The Golden Bough

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Overview

Sir James George Frazer (1854-1941) was a Scottish social anthropologist influential in the early stages of the modern studies of mythology and comparative religion. His most famous work, The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion (1890), documents and details similar magical and religious beliefs across the globe. He posited that human belief progressed through three stages: primitive magic, replaced by religion, in turn replaced by science. The study of myth and religion became his areas of expertise. His ...
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Overview

Sir James George Frazer (1854-1941) was a Scottish social anthropologist influential in the early stages of the modern studies of mythology and comparative religion. His most famous work, The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion (1890), documents and details similar magical and religious beliefs across the globe. He posited that human belief progressed through three stages: primitive magic, replaced by religion, in turn replaced by science. The study of myth and religion became his areas of expertise. His prime sources of data were ancient histories and questionnaires mailed to missionaries and Imperial officials all over the globe. He was the first to detail the relations between myths and rituals. Amongst his other works are Totemism (1887), Pausanias and Other Greek Sketches (1900), Folk-lore and the Old Testament (1907) and Letters of William Cowper (as editor) (1912).
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781409989509
  • Publisher: Dodo Press
  • Publication date: 10/30/2009
  • Edition description: Abridged
  • Pages: 436
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.97 (d)

Meet the Author

Sir James George Frazer was a Scottish social anthropologist influential in the early stages of the modern studies of mythology and comparative religion.His most famous work, The Golden Bough (1890), documents and details similar magical and religious beliefs across the globe. Frazer posited that human belief progressed through three stages: primitive magic, replaced by religion, in turn replaced by science.
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The Golden Bough

A Study in Magic and Religion


By James Frazer

Dover Publications, Inc.

Copyright © 2002 Dover Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved.
ISBN: 978-0-486-11972-4



CHAPTER 1

THE KING OF THE WOOD


§ 1. Diana and Virbius.—Who does not know Turner's picture of the Golden Bough? The scene, suffused with the golden glow of imagination in which the divine mind of Turner steeped and transfigured even the fairest natural landscape, is a dream-like vision of the little woodland lake of Nemi—"Diana's Mirror," as it was called by the ancients. No one who has seen that calm water, lapped in a green hollow of the Alban hills, can ever forget it. The two characteristic Italian villages which slumber on its banks, and the equally Italian palace whose terraced gardens descend steeply to the lake, hardly break the stillness and even the solitariness of the scene. Dian herself might still linger by this lonely shore, still haunt these woodlands wild.

In antiquity this sylvan landscape was the scene of a strange and recurring tragedy. On the northern shore of the lake, right under the precipitous cliffs on which the modern village of Nemi is perched, stood the sacred grove and sanctuary of Diana Nemorensis, or Diana of the Wood. The lake and the grove were sometimes known as the lake and grove of Aricia. But the town of Aricia (the modern La Riccia) was situated about three miles off, at the foot of the Alban Mount, and separated by a steep descent from the lake, which lies in a small crater-like hollow on the mountain side. In this sacred grove there grew a certain tree round which at any time of the day, and probably far into the night, a grim figure might be seen to prowl. In his hand he carried a drawn sword, and he kept peering warily about him as if at every instant he expected to be set upon by an enemy. He was a priest and a murderer; and the man for whom he looked was sooner or later to murder him and hold the priesthood in his stead. Such was the rule of the sanctuary. A candidate for the priesthood could only succeed to office by slaying the priest, and having slain him, he retained office till he was himself slain by a stronger or a craftier.

The post which he held by this precarious tenure carried with it the title of king; but surely no crowned head ever lay uneasier, or was visited by more evil dreams, than his. For year in year out, in summer and winter, in fair weather and in foul, he had to keep his lonely watch, and whenever he snatched a troubled slumber it was at the peril of his life. The least relaxation of his vigilance, the smallest abatement of his strength of limb or skill of fence, put him in jeopardy; grey hairs might seal his death-warrant. To gentle and pious pilgrims at the shrine the sight of him might well seem to darken the fair landscape, as when a cloud suddenly blots the sun on a bright day. The dreamy blue of Italian skies, the dappled shade of summer woods, and the sparkle of waves in the sun, can have accorded but ill with that stern and sinister figure. Rather we picture to ourselves the scene as it may have been witnessed by a belated wayfarer on one of those wild autumn nights when the dead leaves are falling thick, and the winds seem to sing the dirge of the dying year. It is a sombre picture, set to melancholy music—the background of forest showing black and jagged against a lowering and stormy sky, the sighing of the wind in the branches, the rustle of the withered leaves under foot, the lapping of the cold water on the shore, and in the foreground, pacing to and fro, now in twilight and now in gloom, a dark figure with a glitter of steel at the shoulder whenever the pale moon, riding clear of the cloud-rack, peers down at him through the matted boughs.

The strange rule of this priesthood has no parallel in classical antiquity, and cannot be explained from it. To find an explanation we must go farther afield. No one will probably deny that such a custom savours of a barbarous age, and, surviving into imperial times, stands out in striking isolation from the polished Italian society of the day, like a primaeval rock rising from a smooth-shaven lawn. It is the very rudeness and barbarity of the custom which allow us a hope of explaining it. For recent researches into the early history of man have revealed the essential similarity with which, under many superficial differences, the human mind has elaborated its first crude philosophy of life. Accordingly, if we can show that a barbarous custom, like that of the priesthood of Nemi, has existed elsewhere; if we can detect the motives which led to its institution; if we can prove that these motives have operated widely, perhaps universally, in human society, producing in varied circumstances a variety of institutions specifically different but generically alike; if we can show, lastly, that these very motives, with some of their derivative institutions, were actually at work in classical antiquity; then we may fairly infer that at a remoter age the same motives gave birth to the priesthood of Nemi. Such an inference, in default of direct evidence as to how the priesthood did actually arise, can never amount to demonstration. But it will be more or less probable according to the degree of completeness with which it fulfils the conditions I have indicated. The object of this book is, by meeting these conditions, to offer a fairly probable explanation of the priesthood of Nemi.

I begin by setting forth the few facts and legends which have come down to us on the subject. According to one story the worship of Diana at Nemi was instituted by Orestes, who, after killing Thoas, king of the Tauric Chersonese (the Crimea), fled with his sister to Italy, bringing with him the image of the Tauric Diana hidden in a faggot of sticks. After his death his bones were transported from Aricia to Rome and buried in front of the temple of Saturn, on the Capitoline slope, beside the temple of Concord. The bloody ritual which legend ascribed to the Tauric Diana is familiar to classical readers; it is said that every stranger who landed on the shore was sacrificed on her altar. But transported to Italy, the rite assumed a milder form. Within the sanctuary at Nemi grew a certain tree of which no branch might be broken. Only a runaway slave was allowed to break off, if he could, one of its boughs. Success in the attempt entitled him to fight the priest in single combat, and if he slew him he reigned in his stead with the title of King of the Wood (Rex Nemorensis). According to the public opinion of the ancients the fateful branch was that Golden Bough which, at the Sibyl's bidding, Aeneas plucked before he essayed the perilous journey to the world of the dead. The flight of the slave represented, it was said, the flight of Orestes; his combat with the priest was a reminiscence of the human sacrifices once offered to the Tauric Diana. This rule of succession by the sword was observed down to imperial times; for amongst his other freaks Caligula, thinking that the priest of Nemi had held office too long, hired a more stalwart ruffian to slay him; and a Greek traveller, who visited Italy in the age of the Antonines, remarks that down to his time the priesthood was still the prize of victory in a single combat.

Of the worship of Diana at Nemi some leading features can still be made out. From the votive offerings which have been found on the site, it appears that she was conceived of especially as a huntress, and further as blessing men and women with offspring, and granting expectant mothers an easy delivery. Again, fire seems to have played a foremost part in her ritual. For during her annual festival, held on the thirteenth of August, at the hottest time of the year, her grove shone with a multitude of torches, whose ruddy glare was reflected by the lake; and throughout the length and breadth of Italy the day was kept with holy rites at every domestic hearth. Bronze statuettes found in her precinct represent the goddess herself holding a torch in her raised right hand; and women whose prayers had been heard by her came crowned with wreaths and bearing lighted torches to the sanctuary in fulfilment of their vows. Some one unknown dedicated a perpetually burning lamp in a little shrine at Nemi for the safety of the Emperor Claudius and his family. The terra-cotta lamps which have been discovered in the grove may perhaps have served a like purpose for humbler persons. If so, the analogy of the custom to the Catholic practice of dedicating holy candles in churches would be obvious. Further, the title of Vesta borne by Diana at Nemi points clearly to the maintenance of a perpetual holy fire in her sanctuary. A large circular basement at the north-east corner of the temple, raised on three steps and bearing traces of a mosaic pavement, probably supported a round temple of Diana in her character of Vesta, like the round temple of Vesta in the Roman Forum. Here the sacred fire would seem to have been tended by Vestal Virgins, for the head of a Vestal in terra-cotta was found on the spot, and the worship of a perpetual fire, cared for by holy maidens, appears to have been common in Latium from the earliest to the latest times. Further, at the annual festival of the goddess, hunting dogs were crowned and wild beasts were not molested; young people went through a purificatory ceremony in her honour; wine was brought forth, and the feast consisted of a kid, cakes served piping hot on plates of leaves, and apples still hanging in clusters on the boughs.

But Diana did not reign alone in her grove at Nemi. Two lesser divinities shared her forest sanctuary. One was Egeria, the nymph of the clear water which, bubbling from the basaltic rocks, used to fall in graceful cascades into the lake at the place called Le Mole, because here were established the mills of the modern village of Nemi. The purling of the stream as it ran over the pebbles is mentioned by Ovid, who tells us that he had often drunk of its water. Women with child used to sacrifice to Egeria, because she was believed, like Diana, to be able to grant them an easy delivery. Tradition ran that the nymph had been the wife or mistress of the wise king Numa, that he had consorted with her in the secrecy of the sacred grove, and that the laws which he gave the Romans had been inspired by communion with her divinity. Plutarch compares the legend with other tales of the loves of goddesses for mortal men, such as the love of Cybele and the Moon for the fair youths Attis and Endymion. According to some, the trysting-place of the lovers was not in the woods of Nemi but in a grove outside the dripping Porta Capena at Rome, where another sacred spring of Egeria gushed from a dark cavern. Every day the Roman Vestals fetched water from this spring to wash the temple of Vesta, carrying it in earthenware pitchers on their heads. In Juvenal's time the natural rock had been encased in marble, and the hallowed spot was profaned by gangs of poor Jews, who were suffered to squat, like gypsies, in the grove. We may suppose that the spring which fell into the lake of Nemi was the true original Egeria, and that when the first settlers moved down from the Alban hills to the banks of the Tiber they brought the nymph with them and found a new home for her in a grove outside the gates. The remains of baths which have been discovered within the sacred precinct, together with many terra-cotta models of various parts of the human body, suggest that the waters of Egeria were used to heal the sick, who may have signified their hopes or testified their gratitude by dedicating likenesses of the diseased members to the goddess, in accordance with a custom which is still observed in many parts of Europe. To this day it would seem that the spring retains medicinal virtues.

The other of the minor deities at Nemi was Virbius. Legend had it that Virbius was the young Greek hero Hippolytus, chaste and fair, who learned the art of venery from the centaur Chiron, and spent all his days in the greenwood chasing wild beasts with the virgin huntress Artemis (the Greek counterpart of Diana) for his only comrade. Proud of her divine society, he spurned the love of women, and this proved his bane. For Aphrodite, stung by his scorn, inspired his stepmother Phaedra with love of him; and when he disdained her wicked advances she falsely accused him to his father Theseus. The slander was believed, and Theseus prayed to his sire Poseidon to avenge the imagined wrong. So while Hippolytus drove in a chariot by the shore of the Saronic Gulf, the sea-god sent a fierce bull forth from the waves. The terrified horses bolted, threw Hippolytus from the chariot, and dragged him at their hoofs to death. But Diana, for the love she bore Hippolytus, persuaded the leech Aesculapius to bring her fair young hunter back to life by his simples. Jupiter, indignant that a mortal man should return from the gates of death, thrust down the meddling leech himself to Hades. But Diana hid her favourite from the angry god in a thick cloud, disguised his features by adding years to his life, and then bore him far away to the dells of Nemi, where she entrusted him to the nymph Egeria, to live there, unknown and solitary, under the name of Virbius, in the depth of the Italian forest. There he reigned a king, and there he dedicated a precinct to Diana. He had a comely son, Virbius, who, undaunted by his father's fate, drove a team of fiery steeds to join the Latins in the war against Aeneas and the Trojans. Virbius was worshipped as a god not only at Nemi but elsewhere; for in Campania we hear of a special priest devoted to his service. Horses were excluded from the Arician grove and sanctuary because horses had killed Hippolytus. It was unlawful to touch his image. Some thought that he was the sun. "But the truth is," says Servius, "that he is a deity associated with Diana, as Attis is associated with the Mother of the Gods, and Erichthonius with Minerva, and Adonis with Venus." What the nature of that association was we shall enquire presently. Here it is worth observing that in his long and chequered career this mythical personage has displayed a remarkable tenacity of life. For we can hardly doubt that the Saint Hippolytus of the Roman calendar, who was dragged by horses to death on the thirteenth of August, Diana's own day, is no other than the Greek hero of the same name, who, after dying twice over as a heathen sinner, has been happily resuscitated as a Christian saint.


(Continues...)

Excerpted from The Golden Bough by James Frazer. Copyright © 2002 Dover Publications, Inc.. Excerpted by permission of Dover Publications, Inc..
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Table of Contents

Contents

Title Page,
Copyright Page,
PREFACE,
Epigraph,
CHAPTER I - THE KING OF THE WOOD,
CHAPTER II - PRIESTLY KINGS,
CHAPTER III - SYMPATHETIC MAGIC,
CHAPTER IV - MAGIC AND RELIGION,
CHAPTER V - THE MAGICAL CONTROL OF THE WEATHER,
CHAPTER VI - MAGICIANS AS KINGS,
CHAPTER VII - INCARNATE HUMAN GODS,
CHAPTER VIII - DEPARTMENTAL KINGS OF NATURE,
CHAPTER IX - THE WORSHIP OF TREES,
CHAPTER X - RELICS OF TREE-WORSHIP IN MODERN EUROPE,
CHAPTER XI - THE INFLUENCE OF THE SEXES ON VEGETATION,
CHAPTER XII - THE SACRED MARRIAGE,
CHAPTER XIII - THE KINGS OF ROME AND ALBA,
CHAPTER XIV - THE SUCCESSION TO THE KINGDOM IN ANCIENT LATIUM,
CHAPTER XV - THE WORSHIP OF THE OAK,
CHAPTER XVI - DIANUS AND DIANA,
CHAPTER XVII - THE BURDEN OF ROYALTY,
CHAPTER XVIII - THE PERILS OF THE SOUL,
CHAPTER XIX - TABOOED ACTS,
CHAPTER XX - TABOOED PERSONS,
CHAPTER XXI - TABOOED THINGS,
CHAPTER XXII - TABOOED WORDS,
CHAPTER XXIII - OUR DEBT TO THE SAVAGE,
CHAPTER XXIV - THE KILLING OF THE DIVINE KING,
CHAPTER XXV - TEMPORARY KINGS,
CHAPTER XXVI - SACRIFICE OF THE KING'S SON,
CHAPTER XXVII - SUCCESSION TO THE SOUL,
CHAPTER XXVIII - THE KILLING OF THE TREE-SPIRIT,
CHAPTER XXIX - THE MYTH OF ADONIS,
CHAPTER XXX - ADONIS IN SYRIA,
CHAPTER XXXI - ADONIS IN CYPRUS,
CHAPTER XXXII - THE RITUAL OF ADONIS,
CHAPTER XXXIII - THE GARDENS OF ADONIS,
CHAPTER XXXIV - THE MYTH AND RITUAL OF ATTIS,
CHAPTER XXXV - ATTIS AS A GOD OF VEGETATION,
CHAPTER XXXVI - HUMAN REPRESENTATIVES OF ATTIS,
CHAPTER XXXVII - ORIENTAL RELIGIONS IN THE WEST,
CHAPTER XXXVIII - THE MYTH OF OSIRIS,
CHAPTER XXXIX - THE RITUAL OF OSIRIS,
CHAPTER XL - THE NATURE OF OSIRIS,
CHAPTER XLI - ISIS,
CHAPTER XLII - OSIRIS AND THE SUN,
CHAPTER XLIII - DIONYSUS,
CHAPTER XLIV - DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE,
CHAPTER XLV - THE CORN-MOTHER AND THE CORN-MAIDEN IN NORTHERN EUROPE,
CHAPTER XLVI - THE CORN-MOTHER IN MANY LANDS,
CHAPTER XLVII - LITYERSES,
CHAPTER XLVIII - THE CORN-SPIRIT AS AN ANIMAL,
CHAPTER XLIX - ANCIENT DEITIES OF VEGETATION AS ANIMALS,
CHAPTER L - EATING THE GOD,
CHAPTER LI - HOMOEOPATHIC MAGIC OF A FLESH DIET,
CHAPTER LII - KILLING THE DIVINE ANIMAL,
CHAPTER LIII - THE PROPITIATION OF WILD ANIMALS BY HUNTERS,
CHAPTER LIV - TYPES OF ANIMAL SACRAMENT,
CHAPTER LV - THE TRANSFERENCE OF EVIL,
CHAPTER LVI - THE PUBLIC EXPULSION OF EVILS,
CHAPTER LVII - PUBLIC SCAPEGOATS,
CHAPTER LVIII - HUMAN SCAPEGOATS IN CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY,
CHAPTER LIX - KILLING THE GOD IN MEXICO,
CHAPTER LX - BETWEEN HEAVEN AND EARTH,
CHAPTER LXI - THE MYTH OF BALDER,
CHAPTER LXII - THE FIRE-FESTIVALS OF EUROPE,
CHAPTER LXIII - THE INTERPRETATION OF THE FIRE-FESTIVALS,
CHAPTER LXIV - THE BURNING OF HUMAN BEINGS IN THE FIRES,
CHAPTER LXV - BALDER AND THE MISTLETOE,
CHAPTER LXVI - THE EXTERNAL SOUL IN FOLK-TALES.,
CHAPTER LXVII - THE EXTERNAL SOUL IN FOLK-CUSTOM,
CHAPTER LXVIII - THE GOLDEN BOUGH,
CHAPTER LXIX - FAREWELL TO NEMI,
INDEX,

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 1, 2011

    Beware for nook

    I was unable to read this book on my nook because the pages had been scaned in and contained a slew of numbers and letters that made it look more like a computer progam than a book. It was to hard to read inbetween all of them. So if you are downloading it you may just want to buy the book.

    11 out of 12 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted March 18, 2001

    Required Reading.

    The Golden Bough is required reading for anyone interested in any branch of Occultism, Mysticism, and the Psychic Arts and Sciences. This is heavy duty reading but well worth the effort. It's a standard reference work but should be considered as a textbook, also. Ranks up there with Joseph Campbell, Carl G. Jung, Allen Watts, and Carlos Castanada. This book is a must read.

    5 out of 5 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted May 14, 2009

    I Also Recommend:

    A Classic Work in Anthropology and Literature

    If you have the appreciation and certainly the time to sit down and really become engaged in Sir James George Frazer's work, you will find the text thought provoking and deep. The poetic language Frazer uses to eloquently portray the savagery of man contrasted to that of the evil of modern man provides one with a imaginary journal led by Frazer traveling through the depths of mans darkest beliefs and actions. This classic work is merely the abridgment, and the full set runs at 12 volumes. Frazer sat down in 1890 to answer one simply question and did not find it answered until 1914. This literary class has been an inspiration to the work of Anthropologist Bronislaw Malinowski, Poet T.S. Elliot, and even film director Francis Ford Copolla. Pick this up, even if you read passages from it, you will not be disappointed.

    2 out of 3 people found this review helpful.

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  • Posted August 22, 2011

    Bad dumb bad

    Cant open it to read it waist of time

    1 out of 4 people found this review helpful.

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