement and determination of landfill performance. These performance considerations include settlement estimates, mass stability, liner leakage rates (by both hydraulic convection and chemical diffusion), envelope durability, leachate and gas collection, and drainage efficiency. Final cover design to limit rainfall infiltration, frost problems, and erosion is addressed as well.

Geotechnical Aspects of Landfill Design and Construction focuses on actual design and construction procedures, as opposed to a discussion of solid waste management issues and to general descriptions and/or conceptual designs. We present the reader with a complete, integrated package of analytical tools, design equations, and construction procedures for all elements of a landfill. The purpose of the book is to show the reader how to design and construct a real landfill step by step. To this end, we provide in the book not only design equations, but also specific guidelines and procedures, and calculation examples for constructing various elements of a modern landfill.

Since landfill design and construction in the United States uses English Computational units almost exclusively (and there is no end in sight of this practice), we have complied by using these units as primary. Worldwide, however, SI units are the norm and we have accompanied the U.S. units with SI computational units in parentheses. The conversion to SI units is "soft." The notable exception to this is hydraulic conductivity where we have used in the traditional metric unit of "cm/sec."

Geotechnical Aspects of Landfill Design and Construction is intended as (i) a reference book for practicing professionals, (ii) an agency training manual, and (iii) university textbook. A draft manuscript of the book has been used and tested by the principal author in a geoenvironmental graduate course at the University of Michigan since 1995. Carefully selected design examples, diagrams, and tables are incorporated into the book. These give the reader a better sense of the necessary site investigation, planning, analysis, and organization that go into a landfill design and construction project. In addition to worked design examples we have also included homework problems and an extensive reference list at the end of every chapter.

The authors wish to express their appreciation to the following individuals for their encouragement and support throughout the preparation of the manuscript: Professors Richard D. Woods and E. Benjamin Wylie, University of Michigan; and Jim J. Sygo, Kenneth J. Burda, Delores M. Montgomery, and Elizabeth M. Browne, Michigan Department of Environmental Quality.

The authors also would like to acknowledge and thank the following individuals for sharing their knowledge and ideas during the course of many discussions about the book: Stephen R. Blayer, V Wesley Sherman, Jr., and Carolyn B. Parker, Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; Dr. Gary R. Schmertmann, Geosyntec Consultants; Dr. Te-Yang Soong, Earth Tech, Inc.; Dr. Jengwa Lyang, NTH Consultants, Ltd.; and Scott R Lockhart, Hull and Associates, Inc.

XUEDE (DAN) QIAN ROBERT M. KOERNER DONALD H. GRAY

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Table of Contents

(NOTE: Each chapter concludes with Problems and References.)

1. Introduction.

Need for Landfills. Principal Landfill Requirements. Landfill Components and Configuration. Landfill Envelope. Composite Liners. Benefits of Double Composite Liners. Liner Linkage Mechanisms. Scope and Organization of Book.

2. Landfill Siting and Site Investigation.

Siting Considerations. Location Restrictions. Siting Process. Site Investigation. Borrow Source Investigation. Field Hydraulic Conductivity Tests. Material Laboratory Tests.

3. Compacted Clay Liners.

Overview Compacted Clay Liners. Compaction and Permeability Considerations. Design of Compacted Clay Liners. Influence of Clods on Hydraulic Conductivity. Effect of Gravel Content on Hydraulic Conductivity. Effect of Freezing and Thawing on Hydraulic Conductivity. Summary Comments Regarding Compacted Clay Liners.

4. Geomembranes.

Composition and Thickness of Geomembranes. Current Uses of Geomembranes in Landfills. Tensile Behavior of Geomembranes. Friction Behavior of Geomembranes. Tension Stresses Due to Unbalanced Friction Forces. Tension Stresses Due to Localized Subsidence. Runout and Anchor Trenches. Assessment of Leakage through Liners. Concluding Comments Regarding Geomembranes.

5. Geosynthetic Clay Liners.

Types and Current Uses of Geosynthetic Clay Liners. Hydraulic Conductivity. Ability to Withstand Differential Settlement. Shear Strength. Differences between Geosynthetic Clay Liners and Compacted Clay Liners. Contaminant Transport through Geosynthetic Clay Liner and Compacted Clay Liner. Comparison of Mass Transport through a GCL and CCL. Recommendations for Use of Geosynthetic Clay Liners. Summarizing Comments Regarding Geosynthetic Clay Liners.

6. Engineering Properties of Municipal Solid Waste.

Constituents of Municipal Solid Waste. Unit Weight of Municipal Solid Waste. Moisture Content of Municipal Solid Waste. Porosity of Municipal Solid Waste. Hydraulic Conductivity of Municipal Solid Waste. Field Capacity and Wilting Point of Municipal Solid Waste. Shear Strength of Municipal Solid Waste. Compressibility of Municipal Solid Waste.

7. Leachate Generation and Evaluation in MSW Landfills.

MSW Leachate Characterization. Factors Affecting Leachate Quantity. Estimation of Leachate Production Rate in an Active Condition. Estimation of Leachate Production Rate in a Postclosure Condition. Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) Model.

8. Liquid Drainage Layer.

Profile of Leachate Drainage Layer. Soil Drainage and Filtration Layer. Geotextile Design for Filtration. Geonet Design for Leachate Drainage. Estimate of Maximum Liquid Head in a Drainage Layer.

9. Leachate Collection and Removal Systems.

Subbase Grading. Leachate Collection Trenches. Selection of Leachate Collection Pipe. Deformation and Stability of Leachate Collection Pipe. Sump and Riser Pipes. Leachate Removal Pumps.

10. Gas Collection and Control Systems.

Gas Generation. Gas Composition. Factors Affecting Gas Generation. Gas Generation Rate. Gas Migration. Types and Components of Gas Collection Systems. Gas Control and Treatment. Design of Gas Collection System.

11. Final Cover System.

Components of Final Cover System. Alternative Landfill Cover. Field Study of Landfill Covers. Soil Erosion Control. Effects of Settlement and Subsidence. Differential Subsidence Case History.

12. Landfill Settlement.

Mechanism of Solid Waste Settlement. Effect of Daily Cover. Landfill Settlement Rate. Estimation of Landfill Settlement. Effect of Waste Settlement on Landfill Capacity. Other Methods for Estimating Landfill Settlement. Estimation of Landfill Foundation Settlement.

13. Landfill Stability Analysis.

Types of Landfill Failures. Factors Influencing Landfill Stability. Selection of Appropriate Properties. Veneer Slope Stability Analysis. Subsoil Foundation Failures. Waste Mass Failures. Concluding Remarks.

14. Vertical Landfill Expansions.

Considerations Involved in Vertical Expansions. Liner Systems for Vertical Expansion. Settlement of Existing Landfill. Estimation of Differential Settlement Due to Waste Heterogeneity. Vertical Expansion over Unlined Landfills. Design Considerations for Landfill Structures. Geosynthetic Reinforcement Design for Vertical Expansions. Stability Analysis for Vertical Expansion.

15. Bioreactor Landfills.

Introduction. Liquids Managements Strategies. Concepts of Waste Degradation. Leachate Recycling Methods. Bioreactor Landfill Issues and Concerns. Performance-to-Date. Summary Comments.

16. Construction of Compacted Clay Liners.

Subgrade Preparation. Soil Materials for Compacted Soil Lines. Compaction Objectives and Choices. Initial Saturation Specifications. Clay Liner Compaction Considerations. Compaction Specifications. Leachate Collection Trench Construction. Protection of Compacted Soil. Field Measurement of Water Content and Dry Unit Weight. Construction Quality Assurance and Quality Control Issues.

17. Installation of Geosynthetic Materials.

Material Delivery and Conformance Tests. Installation of Geomembranes. Installation of Geonets. Installation of Geotextiles. Installation of Geocompostes. Installation of Geosynthetic Clay Liners.

18. Postclosure Uses of MSW Landfills.

Athletic and Recreational Facilities. Industrial Development. Aesthetics. Concluding Remarks.

Appendix I. Help Model Input and Output—Active Condition.

Appendix II. Help Model Input and Output—Postclosure Condition.

Index.

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Preface

Preface

The United States produces about 300 million tons of solid waste per year. Up to 75 percent of the solid waste continues to be landfilled—in spite of vigorous efforts aimed at waste reduction, recycling, and re-use. A modern, well-constructed landfill can be characterized as an engineered structure that consists primarily of a composite liner, leachate collection and removal system, gas collection and control system, and final cover. A landfill also behaves as a giant in-situ bioreactor whose contents undergo complex biochemical reactions. The production of landfill gas is a major byproduct of waste decomposition processes. The adoption of suitable design and construction methods is essential not only to reduce design and construction costs, but also to minimize long term operation, maintenance, and monitoring expenses.

Geotechnical Aspects of Landfill Design and Construction addresses landfill siting, design, and construction issues in a comprehensive manner. The characteristics of landfill containment envelopes and their design/construction are treated in detail. The attributes and advantages of composite liners relative to conventional compacted clay liners are examined carefully. The book discusses both the material properties and engineering design of geosynthetic components (e.g., geomembranes, geotextiles, geocomposites, and geosynthetic clay liners) that are used in modern landfill construction. Methods of estimating landfill leachate quantities and gas generation in addition to the design of leachate and gas collection systems are also described in detail. We include other important topics as well—such as vertical expansion and bioreactor concepts—that are ways of increasing capacity at existing landfills.

Several chapters in the book are devoted to the measurement and determination of landfill performance. These performance considerations include settlement estimates, mass stability, liner leakage rates (by both hydraulic convection and chemical diffusion), envelope durability, leachate and gas collection, and drainage efficiency. Final cover design to limit rainfall infiltration, frost problems, and erosion is addressed as well.

Geotechnical Aspects of Landfill Design and Construction focuses on actual design and construction procedures, as opposed to a discussion of solid waste management issues and to general descriptions and/or conceptual designs. We present the reader with a complete, integrated package of analytical tools, design equations, and construction procedures for all elements of a landfill. The purpose of the book is to show the reader how to design and construct a real landfill step by step. To this end, we provide in the book not only design equations, but also specific guidelines and procedures, and calculation examples for constructing various elements of a modern landfill.

Since landfill design and construction in the United States uses English Computational units almost exclusively (and there is no end in sight of this practice), we have complied by using these units as primary. Worldwide, however, SI units are the norm and we have accompanied the U.S. units with SI computational units in parentheses. The conversion to SI units is "soft." The notable exception to this is hydraulic conductivity where we have used in the traditional metric unit of "cm/sec."

Geotechnical Aspects of Landfill Design and Construction is intended as (i) a reference book for practicing professionals, (ii) an agency training manual, and (iii) university textbook. A draft manuscript of the book has been used and tested by the principal author in a geoenvironmental graduate course at the University of Michigan since 1995. Carefully selected design examples, diagrams, and tables are incorporated into the book. These give the reader a better sense of the necessary site investigation, planning, analysis, and organization that go into a landfill design and construction project. In addition to worked design examples we have also included homework problems and an extensive reference list at the end of every chapter.

The authors wish to express their appreciation to the following individuals for their encouragement and support throughout the preparation of the manuscript: Professors Richard D. Woods and E. Benjamin Wylie, University of Michigan; and Jim J. Sygo, Kenneth J. Burda, Delores M. Montgomery, and Elizabeth M. Browne, Michigan Department of Environmental Quality.

The authors also would like to acknowledge and thank the following individuals for sharing their knowledge and ideas during the course of many discussions about the book: Stephen R. Blayer, V Wesley Sherman, Jr., and Carolyn B. Parker, Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; Dr. Gary R. Schmertmann, Geosyntec Consultants; Dr. Te-Yang Soong, Earth Tech, Inc.; Dr. Jengwa Lyang, NTH Consultants, Ltd.; and Scott R Lockhart, Hull and Associates, Inc.

XUEDE (DAN) QIAN
ROBERT M. KOERNER
DONALD H. GRAY

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