GnRH: The Master Molecule of Reproduction / Edition 1

GnRH: The Master Molecule of Reproduction / Edition 1

by Andrea C. Gore, Julius J. Muray
     
 

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) cells are the key regulators of reproductive function in all vertebrate organisms. The GnRH molecule is synthesized in a small number of neurons in rostral hypothalamic regions of the brain. In mammals, these neurons release the GnRH decapeptide into the portal capillary system leading to the anterior pituitary gland. There,

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Overview

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) cells are the key regulators of reproductive function in all vertebrate organisms. The GnRH molecule is synthesized in a small number of neurons in rostral hypothalamic regions of the brain. In mammals, these neurons release the GnRH decapeptide into the portal capillary system leading to the anterior pituitary gland. There, GnRH causes the release of the gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which in turn act upon the gonads to stimulate their maturation, and to cause synthesis of sex steroid hormones, estrogen, progesterone and testosterone. Although each of the levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is critical for reproductive function, GnRH neurons play the primary role in the control of reproductive maturation and adult reproductive function, and may even play a role in reproductive senescence.

Since its discovery in 1970, there has been intense interest in GnRH-producing neurons, with more than 8000 papers and chapters in the last decade alone. Despite this activity of research in basic and clinical science, there has never been a book written specifically on GnRH neurons. GnRH: The Master Molecule of Reproduction aims to bring together the large and diverse literature of both laboratory and applied research that focuses on these unique cells.

This book will provide basic background into reproductive neuroendocrinology, as well as specifics regarding the role of GnRH neurons in the control of reproduction. Students studying endocrinology, reproduction, neuroendocrinology or molecular endocrinology will benefit from this book. In addition, this book will take a multi-species approach which will be useful both to basic researchers as well as clinicians. Whenever possible, species differences and similarities will be presented, and if possible, studies on humans, or the clinical relevance of basic research findings to humans will be discussed (such as the treatment of reproductive disorders such as abnormalities in pubertal development, or infertility).

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780792376811
Publisher:
Springer US
Publication date:
04/30/2002
Edition description:
2002
Pages:
324
Product dimensions:
9.21(w) x 6.14(h) x 0.81(d)

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Table of Contents

List of Figures
List of Tables
Preface
Acknowledgments
Introduction1
1Neuroanatomy of the GnRH-1 System9
Hypophysiotropic GnRH-1 Neurons: Neuroanatomy11
GnRH in Mast Cells in the Brain21
GnRH Cells in the Peripheral Nervous System23
GnRH Cells Outside the Nervous System24
2GnRH Pulsatility29
In Vivo Measurements of Pulsatile GnRH Release30
Electrophysiology of GnRH Neurons in Vivo38
In Vitro Measurements of GnRH Pulsatility42
How are GnRH Pulses Coordinated?49
3GnRH Neurons: Changes Across the Life Cycle53
Embryonic Development of GnRH Neurons54
The Role of GnRH Neurons in Pubertal Development61
The Role of GnRH Neurons in Adulthood80
Reproductive Aging85
4Factors Regulating GnRH Neurons93
Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators Regulating GnRH Neurons94
Neurotrophic Factors and Cytokines Regulating GnRH Neurons118
Are Steroid Hormone Receptors on GnRH Neurons?121
5The GnRH Gene125
Structure & Processing of the GnRH-1 Gene125
GnRH 5' Flanking Region and Gene Transcription127
Regulation of GnRH Gene Expression in Vivo131
Post-Transcriptional Regulation of GnRH mRNA Levels150
FOS Expression in GnRH Neurons151
6Multiple GnRH Molecules, Phylogeny and Evolution157
Amino Acid and Gene Sequences and Structures of GnRH159
Co-Existence of Multiple GnRHS in Vertebrate Brains161
GnRH in Invertebrates168
Evolution of GnRH170
How Ancient is GnRH?173
7GnRH Neurons and Reproductive Behavior175
Effects of GnRH on Sexual Behavior in Females175
Effects of GnRH on Sexual Behavior in Males177
Species Comparisons178
Neurotransmitters Involved in Effects of GnRH on Reproductive Behaviors178
Effects of Behavior on GnRH Expression179
8GnRH Neuronal Cell Lines183
The Creation and Properties of the Immortalized GnRH Cell Lines183
Neurotransmitters Regulating GnRH Cell Lines189
Second Messengers and Signal Transduction in GnRH Cell Lines195
Neurotrophic Factors and Cytokines Regulating GnRH Cell Lines198
Peripheral Proteins Regulating GnRH Cell Lines201
Do GnRH Cell Lines Express Steroid Hormone Receptors?201
Caveats of Immortalized GnRH Cell Lines203
9GnRH Mutants and Transgenic Mice205
GnRH Transgenic Animals205
The Hypogonadal (HPG) Mouse211
10GnRH in Humans217
Localization and Morphology of Human GnRH-1 Neurons217
Pulsatile GnRH/LH Release in Humans218
Molecular Biology of GnRH in Humans222
GnRH Therapy223
GnRH Agonists and Antagonists226
Bibliography229
Index317

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