Global Perspectives: A Handbook for Understanding Global Issues / Edition 1

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Overview

This book provides a multidisciplinary vocabulary for explaining general issues and trends facing the contemporary world involving cultural diversity, economic development, the natural environment, and international peace and violence. It affords equal time to the analysis of global issues using alternative perspectives. Eight major case studies—one for each of the central issues explored—encourage the application of concepts and perspectives presented in the narrative. It is the perfect compliment to any introductory IR text.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780138523930
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 10/1/1998
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 192
  • Product dimensions: 4.79 (w) x 7.04 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface     xi
Introduction to the Modern World     1
Perceptions of the World     2
The Physical World     2
The Political World     3
The Ethnic World     3
Emergence of the Modern World     3
The World in 1350     4
Early European Expansion: 1400s to Early 1600s     6
Later European Expansion: 1600s to Early 1900s     7
Definition of the Modern State     9
Territory     9
Government     10
A Loyal Population     10
Recognition of Other States     11
Trends in the Post-World War II World     11
U.S. Leadership     11
The Soviet Challenge     13
The End of Colonialism     14
Increasing Interconnections     15
Globalization     15
Exponential Increases in International Economic Transactions     16
Integration of International/Global Economic Decision Making     16
Strengthened Political International Governmental Organizations     17
Increases in International Nongovernmental Contacts and Communication     17
Terms and Concepts     18
Discussion Questions     19
Research Projects     19
Internet Resources     19
Ethnicity and Global Diversity     20
Culture: The Definition of Humanity     21
Culture Change     22
Culture and Economic Adaptations     24
Cultures, Subcultures, and Other Cultural Classifications     26
Ethnic Groups     26
Indigenous Peoples     27
Immigration     28
Races     30
Sex     31
Gender     32
Religions     33
Civilizations     33
Classes     34
Reactions to Diversity     35
Ethocentrism     35
Cultural Relativity     35
Racism and Sexism     36
Case Study: Female Genital Surgery     36
Ethnocentrism     40
Gender/Sex     40
Summary     41
Terms and Concepts     41
Discussion Questions     42
Research Projects     42
Internet Resources     42
Perspectives on Ethnicity and Global Diversity     44
Global Primacy     45
Assimilation     46
Acculturation      46
Syncretism     47
State Primacy     48
Patriotism     48
Subjugation     49
Paternalism     49
Critiques from the Global Primacy Perspective     50
Cultural Primacy     51
Tolerance     51
Diversity Within States     52
Diversity Between States     52
Critiques from the Global Primacy and State Primary Perspectives     54
Synthesis     54
Case Study: Nunavut: A New Territory for an Indigenous Nation     54
Foraging Cultures     55
Changes     56
Inuit Nationalism     57
The Territory of Nunavut     58
Analysis     59
Perspectives Applied to Nunavut     60
A View from the Global Primacy Perspective     61
A View from the State Primacy Perspective     62
A View from the Cultural Primacy Perspective     63
Terms and Concepts     64
Discussion Questions     65
Research Projects     65
Internet Resources     65
Economic Development and Structural Poverty     66
Defining the Issue     68
Underdevelopment: A Vicious Cycle     72
Dual Economy     72
Low Productivity     73
Insufficient Capital     73
Lack of Human Services     74
The Colonial Legacy     76
Outside Interventions     78
Trade     78
Aid     79
Private Investment     79
Technical Assistance     80
Contributing Factors     80
Insufficient Natural Resources     81
Explosive Population Growth     81
Lack of Social Cohesion     84
Corruption     85
Case Study: Namibia as a Developing Country     86
Political and Social Factors     87
Interrelated, Structural Economic Factors     88
External Sources of Capital     91
Summary     92
Terms and Concepts     92
Discussion Questions     92
Research Projects     93
Internet Resources     93
Perspectives on Economic Development     94
Liberal Economics     94
Comparative Advantage     95
Policies Needed     95
Dependency     97
Structural Inequality-Neocolonialism      97
Government Intervention     98
International Economic System     99
Critique from the Liberal Economics Perspective     101
Participatory Development     102
Local Decision Making     103
Available Technology     103
Environmental Compatibility     104
Critiques from the Liberal Economics and Dependency Perspectives     105
Case Study: From Peasants to Farmers-Development in the Peruvian Highlands     106
A Tale of Two Irrigation Channels     107
Local Initiative     108
Summary     110
The Three Economic Perspectives Applied to the Case Study     110
A View from the Liberal Economics Perspective     110
A View from the Dependency Perspective     111
A View from the Participatory Development Perspective     111
Terms and Concepts     112
Discussion Questions     112
Research Projects     113
Internet Resources     113
Health of the Planet: Health of the People     114
Ecosystems: The Nature of Environment     114
Interrelationship of Environmental Systems     115
Humans and the Environment     116
Foraging      116
Pastoralism     117
Farming     117
Industrialism     117
Threats to Critical Resources     118
Air     118
Water     122
Land     124
Plants and Animals     126
Resources in Balance     129
Human Health     129
Diseases     129
Healthcare     131
Malnutrition     132
Case Study: Brazil and the Tropical Rain Forest     133
Amazonian Environment     134
Economic Uses of the Amazon     135
Indigenous Peoples     137
Analysis     139
Terms and Concepts     139
Discussion Questions     140
Research Projects     140
Internet Resources     140
Perspectives on Global Health     141
High-Technology Perspective     142
Shared-Technology Perspective     145
Critique from the High-Technology Perspective     146
Appropriate-Technology Perspective     147
Critiques from the High-Technology and Shared-Technology Perspectives     149
Case Study: New Epidemics     150
Perils of a Global Ecosystem     151
Humans and Animals in the New Ecosystem     153
Bioterrorism: Poisoning the Ecosystem     155
Perspectives on the New Epidemics     156
A View from the High-Technology Perspective     156
A View from the Shared-Technology Perspective     158
A View from the Appropriate-Technology Perspective     159
Terms and Concepts     160
Discussion Questions     161
Research Projects     161
Internet Resources     161
Peace and War     162
Anarchic Nature of the International System     163
Sovereignty     164
International Anarchy     164
Power     165
Interconnected Nature of the International System     166
Model of Peace and War     169
War Strategies     170
Balance-of-Power Strategies     176
International-Rule-of-Law Strategies     180
Case Study: Gulf Wars I and II     184
Macro Factors Causing the Wars     184
Micro Analysis     187
Legacy     188
Terms and Concepts     189
Discussion Questions     189
Research Projects      190
Internet Resources     190
Perspectives on Peace and War     191
State Sovereignty     192
Deterrence and Military Power Paradoxes     193
World Order     194
One World     194
Functional Interdependence     195
U.S. Leadership     195
World Government     195
Critique from the State-Sovereignty Perspective     196
Ethnic Autonomy     196
Critiques from the State-Sovereignty and World-Order Perspectives     198
Case Study: The War in Bosnia-Three Peoples in Search of a State     198
A Tangle of Participants     199
The Dayton Accord     205
Analysis     209
Peace and War Perspectives Applied to the War in Bosnia     210
A View from the State Sovereignty Perspective     210
A View from the World Order Perspective     212
A View from the Ethnic Autonomy Perspective     213
Terms and Concepts     215
Discussion Questions     215
Research Projects     215
Internet Resources     215
Glossary     217
References Cited     227
Index     234
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