A Gift of Fire : Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues in Computing / Edition 1

A Gift of Fire : Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues in Computing / Edition 1

by Sara Baase
     
 

ISBN-10: 0134587790

ISBN-13: 9780134587790

Pub. Date: 12/17/1996

Publisher: Pearson Education

This book provides in-depth discussion of how computers change established institutions and social conventions as well as how organizations and governments adapt to and attempt to control computer technology. Its goal is to develop computer professionals who understand the implications of what they create and how it fits into society at large.

Overview

This book provides in-depth discussion of how computers change established institutions and social conventions as well as how organizations and governments adapt to and attempt to control computer technology. Its goal is to develop computer professionals who understand the implications of what they create and how it fits into society at large.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780134587790
Publisher:
Pearson Education
Publication date:
12/17/1996
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
382
Product dimensions:
7.07(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.78(d)

Table of Contents

1 UNWRAPPING THE GIFT
1(36)
1.1 The Computer Revolution
2(6)
1.1.1 The Ubiquity of Computers, and the Rapid Pace of Change
2(1)
1.1.2 A Brief History of Calculating Machines and Computers
3(5)
1.2 Examining the Gift: An Introduction to Some Issues and Themes
8(7)
1.2.1 Issues
8(6)
1.2.2 Themes
14(1)
1.3 Appreciating the Benefits of Computers
15(17)
1.3.1 The Common Uses
15(6)
1.3.2 Computers in Medicine
21(3)
1.3.3 Use of Computer Technology by Disabled People
24(3)
1.3.4 Science, Research, and Engineering
27(1)
1.3.5 Automation
27(2)
1.3.6 Identification Systems
29(1)
1.3.7 Reducing Paper Use and Trash
30(1)
1.3.8 Some Observations
31(1)
Exercises
32(1)
Notes
33(3)
For Further Reading
36(1)
2 PRIVACY AND INFORMATION
37(48)
2.1 Introduction
38(2)
2.2 Government Files
40(10)
2.2.1 "Big Brother Is Watching You."
41(1)
2.2.2 Use of Databases by the IRS and Law Enforcement Agencies
42(2)
2.2.3 Issues
44(1)
2.2.4 The U.S. Census
45(1)
2.2.5 Social Security Numbers and National ID Cards
46(2)
2.2.6 Why Worry?
48(2)
2.3 Consumer Information
50(6)
2.3.1 Databases and Marketing
50(2)
2.3.2 Privacy and Junk Mail
52(1)
2.3.3 A Dilemma
53(1)
2.3.4 Consumer Data at Risk
54(1)
2.3.5 Key Issues
55(1)
2.4 Credit Bureaus
56(2)
2.5 Medical Records
58(3)
2.5.1 The Current Situation
58(1)
2.5.2 Privacy and Proposals for Health Care Reform
59(2)
2.6 Technical and Management Protections for Privacy
61(2)
2.7 Philosophical, Legal, and Economic Views of Privacy
63(7)
2.7.1 The Value of Privacy
63(1)
2.7.2 The Right to Privacy
64(3)
2.7.3 Applying the Theory to Databases
67(1)
2.7.4 An Economic Viewpoint
67(2)
2.7.5 Privacy and Transactions
69(1)
2.7.6 Changing Views
69(1)
2.8 Policy, Legal, and Market Protections for Privacy
70(6)
2.8.1 Guidelines for Information Usage
70(2)
2.8.2 More Mechanisms for Protecting Privacy
72(1)
2.8.3 Contrasting Viewpoints
73(3)
Exercises
76(3)
Notes
79(5)
For Further Reading
84(1)
3 WIRETAPPING AND ENCRYPTION
85(28)
3.1 Introduction
86(5)
3.1.1 Background on Wiretapping
86(1)
3.1.2 What Is Cryptography?
87(1)
3.1.3 Uses of Encryption
88(2)
3.1.4 The New Controversies
90(1)
3.2 Designing Communications Systems for Interception
91(4)
3.2.1 The Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act of 1994
91(1)
3.2.2 The Arguments
92(3)
3.3 Encryption Policy and the Key-Escrow Controversy
95(12)
3.3.1 Public Key Cryptography
95(2)
3.3.2 Encryption Policy Before the Mid-1990s
97(4)
3.3.3 Key Escrow Encryption
101(6)
3.4 Fundamental Issues
107(1)
Exercises
107(2)
Notes
109(2)
For Further Reading
111(2)
4 CAN WE TRUST THE COMPUTER?
113(52)
4.1 What Can Go Wrong?
114(11)
4.1.1 Questions About Reliability and Safety
114(2)
4.1.2 Problems for Individuals
116(4)
4.1.3 System Failures
120(4)
4.1.4 Safety-Critical Applications
124(1)
4.2 Case Study: The Therac-25
125(5)
4.2.1 Therac-25 Radiation Overdoses
125(1)
4.2.2 Software and Design Problems
125(2)
4.2.3 Why So Many Incidents?
127(1)
4.2.4 Overconfidence
128(1)
4.2.5 Conclusion and Perspective
128(2)
4.3 Increasing Reliability and Safety
130(8)
4.3.1 What Goes Wrong?
130(1)
4.3.2 Professional Techniques
131(3)
4.3.3 Law and Regulation
134(3)
4.3.4 Taking Responsibility
137(1)
4.4 Perspectives on Dependence, Risk, and Progress
138(5)
4.4.1 Are We Too Dependent on Computers?
138(4)
4.4.2 Making Trade-offs When Perfection Is Not an Option
142(1)
4.4.3 Conclusions
142(1)
4.5 Evaluating Computer Models
143(3)
4.5.1 Models and Social Policy
143(1)
4.5.2 Evaluating models
144(2)
4.6 Case Study: Car Crash Analysis Programs
146(3)
4.6.1 Background
146(1)
4.6.2 Evaluating the Models
146(2)
4.6.3 Uses of the Crash Analysis Models
148(1)
4.7 Case Study: Climate Models and Global Warming
149(5)
4.7.1 Background
149(1)
4.7.2 Evaluating the Models
150(4)
Exercises
154(4)
Notes
158(5)
For Further Reading
163(2)
5 PROTECTING SOFTWARE AND OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
165(34)
5.1 Intellectual Property Issues
166(3)
5.1.1 What Is Intellectual Property?
166(1)
5.1.2 Copyrights and Patents
167(1)
5.1.3 New Issues
168(1)
5.2 Copyright Law
169(5)
5.2.1 A Bit of History
169(2)
5.2.2 The Fair Use Doctrine
171(1)
5.2.3 Fair Use Cases
171(3)
5.3 Software Copyright: Piracy, Protection, Rejection
174(9)
5.3.1 What Is Software Piracy? What Does It Cost?
174(4)
5.3.2 Protecting Software Copyrights
178(4)
5.3.3 Abandon Software Copyright?
182(1)
5.4 Copyright in Cyberspace
183(7)
5.4.1 Problems From New Technologies
183(1)
5.4.2 Illegal Software Distribution in Cyberspace
183(2)
5.4.3 Literary and Artistic Material in Cyberspace
185(2)
5.4.4 The Future of Copyright in Cyberspace
187(2)
5.4.5 Proposed Legislation
189(1)
5.5 Issues For Software Developers
190(2)
5.5.1 Reverse Engineering
190(1)
5.5.2 Similar Software Products
190(2)
Exercises
192(3)
Notes
195(3)
For Further Reading
198(1)
6 CONSTITUTIONAL (AND RELATED) ISSUES
199(30)
6.1 Changing Communications Paradigms
200(3)
6.2 Offensive Speech in Cyberspace
203(10)
6.2.1 Libel
203(1)
6.2.2 Pornography and Censorship
204(5)
6.2.3 Liability of Service Providers
209(2)
6.2.4 Bomb-making Information
211(1)
6.2.5 Sexist, Racist, and Harassing Speech Online
211(2)
6.2.6 Different Rules for Cyberspace?
213(1)
6.3 Anonymity and Pseudonymity
213(3)
6.3.1 From the Federalist Papers to the Internet
213(1)
6.3.2 Good Uses and Bad
214(1)
6.3.3 Issues
215(1)
6.4 The First Amendment and Cryptography
216(1)
6.5 Hacker Cases and the First and Fourth Amendments
217(2)
6.5.1 Freedom of the Press When There Is No "Press"
217(1)
6.5.2 Steve Jackson Games and Operation Sun Devil
218(1)
6.6 The Fourth Amendment
219(3)
6.6.1 Search and Seizure of Computers
220(1)
6.6.2 The Exclusionary Rule and Computer Errors
221(1)
Exercises
222(3)
Notes
225(3)
For Further Reading
228(1)
7 COMPUTER CRIME
229(32)
7.1 Introduction
230(1)
7.2 Fraud and Embezzlement
230(6)
7.2.1 Swindling the Employer
230(2)
7.2.2 Fraud: Credit Cards, Automated Teller Machines, and Telecommunications
232(4)
7.2.3 Swindling the Customer
236(1)
7.3 Sabotage and Information Theft
236(1)
7.3.1 Sabotage
236(1)
7.3.2 Attacks By Competitors
237(1)
7.4 Intruders, Hacking, and Cracking
237(12)
7.4.1 What is "Hacking"?
237(3)
7.4.2 How Serious Is the Problem?
240(2)
7.4.3 Nonmalicious Hacking--Pros and Cons
242(3)
7.4.4 Locking the Doors
245(2)
7.4.5 Law Enforcement
247(1)
7.4.6 Penalties Appropriate to the Crime
248(1)
7.5 Computer Crime Laws
249(3)
7.5.1 Old Laws and New Offenses
249(1)
7.5.2 Now It's A Crime
250(1)
7.5.3 The Issue of Venue
251(1)
7.6 Digital Forgery
252(2)
7.6.1 The Problem
252(1)
7.6.2 Defenses
252(1)
7.6.3 Faking Photos
253(1)
Exercises
254(2)
Notes
256(3)
For Further Reading
259(2)
8 COMPUTERS AND WORK
261(32)
8.1 The Changing Nature of Work
262(1)
8.2 The Impact on Employment
262(8)
8.2.1 Job Destruction and Creation
262(4)
8.2.2 Income and Productivity
266(2)
8.2.3 Is the Impact of Computers Different from Other Technologies?
268(1)
8.2.4 Changing Jobs
269(1)
8.3 The Work Environment
270(5)
8.3.1 Teleworking
270(3)
8.3.2 Management and Hierarchies
273(2)
8.4 Employee Monitoring
275(6)
8.4.1 Background
275(1)
8.4.2 Monitoring Keystrokes
276(1)
8.4.3 Physical Surveillance
277(1)
8.4.4 Monitoring Customer Service Calls
277(1)
8.4.5 Employee E-mail, Voice Mail, and Files
278(3)
8.4.6 Regulation
281(1)
8.5 Health Issues
281(6)
8.5.1 Repetitive Strain Injury
282(5)
Exercises
287(2)
Notes
289(2)
For Further Reading
291(2)
9 BROADER ISSUES ON THE IMPACT AND CONTROL OF COMPUTERS
293(38)
9.1 A Variety of Social Issues
294(8)
9.1.1 Community or Isolation
294(3)
9.1.2 Information Haves and Have-Nots: The Access Issue
297(3)
9.1.3 Loss of Skills and Judgment
300(2)
9.2 Political Freedom
302(3)
9.3 Evaluations of the Impact of Computer Technology
305(8)
9.3.1 The Neo-Luddite View of Computers and Technology
305(3)
9.3.2 Luddite Views of Economics, Nature, and Human Needs
308(3)
9.3.3 Who Benefits Most?
311(1)
9.3.4 Accomplishments of Technology
312(1)
9.4 Controlling Technology
313(8)
9.4.1 Some Proposals and Many Questions
313(1)
9.4.2 Ensuring Valuable and Diverse Content
314(3)
9.4.3 Prohibiting Bad Technologies
317(1)
9.4.4 The Difficulty of Prediction
318(3)
Exercises
321(3)
Notes
324(3)
For Further Reading
327(4)
10 ISSUES OF PROFESSIONAL ETHICS AND RESPONSIBILITIES
331(42)
10.1 What Is "Computer Ethics"?
332(1)
10.2 Ethical Theories
333(8)
10.2.1 What Is Ethics, Anyway?
333(1)
10.2.2 A Variety of Ethical Views
334(3)
10.2.3 Some Important Distinctions
337(4)
10.3 Ethical Guidelines for Computer Professionals
341(8)
10.3.1 Some Special Aspects of Professional Ethics
341(2)
10.3.2 New Ethical Problems and Standards for Computer Technology
343(5)
10.3.3 Professional Codes of Ethics
348(1)
10.4 Cases
349(19)
10.4.1 Introduction and Methodology
349(1)
10.4.2 Copying an Employee's Files
350(1)
10.4.3 Insufficient Privacy Protection
351(1)
10.4.4 Risky Systems
352(2)
10.4.5 Going Public
354(1)
10.4.6 Release of Personal Information
355(2)
10.4.7 Conflict of Interest
357(1)
10.4.8 Copyright Violation
358(1)
10.4.9 Hiring Foreign Programmers
358(10)
10.5 Appendix: The ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct Exercises
368(2)
Notes
370(1)
For Further Reading
371(2)
INDEX 373

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