GI Microbiota and Regulation of the Immune System / Edition 1

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The idea that the microbial communities within the GI tract have a profound influence on general human health actually originated with Russian scientist Elie Metchnikov at the turn of the last century. Also known as the "father of immunology", Metchnikov believed that putrefactive bacteria in the gut were responsible for enhancing the aging process. He theorized that ingestion of healthy bacteria found in fermented foods could counteract toxic bacteria and was the key to good health. His theories concerning good bacteria and health can be found in his treatise "The Prolongation of Life: Optimistic Studies". These writings prompted Japanese scientist Minoru Shirota to begin investigation of how fermentative bacteria improve health. He succeeded in isolating a strain of Lactobacillus that could survive passage through the intestine, while promoting a healthy balance of microbes. The "Shirota strain" is still used today in the fermented beverage Yakult. It is clear from a commercial standpoint that these ideas have inspired the development of a probiotic industry, which has expanded greatly in the U.S. over the past 5-10 years. Likewise, scientific studies investigating the microbiota and the immune system have increased significantly in recent years. This increase in research is also due to advances in technologies that enable the investigation of large microbial communities, a resurgence in gnotobiotic animal research, and improved methods for molecular analysis of probiotic bacterial species. Our interest in this area stems from our laboratory observations indicating that antibiotics and fungi can skew microbiota composition and systemic immune responses. Our initial base of references upon which to develop further hypotheses concerning the mechanisms involved in microbiota regulation of immune responses was limited. However, in presenting the research at national scientific meetings and at universities across the country, the feedb

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Product Details

Meet the Author

Gary B. Huffnagle, PhD, is a Professor of Internal Medicine (Pulmonary

Diseases) and Microbiology and Immunology at the University of Michigan Medical

School. He holds a BS in microbiology from Pennsylvania State University and a

PhD in immunology from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School.

In addition to conducting research, he teaches undergraduate and graduate classes

in eukaryotic microbiology, microbial symbiosis and experimental immunology

at the University of Michigan. Dr. Huffnagle’s research focuses on the regulation

of pulmonary immunity to infectious agents and allergens. In the past 5 years, his

attention has turned to the role of the indigenous microbiota in immune system

functioning, as well as the role of probiotics in animal and human health. He has

been awarded research grants from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute

(NHL BI), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), the Francis

Families Foundation and the Burroughs-Wellcome Fund. Dr. Huffnagle serves or

has served on editorial boards for the American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

and the American Association of Immunologists (AAI), as well as on advisory and

review panels for the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

Mairi C. Nove rr, PhD, is an Assistant Professor of Immunology and

Microbiology at Wayne State University Medical School. She earned a BA in biology

from Kalamazoo College in 1996 and a PhD in microbiology and immunology

from the University of Michigan in 2002. Dr. Noverr’s current research focuses on

investigating mechanisms of immunomodulation by the opportunistic yeast Candida

albicans during host-pathogen interactions and how interactions with other members

of the microbiota influence these interactions. Her laboratory is investigating

signaling compounds called oxylipins that are produced by both Candida and the

host, which can influence the microbiology of the fungus and the activity of host

immune system cells. Projects in the laboratory include molecular characterization

of the fungal oxylipin biosynthetic pathways and determining the effects of oxylipins

during Candida pathogenesis, in modulating host immune cell function, and

during fungal-bacterial interactions. She has been awarded research funding from

the Francis Families Foundation.

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Table of Contents

Section I. Overview Chapters 1. Overview of Gut Immunology Katie Lynn Mason, Gary B. Huffnagle, Mairi C. Noverr and John Y. Kao Abstract Introduction: Tolerance vs. Inflammation Gastrointestinal Tract Architecture Components of the Gut Immune Response Coordination of the Gut Immune Response Importance of the Gi Microbiota Summary 2. The Commensal Microbiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract Janet M. Manson, Marcus Rauch and Michael S. Gilmore Abstract Introduction Culture-Dependent Versus Culture-Independent Techniques Bacterial Diversity Regional Colonization of the GI Tract Influences on Microbiota Future Study of GI Tract Ecology Section II. Current Techniques 3. Overview of the Gastrointestinal Microbiota Vincent B. Young and Thomas M. Schmidt Abstract Introduction Structure of the Intestinal Microbial Community Functional Aspects of the Intestinal Microbiota Methods to Study the Structure and Function of the Gut Microbiota The Microbiota in the Context of the Intestinal Ecosystem Ecologic Statistical Analysis as a Means to Reduce Data Complexity Summary 4. Effects of Microbiota on Gi Health: Gnotobiotic Research Robert Doug Wagner Abstract Introduction Immunodeficient Gnotobiotic Models Immunological Effects of GI Tract Infections in Gnotobiotic Animals Gnotobiotic Studies of Microbial Antagonism Microbiota Effects on Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue Architecture Inflammatory Responses to the Microbiota New Directions for Gnotobiotic Studies of the Microbiota and Immunity Section III. Interaction with the Host 5. positive interactions with the microbiota: Probiotics Marko Kalliomäki, Seppo Salminen and ErikaIsolauri Abstract Introduction Definition of a probiotic Traditional selection criteria for probiotics and rationale for new ones Importance of Viability of Probiotics Probiotics augment gut barrier mechanisms Probiotics have anti-inflammatory properties in the gut Atopic disease is a target for probiotic intervention Probiotics in clinical studies with allergic diseases Probiotics May have additive positive effects with infant diet Novel molecular technologies aid in uncovering complex host-probiotic interactions and constructing probiotics with new properties Summary 6. Negative Interactions with the Microbiota: IBD Nita H. Salzman and Charles L. Bevins Abstract Introduction IBD Evidence of Bacterial Involvement in Intestinal Inflammation Primary Cause-Bacteria? Primary Cause-Host? Concluding Comments Section IV. Role of the Diet 7. Diet, Immunity and Functional Foods Lesley Hoyles and Jelena Vulevic Abstract Introduction Colonic Functional Foods Prebiotics Effects of Prebiotics on Immunity Mechanisms for the Effects of Prebiotics on the Immune System Dietary Fibers Other Functional Foods Summary Section V. Host-Microbe Signaling 8. Host-Microbe Communication within the GI Tract Christopher A. Allen and Alfredo G. Torres Abstract The Gastrointestinal Tract Maintaining Physiological and Immunological Homeostasis in the Gut Host-Bacterial Interactions in the Gut Host-Mediated Regulatory Mechanisms Bacterial-Mediated Regulatory Mechanisms The Role of Gut Flora in Immune System Development and Immunological Tolerance Commensal Bacteria, Mucosal Immunity and Development of Inflammatory Disease Novel Mechan

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