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Globalization of Water: Sharing the Planet's Freshwater Resources [NOOK Book]


Globalization of Water examines the critical link between water management and international trade. Local water depletion and pollution are often closely tied to the structure of the global economy. With increasing trade between nations and continents, water is more frequently used to produce exported goods. Can trade enhance global water use efficiency, or does it simply shift the environmental burden to a distant location? This book offers a consumer-based indicator of each nation’s water use: the water ...
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Globalization of Water: Sharing the Planet's Freshwater Resources

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Globalization of Water examines the critical link between water management and international trade. Local water depletion and pollution are often closely tied to the structure of the global economy. With increasing trade between nations and continents, water is more frequently used to produce exported goods. Can trade enhance global water use efficiency, or does it simply shift the environmental burden to a distant location? This book offers a consumer-based indicator of each nation’s water use: the water footprint. This invaluable tool highlights the hidden link between national consumption and the use of water resources across the globe, identifying “water dependent” countries worldwide.

This innovative text is designed for scientists, policy makers, and anybody interested in the relationship between globalization and sustainable water management. It offers a state-of-the-art review, provides a rich data source, and sketches the contours of a new field of knowledge.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"The main strengths of the book are its clear explanations of the core concepts and the methods used to estimate the movements of virtual water, along with the wealth of empirical evidence on specific countries, regions and commodities. . . While the authors do not explicitly answer all of the questions outlined at the beginning of the book, this is still a well-written and timely contribution that adds some much-needed evidence to the literature on virtual water." (Area, 2011)

"This book is a technical research report, , and gives another important strand of firm evidence to support the case for switching to vegan lifestyles". (Vegan, 1 December 2010)

“Heightened concern about global climate change makes this book timely and of interest to many readers.” (Choice Reviews, May 2009)

"[This book] is an authorative and stimulating book to read. Its main contribution is the excellent use of case studies to illustrate the well-articulated theoretical background of virtual water and its global implications.... A though-provoking book." (South African Geographical Journal, 2008)

“The authors propose to reverse the logic of production volumes to consumption volumes. This approach entirely changes all conclusions concerning water stress in the world, dependencies on other countries, and responsibility for water scarcity. This detailed study gives new insights into these mechanisms, leading to a more realistic picture of a country’s water needs. The book contains extensive and detailed tables, with all the data required for an in depth evaluation. The book concludes with some important remarks on fairness, sustainability, responsibility, and price-setting.” (Water Environment and Technology Magazine, December 2008)

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781444360196
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 8/31/2011
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 224
  • File size: 7 MB

Meet the Author

Arjen Y. Hoekstra has academic and professional experience in the field of integrated water resources management in various countries and is currently Professor of Multidisciplinary Water Management at the University of Twente, the Netherlands.

Ashok K. Chapagain has been an irrigation engineer in Nepal, received his PhD degree at the UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education in Delft, the Netherlands, was employed as researcher at the University of Twente, and currently works for the World Wide Fund for Nature in the UK.

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Table of Contents

List of Maps     viii
Preface     x
Introduction     1
How Much Water is Used for Producing our Goods and Services?     7
Virtual Water     8
How to Estimate the Virtual-Water Content of an Agricultural Product     10
Water Use for Crop and Livestock Products     12
Water Use for Industrial Products     15
Water for Domestic Services     16
Virtual-Water Flows Between Nations as a Result of Trade in Agricultural and Industrial Products     19
Virtual-Water "Trade" or "Transfer"?     20
How to Assess International Virtual-Water Flows     20
International Virtual-Water Flows     22
Virtual-Water Flows Between World Regions     25
Are Consumers Co-Responsible for the Effects of Water Use?     27
The Relation Between Trade and Water Scarcity     28
Water Saving Through International Trade in Agricultural Products     31
Method     34
National Water Savings     36
National Water Losses     39
Global Water Savings     42
Global Blue Water Savings at the Cost of Green Water Losses     47
Physical versus Economic Savings     48
The Downside of Virtual-Water Import asa Solution to Water Scarcity     49
The Water Footprints of Nations     51
Two Methods of Assessing the Water Footprint of a Nation     53
Internal and External Water Footprint     54
Water Footprints of Nations     55
Determining Factors     61
How can Water Footprints be Reduced?     63
The Water Footprint as a New Indicator of Water Use     64
The Water Footprints of Morocco and the Netherlands     67
Virtual-Water Flows and Balances     68
Agricultural Water Footprints of Morocco and the Netherlands     70
Water Savings     71
Trade in the Context of Managing Water     73
Virtual- versus Real-Water Transfers Within China     75
Assessing Virtual-Water Flows Between Regions in China     76
Virtual-Water Content per Product Category per Region     77
Food Trade Within China     78
Virtual-Water Transfers Within China     79
Virtual- versus Real-Water Budgets     80
Virtual-Water Transfers in Relation to Water Availability     82
North-South Virtual-Water Flows in Relation to the South-North Water Transfer Project     82
The Water Footprint of Coffee and Tea Consumption     85
Virtual-Water Content of Coffee and Tea in Different Production Stages     87
Virtual-Water Flows Related to the Trade in Coffee and Tea     93
The Water Needed to Drink a Cup of Coffee or Tea     98
The Water Footprint of Coffee and Tea Consumption     98
The Water Footprint of Cotton Consumption     103
Green, Blue, and Gray Water     105
The Virtual-Water Content of Seed Cotton     107
The Virtual-Water Content of Cotton Products     112
Impact on Water Quality in the Crop Production Stage     113
Impact on Water Quality in the Processing Stage     114
International Virtual-Water Flows     119
Water Footprints Related to Consumption of Cotton Products     121
Sustainable Use of Water     127
Water as a Geopolitical Resource     131
Efficient, Sustainable, and Equitable Water Use in a Globalized World     137
Fairness and Sustainability of Large Water Footprints     139
Global Rules of the Game     140
An International Protocol on Water Pricing     141
A Water Label for Water-Intensive Products     142
Minimum Water Rights     142
(Tradable) Water-Footprint Permits     144
Global Arrangements versus the Subsidiarity Principle      145
Globalization: Pro or Anti?     146
Appendices     147
Analytical Framework for the Assessment of Virtual-Water Content, Virtual-Water Flows, Water Savings, Water Footprints, and Water Dependencies     147
Virtual-Water Flows per Country Related to International Trade in Crop, Livestock, and Industrial Products     157
National Water Savings and Losses Due to Trade in Agricultural Products     169
Water Footprints of Nations     177
Water Footprint versus Water Scarcity, Self-Sufficiency, and Water Import Dependency per Country     183
Glossary     191
References     195
Index     203
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