Good Reasons: Designing and Writing Effective Arguments / Edition 2

Good Reasons: Designing and Writing Effective Arguments / Edition 2

by Lester Faigley, Jack Selzer, Victoria Davis, Eric Lupfer
     
 

ISBN-10: 0321105311

ISBN-13: 9780321105318

Pub. Date: 07/02/2002

Publisher: Pearson Education

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780321105318
Publisher:
Pearson Education
Publication date:
07/02/2002
Edition description:
Second Edition
Pages:
334
Product dimensions:
6.02(w) x 11.02(h) x 0.51(d)

Table of Contents

Preface.

I. PERSUADING WITH GOOD REASONS: WHAT DO WE MEAN BY ARGUMENT?

1. What to Argue About.

A Book that Changed the World.

Why Silent Spring Became a Classic.

Tactics of Silent Spring.

Analyzing Arguments: Pathos, Ethos, and Logos.

Reading Arguments.

Become a Critical Reader.

Position and Proposal Arguments.

Rachel Carson, "The Obligation to Endure."

Union of Concerned Scientists, “The Impact of Global Warming in North America.”

2. Finding Arguments.

What Exactly Is an Argument?

The Basics of Arguments.

What is Not Arguable.

Find a Topic.

Read Your Assignment Carefully.

Think about What Interests You.

List and Analyze Issues.

Explore Your Topic.

Freewrite.

Brainstorm.

Use an Online Subject Directory.

Read about Your Topic.

Make an Idea Map.

Think about Your Audience.

What Does Your Audience Know—And Not Know?

What Is Your Audience’s Attitude Toward You?

What Is Your Audience’s Attitude Toward Your Subject?

Write a Thesis.

Focus Your Thesis.

Evaluate Your Thesis.

3. Finding and Supporting Good Reasons.

The Basics of Reasoning.

Find Good Reasons.

Can You Argue by Definition?

Can You Argue from Value?

Can You Compare or Contrast?

Can You Argue from Consequence?

Can You Counter Objections to Your Position?

Questions for Finding Good Reasons.

Find Evidence to Support Good Reasons.

Fallacies in Arguments.

Organize Good Reasons.

Create Credibility.

Argue Responsibly.

Choose an Appropriate Voice.

4. Understanding Written Arguments: Rhetorical Analysis.

What is Rhetorical Analysis?

Textual Analysis: Using Rhetorical Concepts as an Analytical Screen.

Silko's Purpose and Argument.

Silko's Use of Logos, Pathos, and Ethos.

Silko's Arrangement.

Silko's Style.

Metaphors in Ads.

Contextual Analysis: Communication As Conversation.

Silko's Life and Works.

The Context of Publication.

The Larger Conversation.

Silko's Political Goals.

Write a Rhetorical Analysis.

Erica Strausner, "The NRA Blacklist: A Project Gone Mad."

STEPS TO A RHETORICAL ANALYSIS.

5. Understanding Visual Arguments: Visual Analysis.

What Is a Visual Argument?

Visual Persuasion.

Visual Evidence.

Photographs.

Tables.

Charts and Graphs.

Evaluating Charts and Graphs.

Write a Visual Analysis.

Angela Yamashita, "Got Roddick?"

STEPS TO A VISUAL ANALYSIS.

II. PUTTING GOOD REASONS INTO ACTION: OPTIONS FOR ARGUMENTS.

6. Definition Arguments.

Kinds of Definitions.

Formal Definitions.

Operational Definitions.

Definitions from Example.

Building a Definitional Argument.

Scott McDonald, "Setting the Record Straight."

STEPS TO A DEFINITION ARGUMENT.

7. Causal Arguments.

Methods of Finding Causes.

Building a Causal Argument.

Jennifer May, “Why Are Teenage Girls Dying to Be Thin?” [STUDENT]

STEPS TO A CAUSAL ARGUMENT.

8. Evaluation Arguments.

Kinds of Evaluations.

Where Do Criteria Come From?

Building an Evaluation Argument.

DeMarcus Taylor, “A Unhealthy Practice” [STUDENT]

STEPS TO AN EVALUATION ARGUMENT.

9. Narrative Arguments.

Kinds of Narrative Arguments.

Building a Narrative Argument.

Leslie Marmon Silko, "The Border Patrol State."

STEPS TO A NARRATIVE ARGUMENT

10. Rebuttal Arguments.

Critical Thinking.

Two Ways of Rebutting.

Refutation.

Counterargument.

Linda Chavez, “The ‘Separation of Church and State’ Myth.”

STEPS TO A REBUTTAL ARGUMENT.

11. Proposal Arguments.

Components of Proposals.

Building a Proposal Argument.

Brian Witkowski, “Need a Cure for Tribe Fever? How About a Dip in the Lake?” [STUDENT]

STEPS TO A PROPOSAL ARGUMENT.

12. Revision: Putting It All Together.

Keep Your Goals in Mind–But Stay Flexible.

Read As You Write.

Switch from Writer to Reader.

Focus on Your Argument.

Focus on Your Style and Proofread Carefully.

Get Help on Your Draft.

III. MAKING EFFECTIVE ARGUMENTS: DESIGNING, PRESENTING, AND DOCUMENTING.

13. Effective Visual Design.

Design Basics.

Arrangement.

Consistency.

Contast.

Understanding Typefaces and Fonts.

Creating Images and Other Graphics.

Pictures.

Other Graphics.

Writing Arguments for the Web.

The First Page Is the Most Important.

Divide Your Text into Chunks.

Make the Text Readable.

Determine the Visual Theme of Your Site.

Keep the Visuals Simple.

Make Your Site Easy to Navigate.

14. Effective Oral Presentations.

Planning an Oral Presentation.

Getting Started.

Selecting Your Topic.

Thinking About Your Audience.

Supporting Your Presentation.

Planning Your Introduction.

Planning Your Conclusion.

Delivering an Oral Presentation.

The Importance of Practice.

Speaking Effectively.

Nonverbal Communication.

Tips: Effective Speeches.

Handling Questions.

Multimedia Presentations.

Visual Elements.

Tips: Readable Transparencies and Slides.

Presentation Software.

15. Effective Research.

Research: Knowing What Information You Need.

What Makes a Good Subject for Research.

Planning Your Research.

Interviews, Observations, and Surveys.

Finding Library Sources.

Scholarly, Trade, and Popular Journals.

Finding Web Sources.

Kinds of Search Engines.

Tips: Search Engines.

Evaluating Sources.

Traditional Criteria for Evaluating Print Sources.

Additional Criteria for Evaluating Web Sources.

Taking Notes.

16. MLA Documentation.

Intellectual Property and Scholastic Honesty.

Avoiding Plagiarism.

Using Sources Effectively.

MLA Works-Cited List.

Citing Books.

Citing Articles in Periodicals.

Citing Online Sources.

Citing Visual Sources.

Citing Other Sources.

17. APA Documentation.

APA Reference List.

Citing Books.

Citing Articles in Periodicals.

Citing Online Sources.

Citing Other Sources.

Glossary.

Text Credits.

Index.

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