The Golden Bowlby Henry James
The wealthy American widower Adam Verver and his shy daughter, Maggie, live in Europe, closely tied through their love of art and their mutual admiration. Maggie's future seems assured when she becomes the wife of a charming, though impoverished, Italian prince. But when Adam marries his daughter's friend Charlotte Stant, unaware that she is the prince's
The wealthy American widower Adam Verver and his shy daughter, Maggie, live in Europe, closely tied through their love of art and their mutual admiration. Maggie's future seems assured when she becomes the wife of a charming, though impoverished, Italian prince. But when Adam marries his daughter's friend Charlotte Stant, unaware that she is the prince's mistress, the stage is set for a complex and indirect battle between the two wives. The brilliant Charlotte is determined to keep her lover, while Maggie is determined to protect her beloved father from any knoweldge of their shared betrayal.
The acuity with which Henry James calibrates the four characters' delicately shifting alliances and documents the maturation of a naïve young woman marks this as a magnificent achievement. The Golden Bowl was not only James's last major work but also the novel in which his unparalleled gift for psychological drama reached its height.
Introduction by Denis Donoghue
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The Prince had always liked his London, when it had come to him; he was one of the modern Romans who find by the Thames a more convincing image of the truth of the ancient state than any they have left by the Tiber. Brought up on the legend of the City to which the world paid tribute, he recognised in the present London much more than in contemporary Rome the real dimensions of such a case. If it was a question of an Imperium, he said to himself, and if one wished, as a Roman, to recover a little the sense of that, the place to do so was on London Bridge, or even, on a fine afternoon in May, at Hyde Park Corner. It was not indeed to either of those places that these grounds of his predilection, after all sufficiently vague, had, at the moment we are concerned with him, guided his steps; he had strayed, simply enough, into Bond Street, where his imagination, working at comparatively short range, caused him now and then to stop before a window in which objects massive and lumpish, in silver and gold, in the forms to which precious stones contribute, or in leather, steel, brass, applied to a hundred uses and abuses, were as tumbled together as if, in the insolence of the Empire, they had been the loot of far-off victories. The young man's movements, however, betrayed no consistency of attentionnot even, for that matter, when one of his arrests had proceeded from possibilities in faces shaded, as they passed him on the pavement, by huge beribboned hats, or more delicately tinted still under the tense silk of parasols held at perverseangles in waiting victorias. And the Prince's undirected thought was not a little symptomatic, since, though the turn of the season had come and the flush of the streets begun to fade, the possibilities of faces, on the August afternoon, were still one of the notes of the scene. He was too restlessthat was the factfor any concentration, and the last idea that would just now have occurred to him in any connection was the idea of pursuit.
He had been pursuing for six months as never in his life before, and what had actually unsteadied him, as we join him, was the sense of how he had been justified. Capture had crowned the pursuitor success, as he would otherwise have put it, had rewarded virtue; whereby the consciousness of these things made him, for the hour, rather serious than gay. A sobriety that might have consorted with failure sat in his handsome face, constructively regular and grave, yet at the same time oddly and, as might be, functionally almost radiant, with its dark blue eyes, its dark brown moustache and its expression no more sharply `foreign' to an English view than to have caused it sometimes to be observed of him with a shallow felicity that he looked like a `refined' Irishman. What had happened was that shortly before, at three o'clock, his fate had practically been sealed, and that even when one pretended to no quarrel with it the moment had something of the grimness of a crunched key in the strongest lock that could be made. There was nothing to do as yet, further, but feel what one had done, and our personage felt it while he aimlessly wandered. It was already as if he were married, so definitely had the solicitors, at three o'clock, enabled the date to be fixed, and by so few days was that date now distant. He was to dine at haft-past eight o'clock with the young lady on whose behalf, and on whose father's, the London lawyers had reached an inspired harmony with his own man of business, poor Calderoni, fresh from Rome and now apparently in the wondrous situation of being `shown London', before promptly leaving it again, by Mr Verver himself, Mr Verver whose easy way with his millions had taxed to such small purpose, in the arrangements, the principle of reciprocity. The reciprocity with which the Prince was during these minutes most struck was that of Calderoni's bestowal of his company for a view of the lions. If there was one thing in the world the young man, at this juncture, clearly intended, it was to be much more decent as a son-in-law than lots of fellows he could think of had shown themselves in that character. He thought of these fellows, from whom he was so to differ, in English; he used, mentally, the English term to describe his difference, for, familiar with the tongue from his earliest years, so that no note of strangeness remained with him either for lip or for ear, he found it convenient, in life, for the greatest number of relations. He found it convenient, oddly, even for his relation with himselfthough not unmindful that there might still, as time went on, be others, including a more intimate degree of that one, that would seek, possibly with violence, the larger or the finer issuewhich was it?of the vernacular. Miss Verver had told him he spoke English too wellit was his only fault, and he had not been able to speak worse even to oblige her. `When I speak worse, you see, I speak French,' he had said; intimating thus that there were discriminations, doubtless of the invidious kind, for which that language was the most apt. The girl had taken this, she let him know, as a reflection on her own French, which she had always so dreamed of making good, of making better; to say nothing of his evident feeling that the idiom supposed a cleverness she was not a person to rise to. The Prince's answer to such remarksgenial, charming, like every answer the parties to his new arrangement had yet had from himwas that he was practising his American in order to converse properly, on equal terms as it were, with Mr Verver. His prospective father-in-law had a command of it, he said, that put him at a disadvantage in any discussion; besides whichwell, besides which he had made to the girl the observation that positively, of all his observations yet, had most finely touched her.
`You know I think he's a real galantuomo"and no mistake". There are plenty of sham ones about. He seems to me simply the best man I've ever seen in my life.'
`Well, my dear, why shouldn't he be?' the girl had gaily inquired.
It was this, precisely, that had set the Prince to think. The things, or many of them, that had made Mr Verver what he was seemed practically to bring a charge of waste against the other things that, with the other people known to the young man, had failed of such a result. `Why, his "form",' he had returned,`might have made one doubt.'
`Father's form?' She hadn't seen it. `It strikes me he hasn't got any.'
`He hasn't got minehe hasn't even got yours.'
`Thank you for "even"!' the girl had laughed at him.
`Oh, yours, my dear, is tremendous. But your father has his own. I've made that out. So don't doubt it. It's where it has brought him outthat's the point.'
`It's his goodness that has brought him out,' our young woman had, at this, objected.
`Ah, darling, goodness, I think, never brought anyone out. Goodness, when it's real, precisely, rather keeps people in.' He had been interested in his discrimination, which amused him. `No, it's his way. It belongs to him.'
But she had wondered still. `It's the American way. That's all.'
Exactlyit's all. It's all, I say! It fits himso it must be good for something.
`Do you think it would be good for you?' Maggie Verver had smilingly asked.
To which his reply had been just one of the happiest. `I don't feel, my dear, if you really want to know, that anything much can now either hurt me or help me. Such as I ambut you'll see for yourself. Say, however, I am a galantuomowhich I devoutly hope: I'm like a chicken, at best, chopped up and smothered in sauce; cooked down as a crême de volaille, with half the parts left out. Your father's the natural fowl running about the bassecour. His feathers, movements, his soundsthose are the parts that, with me, are left out.'
`Ah, as a matter of coursesince you can't eat a chicken alive!'
The Prince had not been annoyed at this, but he had been positive. `Well, I'm eating your father alivewhich is the only way to taste him. I want to continue, and as it's when he talks American that he is most alive, so I must cultivate it, to get my pleasure. He couldn't make one like him so much in any other language.'
It mattered little that the girl had continued to demurit was the mere play of her joy. `I think he could make you like him in Chinese.'
`It would be an unnecessary trouble. What I mean is that he's a kind of result of his inevitable tone. My liking is accordingly for the tonewhich has made him possible.'
`Oh, you'll hear enough of it,' she laughed, `before you've done with us.'
Only this, in truth, had made him frown a little. `What do you mean, please, by my having "done" with you?'
`Why, found out about us all there is to find.'
He had been able to take it indeed easily as a joke. `Ah, love, I began with that. I know enough, I feel, never to be surprised. It's you yourselves meanwhile,' he continued, `who really know nothing. There are two parts of me'yes, he had been moved to go on. `One is made up of the history, the doings, the marriages, the crimes, the follies, the boundless bêtises of other peopleespecially of their infamous waste of money that might have come to me. Those things are writtenliterally in rows of volumes, in libraries; are as public as they're abominable. Everybody can get at them, and you've, both of you wonderfully, looked them in the face. But there's another part, very much smaller doubtless, which, such as it is, represents my single self, the unknown, unimportantunimportant save to youpersonal quantity. About this you've found out nothing.'
`Luckily, my dear,' the girl had bravely said; `for what then would become, please, of the promised occupation of my future?'
The young man remembered even now how extraordinarily clearhe couldn't call it anything elseshe had looked, in her prettiness, as she had said it. He also remembered what he had been moved to reply. `The happiest reigns, we are taught, you know, are the reigns without any history.'
`Oh, I'm not afraid of history!' She had been sure of that. 'Call it the bad part, if you likeyours certainly sticks out of you. What was it else,' Maggie Verver had also said, `that made me originally think of you? It wasn'tas I should suppose you must have seenwhat you call your unknown quantity, your particular self. It was the generations behind you, the follies and the crimes, the plunder and the wastethe wicked Pope, the monster most of all, whom so many of the volumes in your family library are all about. If I've read but two or three yet, I shall give myself up but the moreas soon as I have timeto the rest. Where, therefore'she had put it to him again'without your archives, annals, infamies, would you have been?'
He recalled what, to this, he had gravely returned. `I might have been in a somewhat better pecuniary situation.' But his actual situation under the head in question positively so little mattered to them that, having by that time lived deep into the sense of his advantage, he had kept no impression of the girl's rejoinder. It had but sweetened the waters in which he now floated, tinted them as by the action of some essence, poured from a gold-topped phial, for making one's bath aromatic. No one before him, nevernot even the infamous Popehad so sat up to his neck in such a bath. It showed, for that matter, how little one of his race could escape, after all, from history. What was it but history, and of their kind very much, to have the assurance of the enjoyment of more money than the palace-builder himself could have dreamed of? This was the element that bore him up and into which Maggie scattered, on occasion, her exquisite colouring drops. They were of the colourof what on earth? of what but the extraordinary American good faith? They were of the colour of her innocence, and yet at the same time of her imagination, with which their relation, his and these people's, was all suffused. What he had further said on the occasion of which we thus represent him as catching the echoes from his own thoughts while he loitered what he had further said came back to him, for it had been the voice itself of his luck, the soothing sound that was always with him. `You Americans are almost incredibly romantic.'
`Of course we are. That's just what makes everything so nice for us.'
`Everything?' He had wondered.
`Well, everything that's nice at all. The world, the beautiful worldor everything in it that is beautiful. I mean we see so much.'
He had looked at her a momentand he well knew how she had struck him, in respect to the beautiful world, as one of the beautiful, the most beautiful things. But what he had answered was: `You see too muchthat's what may sometimes make you difficulties. When you don't, at least,' he had amended with a further thought, `see too little.' But he had quite granted that he knew what she meant, and his warning perhaps was needless. He had seen the follies of the romantic disposition, but there seemed somehow no follies in theirsnothing, one was obliged to recognise, but innocent pleasures, pleasures without penalties. Their enjoyment was a tribute to others without being a loss to themselves. Only the funny thing, he had respectfully submitted, was that her father, though older and wiser, and a man into the bargain, was as badthat is as goodas herself.
`Oh, he's better,' the girl had freely declared'that is he's worse. His relation to the things he cares forand I think it beautifulis absolutely romantic. So is his whole life over hereit's the most romantic thing I know.'
`You mean his idea for his native place?'
`Yesthe collection, the Museum with which he wishes to endow it, and of which he thinks more, as you know, than of anything in the world. It's the work of his life and the motive of everything he does.'
The young man, in his actual mood, could have smiled againsmiled delicately, as he had then smiled at her. 'Has it been his motive in letting me have you?'
`Yes, my dear, positivelyor in a manner,' she had said. `American City isn't, by the way, his native town, for, though he's not old, it's a young thing compared with him a younger one. He started there, he has a feeling about it, and the place has grown, as he says, like the programme of a charity performance. You're at any rate a part of his collection,' she had explained`one of the things that can only be got over here. You're a rarity, an object of beauty, an object of price. You're not perhaps absolutely unique, but you're so curious and eminent that there are very few others like youyou belong to a class about which everything is known. You're what they call a morceau de musée.'
`I see. I have the great sign of it,' he had risked'that I cost a lot of money.'
`I haven't the least idea,' she had gravely answered, `what you cost'and he had adored, for the moment, her way of saying it. He had felt even, for the moment, vulgar. But he had made the best of that. `Wouldn't you find out if it were a question of parting with me? My value would in that case be estimated.'
She had looked at him with her charming eyes, as if his value were well before her. `Yes, if you mean that I'd pay rather than lose you.'
And then there came again what this had made him say. `Don't talk about meit's you who are not of this age. You're a creature of a braver and finer one, and the cinquecento, at its most golden hour, wouldn't have been ashamed of you. It would of me, and if I didn't know some of the pieces your father has acquired, I should rather fear, for American City, the criticism of experts. Would it at all events be your idea,' he had then just ruefully asked, `to send me there for safety?'
`Well, we may have to come to it.'
`I'll go anywhere you want.'
`We must see firstit will be only if we have to come to it. There are things,' she had gone on, `that father puts awaythe bigger and more cumbrous of course, which he stores, has already stored in masses, here and in Paris, in Italy, in Spain, in warehouses, vaults, banks, safes, wonderful secret places. We've been like a pair of piratespositively stage pirates, the sort who wink at each other and say "Ha-ha!" when they come to where their treasure is buried. Ours is buried pretty well everywhereexcept what we like to see, what we travel with and have about us. These, the smaller pieces, are the things we take out and arrange as we can, to make the hotels we stay at and the houses we hire a little less ugly. Of course it's a danger, and we have to keep watch. But father loves a fine piece, loves, as he says, the good of it, and it's for the company of some of his things that he's willing to run his risks. And we've had extraordinary luck.'Maggie had made that point; 'we've never lost anything yet. And the finest objects are often the smallest. Values, in lots of cases, you must know, have nothing to do with size. But there's nothing, however tiny,' she had wound up, `that we've missed.'
`I like the class,' he had laughed for this, `in which you place me! I shall be one of the little pieces that you unpack at the hotels, or at the worst in the hired houses, like this wonderful one, and put with the family photographs and the new magazines. But it's something not to be so big that I have to be buried.'
`Oh,' she had returned, `you shall not be buried, my dear, fill you're dead. Unless indeed you call it buried to go to American City.'
`Before I pronounce I should like to see my tomb.' So he had had, after his fashion, the last word in their interchange, save for the result of an observation that had risen to his lips at the beginning, which he had then checked, and which now came back to him. `Good, bad or indifferent, I hope there's one thing you believe about me,'
He had sounded solemn, even to himself, but she had taken it gaily. `Ah, don't fix me down to "one"! I believe things enough about you, my dear, to have a few left if most of them, even, go to smash. I've taken care of that. I've divided my faith into water-tight compartments. We must manage not to sink.'
`You do believe I'm not a hypocrite? You recognise that I don't lie or dissemble or deceive? Is that water-tight?'
The question, to which he had given a certain intensity, had made her, he remembered, stare an instant, her colour rising as if it had sounded to her still stranger than he had intended. He had perceived on the spot that any serious discussion of veracity, of loyalty, or rather of the want of them, practically took her unprepared, as if it were quite new to her. He had noticed it before: it was the English, the American sign that duplicity, like `love', had to be joked about. It couldn't be `gone into'. So the note of his inquiry waswell, to call it nothing elsepremature; a mistake worth making, however, for the almost overdone drollery in which her answer instinctively sought refuge.
`Water-tightthe biggest compartment of all? Why, it's the best cabin and the main deck and the engine-room and the steward's pantry! It's the ship itselfit's the whole line. It's the captain's table and all one's luggageone's reading for the trip.' She had images, like that, that were drawn from steamers and trains, from a familiarity with `lines', a command of `own' cars, from an experience of continents and seas, that he was unable as yet to emulate; from vast modern machineries and facilities whose acquaintance he had still to make, but as to which it was part of the interest of his situation as it stood that he could, quite without wincing, feel his future likely to bristle with them.
It was in fact, content as he was with his engagement and charming as he thought his affianced bride, his view of that furniture that mainly constituted our young man's `romance' and to an extent that made of his inward state a contrast that he was intelligent enough to feel. He was intelligent enough to feel quite humble, to wish not to be in the least hard or voracious, not to insist on his own side of the bargain, to warn himself in short against arrogance and greed. Odd enough, of a truth, was his sense of this last dangerwhich may illustrate moreover his general attitude toward dangers from within. Personally, he considered, he hadn't the vices in questionand that was so much to the good. His race, on the other hand, `had had them handsomely enough, and he was somehow full of his race. Its presence in him was like the consciousness of some inexpugnable scent in which his clothes, his whole person, his hands and the hair of his head, might have been steeped as in some chemical bath: the effect was nowhere in particular, yet he constantly felt himself at the mercy of the cause. He knew ibis antenatal history, knew it in every detail, and it was a thing to keep causes well before him. What was his frank judgment of so much of its ugliness, he asked himself, but a part of the cultivation of humility? What was this so important step he had just taken but the desire for some new history that should, so far as possible, contradict, and even if need be flatly dishonour, the old? If what had come to him wouldn't do, he must make something different. He perfectly recognisedalways in his humilitythat the material for the making had to be Mr Verver's millions. There was nothing else for him on earth to make it with; he had tried beforehad had to look about and see the truth. Humble as he was, at the same time, he was not so humble as if he had known himself frivolous or stupid. He had an ideawhich may amuse his historianthat when you were stupid enough to be mistaken about such a matter you did know it. Therefore he wasn't mistakenhis future might be scientific. There was nothing in himself, at all events, to prevent it. He was allying himself to science, for what was science but the absence of prejudice backed by the presence of money? His life would be full of machinery, which was the antidote to superstition, which was in its turn, too much, the consequence, or at least the exhalation, of archives. He thought of these thingsof his not being at all events futile, and of his absolute acceptance of the developments of the coming ageto redress the balance of his being so differently considered. The moments when he most winced were those at which he found himself believing that, really, futility would have been forgiven him. Even with it, in that absurd view, he would have been good enough. Such was the laxity, in the Ververs, of the romantic spirit. They didn't, indeed, poor dears, know what, in that linethe line of futilitythe real thing meant. He didhaving seen it, having tried it, having taken its measure. This was a memory in fact simply to screen outmuch as, just in front of him while he walked, the iron shutter of a shop, closing early to the stale summer day, rattled down at the turn of some crank. There was machinery again, just as the plate glass, all about him, was money, was power, the power of the rich peoples. Well, he was of them now, of the rich peoples; he was on their sideif it wasn't rather the pleasanter way of putting it that they were on his.
Something of this sort was in any case the moral and the murmur of his walk. It would have been ridiculoussuch a moral from such a sourceif it hadn't all somehow fitted to the gravity of the hour, that gravity the oppression of which I began by recording. Another feature was the immediate nearness of the arrival of the contingent from home. He was to meet them at Charing Cross on the morrow: his younger brother, who had married before him, but whose wife, of Hebrew race, with a portion that had gilded the pill, was not in a condition to travel; his sister and her husband, the most anglicised of Milanesi; his maternal uncle, the most shelved of diplomatists; and his Roman cousin, Don Ottavio, the most disponible of ex-deputies and of relativesa scant handful of the consanguineous who, in spite of Maggie's plea for hymeneal reserve, were to accompany him to the altar. It was no great array, yet it was apparently to be a more numerous muster than any possible to the bride herself, she having no wealth of kinship to choose from and not making it up, on the other hand, by loose invitations. He had been interested in the girl's attitude on the matter and had wholly deferred to it, giving him, as it did, a glimpse, distinctly pleasing, of the kind of discriminations she would in general be governed bywhich were quite such as fell in with his own taste. They hadn't natural relations, she and her father, she had explained; so they wouldn't try to supply the place by artificial, by make-believe ones, by any searching of the highways and hedges. Oh yes, they had acquaintances enoughbut a marriage was an intimate thing. You asked acquaintances when you had your kith and kinyou asked them over and above. But you didn't ask them alone, to cover your nudity and look like what they weren't. She knew what she meant and what she liked, and he was all ready to take it from her, finding a good omen in both of the facts. He expected her, desired her, to have character; his wife should have it, and he wasn't afraid of her having too much. He had had, in his earlier time, to deal with plenty of people who had had it; notably with the three or four ecclesiastics, his great-uncle, the Cardinal, above all, who had taken a hand and played a part `m his education: the effect of all of which had never been to upset him. He was thus fairly on the look-out for the characteristic in this most intimate, as she was to become, of his associates. He encouraged it when it appeared.
He felt therefore, just at present, as if his papers were in order, as if his accounts so balanced as they had never done in his life before and he might close the portfolio with a snap. It would open again, doubtless, of itself, with the arrival of the Romans; it would even perhaps open with his dining to-night in Portland Place, where Mr Verver had pitched a tent suggesting that of Alexander furnished with the spoils of Darius. But what meanwhile marked his crisis, as I have said, was his sense of the immediate two or three hours. He paused on corners, at crossings; there kept rising for him, in waves, that consciousness, sharp as to its source while vague as to its end, which I began by speaking ofthe consciousness of an appeal to do something or other, before it was too late, for himself. By any friend to whom he might have mentioned it the appeal could have been turned to frank derision. For what, for whom indeed but himself and the high advantages attached, was he about to marry an extraordinarily charming girl, whose `prospects', of the solid sort, were as guaranteed as her amiability? He wasn't to do it, assuredly, all for her. The Prince, as happened, however, was so free to feel and yet not to formulate that there rose before him after a little, definitely, the image of a friend whom he had often found ironic. He withheld the tribute of attention from passing faces only to let his impulse accumulate. Youth and beauty made him scarcely turn, but the image of Mrs Assingham made him presently stop a hansom. Her youth, her beauty were things more or less of the past, but to find her at home, as he possibly might, would be `doing' what he still had time for, would put something of a reason into his restlessness and thereby probably soothe it. To recognise the propriety of this particular pilgrimageshe lived far enough off, in long Cadogan Placewas already in fact to work it off a little. A perception of the propriety of formally thanking her, and of timing the act just as he happened to be doingthis, he made out as he went, was obviously all that had been the matter with him. It was true that he had mistaken the mood of the moment, misread it rather, superficially, as an impulse to look the other waythe other way from where his pledges had accumulated. Mrs Assingham, precisely, represented, embodied his pledgeswas, in her pleasant person, the force that had set them successively in motion. She had made his marriage, quite as truly as his papal ancestor had made his familythough he could scarce see what she had made it for unless because she too was perversely romantic. He had neither bribed nor persuaded her, had given her nothingscarce even till now articulate thanks; so that her profitto think of it vulgarly must have all had to come from the Ververs.
Yet he was far, he could still remind himself, from supposing that she had been grossly remunerated. He was wholly sure she hadn't; for if there were people who took presents and people who didn't she would be quite on the right side and of the proud class. Only then, on the other hand, her disinterestedness was rather awfulit implied, that is, such abysses of confidence. She was admirably attached to Maggiewhose possession of such a friend might moreover quite rank as one of her `assets'; but the great proof of her affection had been in bringing them, with her design, together. Meeting him during a winter in Rome, meeting him afterwards in Paris, and `liking' him, as she had in time frankly let him know from the first, she had marked him for her young friend's own and had then, unmistakably, presented him in a light. But the interest in Maggiethat was the pointwould have achieved but little without her interest in him. On what did that sentiment, unsolicited and unrecompensed, rest? what good, againfor it was much like his question about Mr Verver should he ever have done her? The Prince's notion of a recompense to womensimilar in this to his notion of an appealwas more or less to make love to them. Now he hadn't, as he believed, made love the least little bit to Mrs Assinghamnor did he think she had for a moment supposed it. He liked in these days, to mark them off, the women to whom he hadn't made love: it representedand that was what pleased him in ita different stage of existence from the time at which he liked to mark off the women to whom he had. Neither, with all this, had Mrs Assingham herself been either aggressive or resentful. On what occasion, ever, had she appeared to find him wanting? These things, the motives of such people, were obscurea little alarmingly so; they contributed to that element of the impenetrable which alone slightly qualified his sense of his good fortune. He remembered to have read, as a boy, a wonderful tale by Allan Poe, his prospective wife's countrymanwhich was a thing to show, by the way, what imagination Americans could have: the story of the shipwrecked Gordon Pym, who, drifting in a small boat further toward the North Poleor was it the South?than anyone had ever done, found at a given moment before him a thickness of white air that was like a dazzling curtain of light, concealing as darkness conceals, yet of the colour of milk or of snow. There were moments when he felt his own boat move upon some such mystery. The state of mind of his new friends, including Mrs Assingham herself, had resemblances to a great white curtain. He had never known curtains but as purple even to blacknessbut as producing where they hung a darkness intended and ominous. When they were so disposed as to shelter surprises the surprises were apt to be shocks.
Shocks, however, from these quite different depths, were not what he saw reason to apprehend; what he rather seemed to himself not yet to have measured was something that, seeking a name for it, he would have called the quantity of confidence reposed in him. He had stood still, at many a moment of the previous month, with the thought, freshly determined or renewed, of the general expectationto define it roughlyof which he was the subject. What was singular was that it seemed not so much an expectation of anything in particular as a large, bland, blank assumption of merits almost beyond notation, of essential quality and value. It was as if he had been some old embossed coin, of a purity of gold no longer used, stamped with glorious arms, medieval, wonderful, of which the `worth' in mere modern change, sovereigns and half-crowns, would be great enough, but as to which, since there were finer ways of using it, such taking to pieces was superfluous. That was the image for the security in which it was open to him to rest; he was to constitute a possession, yet was to escape being reduced to his component parts. What would this mean but that, practically, he was never to be tried or tested? What would it mean but that, if they didn't `change' him, they really wouldn't knowhe wouldn't know himselfhow many pounds, shillings and pence he had to give? These at any rate, for the present, were unanswerable questions; all that was before him was that he was invested with attributes. He was taken seriously. Lost there in the white mist was the seriousness in them that made them so take him. It was even in Mrs Assingham, in spite of her having, as she had frequently shown, a more mocking spirit. All he could say as yet was that he had done nothing, so far as to break any charm. What should he do if he were to ask her frankly this afternoon what was, morally speaking, behind their veil? It would come to asking what they expected him to do. She would answer him probably: `Oh, you know, it's what we expect you to be!' on which he would have no resource but to deny his knowledge. Would that break the spell, his saying he had no idea? What idea in fact could he have? He also took himself seriouslymade a point of it; but it wasn't simply a question of fancy and pretension. His own estimate he saw ways, at one time and another, of dealing with; but theirs, sooner or later, say what they might, would put him to the practical proof. As the practical proof, accordingly, would naturally be proportionate to the cluster of his attributes, one arrived at a scale that he was not, honestly, the man to calculate. Who but a billionaire could say what was fair exchange for a billion? That measure was the shrouded object, but he felt really, as his cab stopped in Cadogan Place, a little nearer the shroud. He promised himself, virtually, to give the latter a twitch.
Meet the Author
Henry James was born on April 15, 1843, on Washington Place in New York to the most intellectually remarkable of American families. His father, Henry James Sr., was a brilliant and eccentric religious philosopher; his brother was one of the first great American psychologists and the author of the influential Pragmatism; his sister, Alice, though an invalid for most of her life, was a talented conversationalist, a lively letter writer, and a witty observer of the art and politics of her time.
In search of the proper education for his children, Henry senior sent them to schools in America, France, Germany, and Switzerland. Returning to America, Henry junior lived in Newport, briefly attended Harvard Law School, and in 1864 began contributing stories and book reviews to magazines. Two more trips to Europe led to his final decision to settle there, first in Paris in 1875, then in London next year.
James's first major novel, Roderick Hudson, appeared in 1875, but it was Daisy Miller (1878) that brought him international fame as the chronicler of American expatriates and their European adventures. His novels include The American (1877), Washington Square (1880),Princess Casamassima (1886), and the three late masterpieces, The Wings of the Dove (1902), The Ambassadors (1903) and The Golden Bowl (1904). He also wrote plays, criticism, autobiography, travel books (including The American Scene, 1907) and some of the finest short stories in the English language.
His later works were little read during his lifetime but have since come to be recognized as forerunners of literary modernism. Upon the outbreak of World War I, James threw his energies into war relief work and decided to adopt British citizenship. One month before his death in 1916, he received the Order of Merit from King George V.
- Date of Birth:
- April 15, 1843
- Date of Death:
- February 28, 1916
- Place of Birth:
- New York, New York
- Place of Death:
- London, England
- Attended school in France and Switzerland; Harvard Law School, 1862-63
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Most Helpful Customer Reviews
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The most subtle of James' collection, the last of his major phase (dictated not written), with the least dialogue of all his works, James accomplishes what many writers of literature strive for but never reach -- sustained ascending climax until the very last line of the very last page, what Edmund Wilson would have described as not a periodic sentence but a periodic novel (where the meaning is revealed not in the beginning or middle but at the very end). Yet many still will find it a difficult steep climb to make with great distances of exposition between two lines of character dialogue. Keep in mind James wrote at the turn of the twentieth century, his style reflecting back on the long prose of his 19th century predecessors rather than anticipating the short and concise sentences provided by the modern generation of writers to come. EM Forster, Edith Wharton, contemporaries of James, wrote with airier prose that moves if not at a faster pace (for James' sentences roll together forward like a smooth quick current), then less-heavily weighed down by looping syntax and meanings intimated but not directly communicated to the reader.