The golden bough: a study in magic and religion

( 3 )

Overview

Most readers are familiar with the one volume version of The Golden Bough as an abridgement of the third edition, made by Frazer in 1922. The two-volume edition that was familiar to Hardy and Yeats remains a sketch. The full length third edition is Frazer’s definitive statement in which the King of the Wood appears in a radically new guise. That is the edition reprinted here.

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The Golden Bough

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Overview

Most readers are familiar with the one volume version of The Golden Bough as an abridgement of the third edition, made by Frazer in 1922. The two-volume edition that was familiar to Hardy and Yeats remains a sketch. The full length third edition is Frazer’s definitive statement in which the King of the Wood appears in a radically new guise. That is the edition reprinted here.

Read More Show Less

Editorial Reviews

Booknews
St. Martin's Press has for some time now accepted the noble mission of keeping Frazer's (1854-1941) seminal work (essentially a transhistoric, comparative anthropology of folklore, magic, and religion) before the public in the complete and original form of its third edition (originally published in London by Macmillan, 1911-1915), rather than the ubiquitous abridgments which debase both the subject and the author's magisterial command of his materials and his art. Contrary to opinion from some corners, this is no relic--in the complete form presented here, it is nothing less than a window through which the modern world can watch its own emergence--a work worthy of the company of, say, Marx and Freud. Which makes the publication on acidic paper an egregious error--depriving the account of the endurance it deserves. (RC) Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
From Barnes & Noble
This classic repository of theories about the evolution of ancient cults, rites, and religious beliefs examines similarities in myths and folktales from different times and cultures. This is a reprint of the 2-volume first edition of 1890, unabridged, with the addition of b&w illustrations, many from sources contemporary with the author.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781178819250
  • Publisher: Nabu Press
  • Publication date: 8/29/2011
  • Pages: 480
  • Product dimensions: 7.44 (w) x 9.69 (h) x 0.97 (d)

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements
Introduction
Note on the Text
Select Bibliography
A Chronology of Sir James George Frazer
Bk. I The King of the Wood
1 The King of the Wood 9
2 Priestly Kings 22
3 Magic and Religion 26
4 Human Gods 60
5 Departmental Kings of Nature 77
6 The Worship of Trees 82
7 The Sacred Marriage 98
8 The Kings of Rome 114
9 The Succession to the Kingdom 122
10 The Burden of Royalty 134
11 The Perils of the Soul 153
12 Taboos 166
Bk. II Killing the God
1 The Mortality of the Gods 223
2 The Killing of the Divine King 228
3 Temporary Kings 254
4 Sacrifice of the King's Son 261
5 The Killing of the Tree-Spirit 273
6 Adonis 300
7 Sacred Prostitution 320
8 The Ritual of Adonis 331
9 Attis 346
10 The Hanged God 353
11 Osiris 366
12 Feasts of All Souls 375
13 Isis 387
14 Mother-kin and Mother Goddesses 390
15 Dionysus 396
16 Demeter and Persephone 405
17 Woman's Part in Primitive Agriculture 411
18 The Corn-Mother and Corn-Maiden 417
19 Lityerses 435
20 The Corn-Spirit as an Animal 455
21 Eating the God 498
22 The Flesh Diet 511
23 Killing the Divine Animal 521
Bk. III The Scapegoat
1 The Transference of Evil 557
2 Ancient Scapegoats 591
3 Killing the God in Mexico 607
4 The Saturnalia 630
5 The Crucifixion of Christ 666
Bk. IV The Golden Bough
1 Between Heaven and Earth 679
2 The Seclusion of Girls 686
3 Balder's Fires 706
4 The External Soul 750
5 Death and Resurrection 785
6 The Golden Bough 794
Explanatory Notes 809
Index 843
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First Chapter

Chapter 1

The King of the Wood

I. DIANA AND VIRBIUS

Who does not know Turner's picture of the Golden Bough? The scene, suffused with the golden glow of imagination in which the divine mind of Turner steeped and transfigured even the fairest natural landscape, is a dream-like vision of the little woodland lake of Nemi -- "Diana's Mirror," as it was called by the ancients. No one who has seen that calm water, lapped in a green hollow of the Alban hills, can ever forget it. The two characteristic Italian villages which slumber on its banks, and the equally Italian palace whose terraced gardens descend steeply to the lake, hardly break the stillness and even the solitariness of the scene. Diana herself might still linger by this lonely shore, still haunt these woodlands wild.

In antiquity this sylvan landscape was the scene of a strange and recurring tragedy. On the northern shore of the lake, right under the precipitous cliffs on which the modern village of Nemi is perched, stood the sacred grove and sanctuary of Diana Nemorensis, or Diana of the Wood. The lake and the grove were sometimes known as the lake and grove of Aricia. But the town of Aricia (the modern La Riccia) was situated about three miles off, at the foot of the Alban Mount, and separated by a steep descent from the lake, which lies in a small crater-like hollow on the mountain side. In this sacred grove there grew a certain tree round which at any time of the day, and probably far into the night, a grim figure might be seen to prowl. In his hand he carried a drawn sword, and he kept peering warily about him as if at every instant he expected to be set upon by an enemy. He was a priest and amurderer; and the man for whom he looked was sooner or later to murder him and hold the priesthood in his stead. Such was the rule of the sanctuary. A candidate for the priesthood could only succeed to office by slaying the priest, and having slain him, he retained office till he was himself slain by a stronger or a craftier.

The post which he held by this precarious tenure carried with it the title of king; but surely no crowned head ever lay uneasier, or was visited by more evil dreams, than his. For year in, year out, in summer and winter, in fair weather and in foul, he had to keep his lonely watch, and whenever he snatched a troubled slumber it was at the peril of his life. The least relaxation of his vigilance, the smallest abatement of his strength of limb or skill of fence, put him in jeopardy; grey hairs might seal his death-warrant. To gentle and pious pilgrims at the shrine the sight of him might well seem to darken the fair landscape, as when a cloud suddenly blots the sun on a bright day. The dreamy blue of Italian skies, the dappled shade of summer woods, and the sparkle of waves in the sun, can have accorded but ill with that stern and sinister figure. Rather we picture to ourselves the scene as it may have been witnessed by a belated wayfarer on one of those wild autumn nights when the dead leaves are falling thick, and the winds seem to sing the dirge of the dying year. It is a sombre picture, set to melancholy music -- the background of forest showing black and jagged against a lowering and stormy sky, the sighing of the wind in the branches, the rustle of the withered leaves under foot, the lapping of the cold water on the shore, and in the foreground, pacing to and fro, now in twilight and now in gloom, a dark figure with a glitter of steel at the shoulder whenever the pale moon, riding clear of the cloud-rack, peers down at him through the matted boughs.

The strange rule of this priesthood has no parallel in classical antiquity, and cannot be explained from it. To find an explanation we must go farther afield. No one will probably deny that such a custom savours of a barbarous age, and, surviving into imperial times, stands out in striking isolation from the polished Italian society of the day, like a primaeval rock rising from a smooth-shaven lawn. It is the very rudeness and barbarity of the custom which allow us a hope of explaining it. For recent researches into the early history of man have revealed the essential similarity with which, under many superficial differences, the human mind has elaborated its first crude philosophy of life. Accordingly, if we can show that a barbarous custom, like that of the priesthood of Nemi, has existed elsewhere; if we can detect the motives which led to its institution; if we can prove that these motives have operated widely, perhaps universally, in human society, producing in varied circumstances a variety of institutions specifically different but generically alike; if we can show, lastly, that these very motives, with some of their derivative institutions, were actually at work in classical antiquity; then we may fairly infer that at a remoter age the same motives gave birth to the priesthood of Nemi. Such an inference, in default of direct evidence as to how the priesthood did actually arise, can never amount to demonstration. But it will be more or less probable according to the degree of completeness with which it fulfils the conditions I have indicated. The object of this book is, by meeting these conditions, to offer a fairly probable explanation of the priesthood of Nemi.

I begin by setting forth the few facts and legends which have come down to us on the subject. According to one story the worship of Diana at Nemi was instituted by Orestes, who, after killing-Thoas, King of the Tauric Chersonese (the Crimea), fled with his sister to Italy, bringing with him the image of the Tauric Diana hidden in a faggot of sticks. After his death his bones were transported from Aricia to Rome and buried in front of the temple of Saturn, on the Capitoline slope, beside the temple of Concord. The bloody ritual which legend ascribed to the Tauric Diana is familiar to classical readers; it is said that every stranger who landed on the shore was sacrificed on her altar. But transported to Italy, the rite assumed a milder form. Within the sanctuary at Nemi grew a certain tree of which no branch might be broken. Only a runaway slave was allowed to break off, if he could, one of its boughs. Success in the attempt entitled him to fight the priest in single combat, and if he slew him he reigned in his stead with the title of King of the Wood (Rex Nemorensis). According to the public opinion of the ancients the fateful branch was the Golden Bough which, at the Sibyl's bidding, Aeneas plucked before he essayed the perilous journey to the world of the dead. The flight of the slave represented, it was said, the flight of Orestes; his combat with the priest was a reminiscence of the human sacrifices once offered to the Tauric Diana. This rule of succession by the sword was observed down to imperial times; for amongst his other freaks Caligula, thinking that the priest of Nemi had held office too long, hired a more stalwart ruffian to slay him; and a Greek traveller, who visited Italy in the age of the Antonines, remarks that down to his time the priesthood was still the prize of victory in a single combat.

Of the worship of Diana at Nemi some leading features can still be made out. From the votive offerings which have been found on the site, it appears that she was conceived of especially as a huntress, and further as blessing men and women with offspring, and granting expectant mothers an easy delivery. Again, fire seems to have played a foremost part in her ritual. For during her annual festival, held on the thirteenth of August, at the hottest time of the year, her grove shone with a multitude of torches, whose ruddy glare was reflected by the lake; and throughout the length and breadth of Italy the day was kept with holy rites at every domestic hearth. Bronze statuettes found in her precinct represent the goddess herself holding a torch in her raised right hand; and wome

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  • Anonymous

    Posted February 20, 2010

    Bootleg books?

    This book is printed from text-scan. That means they scanned pages of a book, and relied on the computer's ability to recognize the characters scanned. That wouldn't be an issue if the book had an editor, but it doesn't. So what you end up with is a long series of sentences without correct punctuation, capitalization, etc.

    This book is worthless. Spend an extra dollar and buy the official version of the book, with a picture on the cover.

    Also, the Footnotes and Endnotes don't match up. So you cannot follow any of the textual prompts to the correct source. Makes the enjoyment of the book impossible.

    12 out of 13 people found this review helpful.

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    Posted December 29, 2009

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