Globalization and the Rural Environment

Overview

As the world transitions from an industrial society to an information society, agriculture has undergone a dramatic transformation. Food production in the 20th century was transformed by three revolutions: first mechanical, then genetic, and finally chemical. Now, in the 21st century, agriculture is going through at least two more revolutions: an information technology revolution leading to precision farming, and a biotechnology revolution leading to genetically engineered ...

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Overview

As the world transitions from an industrial society to an information society, agriculture has undergone a dramatic transformation. Food production in the 20th century was transformed by three revolutions: first mechanical, then genetic, and finally chemical. Now, in the 21st century, agriculture is going through at least two more revolutions: an information technology revolution leading to precision farming, and a biotechnology revolution leading to genetically engineered crops.

Organized by Harvard University's David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies with the collaboration of the Scientific Committee for Problems of the Environment, this interdisciplinary volume examines the impact of a variety of new technological, social, and economic trends on the rural environment.

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Editorial Reviews

Former Assistant Director for the Environment, UNESCO - Gisbert Glaser
This book makes excellent reading for everyone scientifically or otherwise professionally interested in the subject of the rural environment and its transformation by successive cycles of globalization and new technologies, including the opportunity provided by the new information technologies. The book provides a wealth of information and interesting ideas for the formulation on new policies.
Lt. Governor, State of Buenos Aires Former Secretary of Agriculture, Argentina - Ing. Agr. Felipe Solá
Globalization and the economic changes of the post-industrial economy are creating enormous changes in rural enterprises and in the life of our rural communities, with often contradictory results. To reach economic development with equity we must continue with productive and technological changes. But we also must find ways to make economic growth sustainable in ecological terms, and above all in social terms. I am convinced that this book will help in that direction.
Professor, University of Paris VI, Director of the Institute of Fundamental and Applied Ecology - Robert Barbault
This book is key to understanding the overwhelming changes shaking our world, an inescapable book for all those interested in the challenges that the rural world is facing because of globalization shaped by the information society. The deepness of the analyses and the diversity of new insights present the render with unsuspected and stimulating perspectives on problems that are usually tackled separately, whether they deal with new technologies, economic growth, risks of hunger, or the evolution of the rural environment.
Argentine farmer, President AAPRESID (Argentine Association for No-till Agriculture) - Victor Trucco
The need for better food for everybody is a great challenge; to obtain food sustainably is another great challenge. That the discussion in this book includes the views from farmers to scientists; from Europe and America, and that the venue was Harvard, is very encouraging for farmers worried about sustainability. It is a great contribution to sustainable agriculture that we hope soon will be translated to other languages.
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Product Details

Meet the Author

Otto T. Solbrig is Bussey Professor of Biology, Harvard University.

Robert Paarlberg is the Betty F. Johnson Professor of Political Science at Wellesley College.

Francesco Di Castri is the Former Associate Director General of UNESCO and Director-Founder of its Man and the Biosphere Program.

John H. Coatsworth is Dean of the School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University and former Director of the David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies at Harvard University.

Merilee S. Grindle is Edward S. Mason Professor of International Development and Director of the David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies at Harvard University.

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Table of Contents

Prologue: A Europe Without Peasants
Sect. I Introduction
1 The Impact of Globalization and the Information Society on the Rural Space: Conceptual Analysis and Some Policy Suggestions 3
2 Cycles of Globalization, Economic, Growth, and Human Walfare in Latin America 23
3 Are Famine and Malnutrition Questions of Supply or Demand? Implications for Environmental Rural Sustainability 49
Sect. II Impacts of Agronomic Technologies on Rural Environments
Introduction 74
4 Production Systems in the Argentine Pampas and their Ecological Impact 79
5 The Impact of Global Changes on the Rural Environment in Ecoregions of the Southern Cone of South America 103
6 Ecological Impacts of Modern Agriculture in the United States and Latin America 123
7 Sustainable Agriculture in the Lowlands Subtropics and Neotropics? Trends and Bioeconomic Opportunities and Constraints 139
8 Environmental Impacts of Globalization and Agriculture on the Environment 161
9 Direct Seed Cropping in Argentina: Economic, Agronomic, and Sustainability Benefits 179
10 The Environmentally Positive Aspects of the Agrochemical Industry in Argentina 201
11 The Impact of Biotechnology in South America 217
12 Technology, Gene Research, and National Competitiveness 225
Sect. III Policies, Markets, and Diverse Effects on the Rural Environment
Introduction 257
13 Environmental Impacts of Modern Agriculture: The Role of Policy and Trade Liberalization 261
14 The Impact of Environmental Policies, Consumer Behavior and Information Technology on Agricultural Trade, with Special Reference to Europe 283
15 The Impact of Modern Agricultural Technologies: Economics' Usefulness in the Debate About Future Directions for Agriculture 301
16 Environmental Impacts of Globalization through Trade Liberalization in Agriculture: Analyzing the Empirical Evidence from Latin America 319
17 Globalization and Agriculture: Some Facts, Interpretations, and Policy Issues 363
18 Different EU and US Perspectives on Biotechnology and their Implications for Trade Relations 393
Sect. IV Urban-Rural Interactions
Introduction 415
19 Forging New Connections between Agriculture and the City ... 419
20 Urban Sprawl and Landscape Perturbation in High Quality Farmland Ecosystems: The Case of the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Region 447
21 Rural Values and the European View of Agriculture 483
Sect. V Summary and Policy Implications
22 Where to Turn for Remedies? 517
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